CAT Logarithm Questions PDF [Most Important]

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CAT Logarithms Questions PDF
CAT Logarithms Questions PDF

Logarithms is one of the most important topics in the Quantitative Ability section of the CAT. It is an easy topic and so one must not avoid this topic. Every year 1-2 questions are asked on Logarithms. You can check out these Logarithm CAT Previous year questions. Practice a good number of questions on CAT Logarithm questions. In this article, we will look into some important Logarithm Questions for CAT Quants. These are a good source for practice; If you want to practice these questions, you can download this CAT Logarithm Questions PDF below, which is completely Free.

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Question 1: If $\log_{4}{5}=(\log_{4}{y})(\log_{6}{\sqrt{5}})$, then y equals

1) Answer: 36

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Solution:

$\frac{\log\ 5}{2\log2}\ =\frac{\log\ y}{2\log2}\cdot\frac{\log\ 5}{2\log6}$

$\log\ 36\ =\ \log\ y;\ \therefore\ y\ =36$

Question 2: If $\log_{a}{30}=A,\log_{a}({\frac{5}{3}})=-B$ and $\log_2{a}=\frac{1}{3}$, then $\log_3{a}$ equals

a) $\frac{2}{A+B-3}$

b) $\frac{2}{A+B}-3$

c) $\frac{A+B}{2}-3$

d) $\frac{A+B-3}{2}$

2) Answer (A)

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Solution:

$\log_a30=A\ or\ \log_a5+\log_a2+\log_a3=A$………..(1)

$\log_a\left(\frac{5}{3}\right)=-B\ or\ \log_a3-\log_a5=B$………….(2)

and finally $\log_a2=3$

Substituting this in (1) we get $\log_a5+\log_a3=A-3$

Now we have two equations in two variables (1) and (2) . On solving we get

$\log_a3=\frac{\left(A+B-3\right)}{2\ }or\ \log_3a=\frac{2}{A+B-3}$

Question 3: $\frac{2\times4\times8\times16}{(\log_{2}{4})^{2}(\log_{4}{8})^{3}(\log_{8}{16})^{4}}$ equals

3) Answer: 24

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Solution:

$\frac{\left(2\cdot4\cdot8\cdot16\right)}{\left(\log_22^2\right)^2\cdot\left(\log_{2^2}2^3\right)^3\cdot\left(\log_{2^3}2^4\right)^4}\cdot$

= $\frac{2^{10}}{4\cdot\left(\frac{3}{2}\right)^3\cdot\left(\frac{4}{3}\right)^4}=24$

Question 4: The value of $\log_{a}({\frac{a}{b}})+\log_{b}({\frac{b}{a}})$, for $1<a\leq b$ cannot be equal to

a) 0

b) -1

c) 1

d) -0.5

4) Answer (C)

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Solution:

On expanding the expression we get $1-\log_ab+1-\log_ba$

$or\ 2-\left(\log_ab+\frac{1}{\log_ba}\right)$

Now applying the property of AM>=GM, we get that  $\frac{\left(\log_ab+\frac{1}{\log_ba}\right)}{2}\ge1\ or\ \left(\log_ab+\frac{1}{\log_ba}\right)\ge2$ Hence from here we can conclude that the expression will always be equal to 0 or less than 0. Hence any positive value is not possible. So 1 is not possible.

Question 5: If $5 – \log_{10}\sqrt{1 + x} + 4 \log_{10} \sqrt{1 – x} = \log_{10} \frac{1}{\sqrt{1 – x^2}}$, then 100x equals

5) Answer: 99

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Solution:

$5 – \log_{10}\sqrt{1 + x} + 4 \log_{10} \sqrt{1 – x} = \log_{10} \frac{1}{\sqrt{1 – x^2}}$

We can re-write the equation as: $5-\log_{10}\sqrt{1+x}+4\log_{10}\sqrt{1-x}=\log_{10}\left(\sqrt{1+x}\times\ \sqrt{1-x}\right)^{-1}$

$5-\log_{10}\sqrt{1+x}+4\log_{10}\sqrt{1-x}=\left(-1\right)\log_{10}\left(\sqrt{1+x}\right)+\left(-1\right)\log_{10}\left(\sqrt{1-x}\right)$

$5=-\log_{10}\sqrt{1+x}+\log_{10}\sqrt{1+x}-\log_{10}\sqrt{1-x}-4\log_{10}\sqrt{1-x}$

