# XAT 2010 Question Paper - VALR

Instructions

For the following questions answer them individually

Question 1

## Read the sentences and choose the option that best arranges them in a logical order.1. He might make the opposite mistake; when I want to assign a name to this group of nuts, he might understand it as a numeral,2. Now, one can ostensively define a proper name, the name of a colour, the name of a material, a numeral, the name of a point of the compass and so on.3. The definition of the number two. "That is called 'two' " pointing to two nuts is perfectly exact. But how can two be defined like that?4. He may suppose this; but perhaps he does not.5. The person one gives the definition to doesn't know what one wants to call "two"; he will suppose that "two" is the name given to this group of nuts!

Instructions

Analyse the following transcript (from the movie Matrix) and provide an appropriate answer for the questions that follow:

Neo: Morpheus, what's happened to me? What is this place?
Morpheus: More important than what is when.
Neo: When?
Morpheus: You believe it's the year 1999 when in fact it's closer to 2199. I can't tell you exactly what year it is because we honestly don't know.There's nothing I can say that will explain it for you, Neo. Come with me. See for yourself. This is my ship, the Nebuchadnezzar. It's a hovercraft. This is the main deck. This is the core where we broadcast our pirate signal and hack into the Matrix. Most of my crew you already know.

(Next Scene: Construct)

Morpheus: This is the construct. It's our loading programme. We can load anything from clothing, to equipment, weapons, training simulations, anything we need.

Neo: Right now we're inside a computer programme?
Morpheus: Is it really so hard to believe? Your clothes are different. The plugs in your arms and head are gone. Your hair is changed. Your appearance now is what we call residual self image. It is the mental projection of your digital self.

Neo: This...this isn't real?

Morpheus: What is real? How do you define real? If you're talking about what you can feel, what you can smell, what you can taste and see, then real is simply electrical signals interpreted by your brain.
...This is the world that you know. The world as it was at the end of the twentieth century. It exists now only as part of a neural-interactive simulation that we call the Matrix. You've been living in a dream world, Neo. .. .This is the world as it exists today. Welcome to the Desert of the Real. We have only bits and pieces of information but what we know for certain is that at some point in the early twenty-first century all of mankind was united in celebration. We marvelled at our own magnificence as we gave birth to AI.
Neo: AI? You mean artificial intelligence?

Morpheus: A singular consciousness that spawned an entire race of machines. We don't know who struck first, us or them. But we know that it was us that scorched the sky. At the time they were dependent on solar power and it was believed that they would be unable to survive without an energy source as abundant as the sun. Throughout human history, we have been dependent on machines to survive. Fate it seems is not without a sense of irony. The human body generates more bio-electricity than a 120-volt battery and over 25,000 BTU's of body heat. Combined with a form of fusion the machines have found all the energy they would ever need. There are fields, endless fields, where human beings are no longer born, we are grown. For the longest time I wouldn't believe it, and then I saw the fields with my own eyes. Watch them liquefy the dead so they could be fed intravenously to the living. And standing there, facing the pure horrifying precision, I came to realize the obviousness of the truth. What is the Matrix? Control. The Matrix is a computer generated dream world built to keep us under control in order to change a human being into this.
Neo: No. I don't believe it. It's not possible.
Morpheus: I didn't say it would be easy, Neo. I just said it would be the truth.
Neo: Stop. Let me out. Let me out. I want out.

Question 2

Question 3

## Choose the option that cannot be inferred from the Idea discussed in the transcript:

Instructions

For the following questions answer them individually

Question 4

## Widespread use of lectures in class-rooms in business schools leads to severe negative consequences. The first consequence is theoretically knowledgeable graduates who cannot apply theory to solve real world problems. The more serious consequence is that lectures encourage a feeling of total omniscience among them which persists for quite some time after graduating. This feeling prevents "them from learning from their subordinates and colleagues.Which of the following can best help to reduce these negative consequences among the students in a business school?

Instructions

Analyse the following passage and provide an appropriate answer the questions that follow.

Silver is especially and repetitively savage about what he sees as the extravagant claims made for particle physics, arguing that once the proton, neutron, and electron were found and their properties experimentally confirmed, the very expensive searches for ever more exotic particles, such as the Higgs Boson, were increasingly harder to justify other than by their importance to particle physicists.
Most of the particles resemble ecstatic happiness: They are very short - lived and have nothing to do with everyday life. His repeated assault goes to the level of sarcasm: "Finding the Higgs Boson will be a magnificent technical and theoretical triumph. Like a great Bobby Fisher game". Of course, this is a tad unfair, even if some of the claims of its practitioners invite such assaults on their field.

Question 5

Question 6

## Identify the statement(s) that is(are) logically consistent with the content of the paragraph:I. Silver is an ardent critic of Higgs Boson theory.II. Everyday life has nothing to do with experimental confirmation of the properties of proton, neutron and electron.III. Identifying more information about Higgs Boson is a significant contribution to particle physics.IV. Research on exotic particles in particle physics is an expensive proposition.

Instructions

Analyse the following passage and provide an appropriate answer for the questions that follow.

