CAT 2023 Slot 3 Question Paper

Instructions

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.

In 2006, the Met [art museum in the US] agreed to return the Euphronios krater, a masterpiece Greek urn that had been a museum draw since 1972. In 2007, the Getty [art museum in the US] agreed to return 40 objects to Italy, including a marble Aphrodite, in the midst of looting scandals. And in December, Sotheby’s and a private owner agreed to return an ancient Khmer statue of a warrior, pulled from auction two years before, to Cambodia.

Cultural property, or patrimony, laws limit the transfer of cultural property outside the source country’s territory, including outright export prohibitions and national ownership laws. Most art historians, archaeologists, museum officials and policymakers portray cultural property laws in general as invaluable tools for counteracting the ugly legacy of Western cultural imperialism.

During the late 19th and early 20th century ‚ÄĒ an era former Met director Thomas Hoving called ‚Äúthe age of piracy‚ÄĚ ‚ÄĒ American and European art museums acquired antiquities by hook or by crook, from grave robbers or souvenir collectors, bounty from digs and ancient sites in impoverished but art-rich source countries. Patrimony laws were intended to protect future archaeological discoveries against Western imperialist designs. . . .

I surveyed 90 countries with one or more archaeological sites on UNESCO’s World Heritage Site list, and my study shows that in most cases the number of discovered sites diminishes sharply after a country passes a cultural property law. There are 222 archaeological sites listed for those 90 countries. When you look into the history of the sites, you see that all but 21 were discovered before the passage of cultural property laws. . . .

Strict cultural patrimony laws are popular in most countries. But the downside may be that they reduce incentives for foreign governments, nongovernmental organizations and educational institutions to invest in overseas exploration because their efforts will not necessarily be rewarded by opportunities to hold, display and study what is uncovered. To the extent that source countries can fund their own archaeological projects, artifacts and sites may still be discovered. . . . The survey has far-reaching implications. It suggests that source countries, particularly in the developing world, should narrow their cultural property laws so that they can reap the benefits of new archaeological discoveries, which typically increase tourism and enhance cultural pride. This does not mean these nations should abolish restrictions on foreign excavation and foreign claims to artifacts.

China provides an interesting alternative approach for source nations eager for foreign archaeological investment. From 1935 to 2003, China had a restrictive cultural property law that prohibited foreign ownership of Chinese cultural artifacts. In those years, China’s most significant archaeological discovery occurred by chance, in 1974, when peasant farmers accidentally uncovered ranks of buried terra cotta warriors, which are part of Emperor Qin’s spectacular tomb system.

In 2003, the Chinese government switched course, dropping its cultural property law and embracing collaborative international archaeological research. Since then, China has nominated 11 archaeological sites for inclusion in the World Heritage Site list, including eight in 2013, the most ever for China.

Question 1

Which one of the following statements best expresses the paradox of patrimony laws?

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Question 2

It can be inferred from the passage that archaeological sites are considered important by some source countries because they:

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Question 3

Which one of the following statements, if true, would undermine the central idea of the passage?

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Question 4

From the passage we can infer that the author is likely to advise poor, but archaeologically-rich source countries to do all of the following, EXCEPT:

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Instructions

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.

Steven Pinker‚Äôs new book, ‚ÄúRationality: What It Is, Why It Seems Scarce, Why It Matters,‚ÄĚ offers a pragmatic dose of measured optimism, presenting rationality as a fragile but achievable ideal in personal and civic life. . . . Pinker‚Äôs ambition to illuminate such a crucial topic offers the welcome prospect of a return to sanity. . . . It‚Äôs no small achievement to make formal logic, game theory, statistics and Bayesian reasoning delightful topics full of charm and relevance.

It’s also plausible to believe that a wider application of the rational tools he analyzes would improve the world in important ways. His primer on statistics and scientific uncertainty is particularly timely and should be required reading before consuming any news about the [COVID] pandemic. More broadly, he argues that less media coverage of shocking but vanishingly rare events, from shark attacks to adverse vaccine reactions, would help prevent dangerous overreactions, fatalism and the diversion of finite resources away from solvable but less-dramatic issues, like malnutrition in the developing world.