$5=-5\log_{10}\sqrt{1-x}$

$\sqrt{1-x}=\frac{1}{10}$

Squaring both sides: $\left(\sqrt{1-x}\right)^2=\frac{1}{100}$

$\therefore\ $ $x=1-\frac{1}{100}=\frac{99}{100}$

Hence, $100\ x\ =100\times\ \frac{99}{100}=99$

Checkout: CAT Free Practice Questions and Videos

Question 6: If $\log_{2}[3+\log_{3} \left\{4+\log_{4}(x-1) \right\}]-2=0$ then 4x equals

6) Answer: 5

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Solution:

We have :
$\log_2\left\{3+\log_3\left\{4+\log_4\left(x-1\right)\right\}\right\}=2$
we get $3+\log_3\left\{4+\log_4\left(x-1\right)\right\}=4$
we get $\log_3\left(4+\log_4\left(x-1\right)\ =\ 1\right)$
we get $4+\log_4\left(x-1\right)\ =\ 3$
$\log_4\left(x-1\right)\ =\ -1$
x-1 = 4^-1
x = $\frac{1}{4}+1=\frac{5}{4}$
4x = 5

Question 7: For a real number a, if $\frac{\log_{15}{a}+\log_{32}{a}}{(\log_{15}{a})(\log_{32}{a})}=4$ then a must lie in the range

a) $2<a<3$

b) $3<a<4$

c) $4<a<5$

d) $a>5$

7) Answer (C)

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Solution:

We have :$\frac{\log_{15}{a}+\log_{32}{a}}{(\log_{15}{a})(\log_{32}{a})}=4$
We get $\frac{\left(\frac{\log a}{\log\ 15}+\frac{\log a}{\log32}\right)}{\frac{\log a}{\log\ 15}\times\ \frac{\log a}{\log32}\ \ }=4$
we get $\log a\left(\log32\ +\log\ 15\right)=4\left(\log\ a\right)^2$
we get $\left(\log32\ +\log\ 15\right)=4\log a$
=$\log480=\log a^4$
=$a^4\ =480$
so we can say a is between 4 and 5 .

Question 8: If $log_3 2, log_3 (2^x – 5), log_3 (2^x – 7/2)$ are in arithmetic progression, then the value of x is equal to

a) 5

b) 4

c) 2

d) 3

8) Answer (D)

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Solution:

$2 log (2^x – 5) = log 2 + log (2^x – 7/2)$
Let $2^x = t$
=> $(t-5)^2 = 2(t-7/2)$
=> $t^2 + 25 – 10t = 2t – 7$
=> $t^2 – 12t + 32 = 0$
=> t = 8, 4
Therefore, x = 2 or 3, but $2^x$ > 5, so x = 3

Question 9: Let $u = ({\log_2 x})^2 – 6 {\log_2 x} + 12$ where x is a real number. Then the equation $x^u = 256$, has

a) no solution for x

b) exactly one solution for x

c) exactly two distinct solutions for x

d) exactly three distinct solutions for x

9) Answer (B)

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Solution:

$x^u = 256$

Taking log to the base 2 on both the sides,

$u * \log_{2}{x} = \log_{2}{256}$

=>$[({\log_2 x})^2 – 6 {\log_2 x} + 12] * \log_{2}{x} = 8$

$(log_2 x)^3 – 6(log_2 x)^2 + 12log_2 x = 8$

Let $log_2 x = t$

$t^3 – 6t^2 +12t – 8 = 0$

$(t-2)^3 = 0$

Therefore, $log_2 x = 2$

=> $x = 4$ is the only solution

Hence, option B is the correct answer.

Question 10: If $log_y x = (a*log_z y) = (b*log_x z) = ab$, then which of the following pairs of values for (a, b) is not possible?

a) (-2, 1/2)

b) (1,1)

c) (0.4, 2.5)

d) ($\pi$, 1/ $\pi$)

e) (2,2)

10) Answer (E)

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Solution:

$log_y x = ab$
$a*log_z y = ab$ => $log_z y = b$
$b*log_x z = ab$ => $log_x z = a$
$log_y x$ = $log_z y * log_x z$ => $log x/log y$ = $log y/log z * log z/log x$
=> $\frac{log x}{log y} = \frac{log y}{log x}$
=> $(log x)^2 = (log y)^2$
=> $log x = log y$ or $log x = -log y$
So, x = y or x = 1/y
So, ab = 1 or -1
Option 5) is not possible

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