Fashion is different from custom, or rather is a particular species of it. That is not the fashion which everybody wears, but which those wear who are of a high rank, or character. The graceful, the easy, and the commanding manners of the great, joined to the usual richness and magnificence of their dress, give a grace to the very form which they happen to bestow upon it. As long as they continue to use this form, it is connected in our imaginations with the idea of something that is genteel and magnificent, and though in itself it should be indifferent, it seems, on account of this relation, to have something about it that is genteel and magnificent too. As soon as they drop it, it loses all the grace, which it had appeared to possess before, and being now used only by the inferior ranks of people, seems to have something of their meanness and awkwardness.

Question 7

Question 8

## Which is nearest to the central idea in the passage?

Instructions

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Question 9

Question 10

## While no one made any_______________the financial scandal while he was in the room, there was a feeling of awe to the ________ created by the broker that had snared many unsuspecting investors under the ______________that everyone would end up rich and the fact that he had been celebrating his ________of the legal authorities by attending parties. The option that best fills the blanks in the above paragraph would be:

Instructions

Analyse the following passage and provide an appropriate answer for the questions that follow.

One key element of Kantian ethics is the idea that the moral worth of any action relies entirely on the motivation of the agent: human behaviour cannot be said good or bad in light of the consequences it generates, but only with regard to
what moved the agent to act in that particular way. Kant introduces the key concept of duty to clarify the rationale underpinning of his moral theory, by analysing different types of motivation. First of all, individuals commit actions that arc really undertaken for the sake of duty itself, which is, done because the agent thinks they arc the right thing to do. No consideration of purpose of the action matters, but only whether the action respects a universal moral law. Another form of action (motivation) originates from immediate inclination: Everyone has some inclinations, such as to preserve one's life, or to preserve honour. These are also duties that have worth in their own sake.But acting according to the maxim that these inclinations might suggests - such as taking care of one's own health - lacks for Kant true moral worth. For example, a charitable person who donates some goods to poor people might do it following her inclination to help the others - that is. because she enjoys helping the others. Kant does not consider it as moral motivation, even if the action is in conformity with duty. The person acting from duty would in fact donate to the other because she recognizes that helping the others is her moral obligation. Final type of motivation suggested by Kant include actions that can be done in conformity with duty, yet are not done from duty, but rather as a mean to some further end. In order to illustrate this type of motivation, Kant provides the following example. A shopkeeper who does not overcharge the inexperienced customer and treats all customers in the same way certainly is doing the right thing - that is, acts in conformity with duty - but we cannot say for sure that he is acting in this way because he is moved by the basic principles of honesty: "it is his advantage that requires it". Moreover, we cannot say that he is moved by an immediate inclination toward his customers since he gives no preference to one with respect to another. Therefore, concludes Kant, "his action was done neither from duty nor from immediate inclination but merely for purposes of self-interest".

Question 11

Question 12

## Which of the following inferences would be against the ideas in the passage?I. Kantian ethics considers the moral worth of an inclination on the basis of its consequence.II. Actions motivated by the inclination of an individual lacks moral worth.III. Elements of moral obligation reduce the moral worth of a duty, which has some worth in itself.

Instructions

For the following questions answer them individually

Question 13

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Question 15

## The boss called to inform that he _________ be coming to office that day. However the employees did not take it easy as they know it was his _________ to give them a surprise by coming in and checking who was at work. Any employee, once caught not working, would then be required to _________ on the reasons for not working and if the boss was not satisfied the employee had to work on Sunday to __________ the wrong.The option that best fills the blanks in the above paragraph would be:

Instructions

Analyse the following passage and provide an appropriate answer for the questions that follow.

When we speak of the “probability of death”, the exact meaning of the experience can be defined in the following way only. We must not think of an individual, but of this expression can be defined in the following way only. We must not think of an individual, but of a certain class as a whole, e.g., “all insured men forty-one years old living in a given country and not engaged in certain dangerous occupations.” A probability of death is attached to the class of men or to another class that can be defined in a similar way. We can say nothing about the probability of death of an individual even if we know this condition of life and health in detail. The phrase “probability of death”, which it refers to a single person, has no meaning at all.

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Question 18

## Which of the following statements would the author(s) agree to the most?The outcome of a boxing match to be held in Los Angeles between two boxers, Joe and Mark, belonging to two different boxing clubs can be analysed and an outcome can be assigned a numerical value:

Instructions

For the following questions answer them individually

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Question 25

## Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.Fact (F): If it is to a known matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true. Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.i) Proper allocation of resources is required for the overall development of our economy.ii) Government has decided to allocate the gas from KG basin to power fertiliser sector.iii) A court decision against the declared policy guidelines can result in government intervention in the form of an appeal.iv) Some section of the society may consider this decision as a deliberate attempt to protect some private interest.

Instructions

Analyse the following passage and answer the questions.

Some words are highly inflammable. Fusion is one of them. You can get two sets of people into a war mode by just uttering the words “fusion music”. One set will breathe fire and say it violates the purity of music: the other set will tell you earnestly that it opens the borders of music.

Question 26

Question 27

## From the purists’ perspective, the “war” between two sets of people can best be

Instructions

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