It‚Äôs a reasonable critique, and Pinker is not the first to make it. But analyzing the political economy of journalism ‚ÄĒ its funding structures, ownership concentration and increasing reliance on social media shares ‚ÄĒ would have given a fuller picture of why so much coverage is so misguided and what we might do about it.

Pinker’s main focus is the sort of conscious, sequential reasoning that can track the steps in a geometric proof or an argument in formal logic. Skill in this domain maps directly onto the navigation of many real-world problems, and Pinker shows how greater mastery of the tools of rationality can improve decision-making in medical, legal, financial and many other contexts in which we must act on uncertain and shifting information. . . .

Despite the undeniable power of the sort of rationality he describes, many of the deepest insights in the history of science, math, music and art strike their originators in moments of¬†epiphany. From the 19th-century chemist Friedrich August Kekul√©‚Äôs discovery of the structure of benzene to any of Mozart‚Äôs symphonies, much extraordinary human achievement is not a¬†product of conscious, sequential reasoning. Even Plato‚Äôs Socrates ‚ÄĒ who anticipated many of Pinker‚Äôs points by nearly 2,500 years, showing the virtue of knowing what you do not know¬†and examining all premises in arguments, not simply trusting speakers‚Äô authority or charisma ‚ÄĒ attributed many of his most profound insights to dreams and visions. Conscious reasoning¬†is helpful in sorting the wheat from the chaff, but it would be interesting to consider the hidden aquifers that make much of the grain grow in the first place.

The role of moral and ethical education in promoting rational behavior is also underexplored. Pinker recognizes that rationality ‚Äúis not just a cognitive virtue but a moral one.‚ÄĚ But this¬†profoundly important point, one subtly explored by ancient Greek philosophers like Plato and Aristotle, doesn‚Äôt really get developed. This is a shame, since possessing the right sort of¬†moral character is arguably a precondition for using rationality in beneficial ways.

Question 5

According to the author, for Pinker as well as the ancient Greek philosophers, rational thinking involves all of the following EXCEPT:

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Question 6

The author endorses Pinker’s views on the importance of logical reasoning as it:

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Question 7

The author mentions Kekulé’s discovery of the structure of benzene and Mozart’s symphonies to illustrate the point that:

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Question 8

The author refers to the ancient Greek philosophers to:

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Instructions

The passage below is accompanied by four questions. Based on the passage, choose the best answer for each question.
Understanding romantic aesthetics is not a simple undertaking for reasons that are internal to the nature of the subject. Distinguished scholars, such as Arthur Lovejoy, Northrop Frye and¬†Isaiah Berlin, have remarked on the notorious challenges facing any attempt to define romanticism. Lovejoy, for example, claimed that romanticism is ‚Äúthe scandal of literary history¬†and criticism‚ÄĚ . . . The main difficulty in studying the romantics, according to him, is the lack of any ‚Äúsingle real entity, or type of entity‚ÄĚ that the concept ‚Äúromanticism‚ÄĚ designates. Lovejoy concluded, ‚Äúthe word ‚Äėromantic‚Äô has come to mean so many things that, by itself, it means nothing‚ÄĚ . . .

The more specific task of characterizing romantic aesthetics adds to these difficulties an air of paradox. Conventionally, ‚Äúaesthetics‚ÄĚ refers to a theory concerning beauty and art or the¬†branch of philosophy that studies these topics. However, many of the romantics rejected the identification of aesthetics with a circumscribed domain of human life that is separated from¬†the practical and theoretical domains of life. The most characteristic romantic commitment is to the idea that the character of art and beauty and of our engagement with them should¬†shape all aspects of human life. Being fundamental to human existence, beauty and art should be a central ingredient not only in a philosophical or artistic life, but also in the lives of¬†ordinary men and women. Another challenge for any attempt to characterize romantic aesthetics lies in the fact that most of the romantics were poets and artists whose views of art¬†and beauty are, for the most part, to be found not in developed theoretical accounts, but in fragments, aphorisms and poems, which are often more elusive and suggestive than¬†conclusive.

Nevertheless, in spite of these challenges the task of characterizing romantic aesthetics is neither impossible nor undesirable, as numerous thinkers responding to Lovejoy‚Äôs radical¬†skepticism have noted. While warning against a reductive definition of romanticism, Berlin, for example, still heralded the need for a general characterization: ‚Äú[Although] one does have a¬†certain sympathy with Lovejoy‚Äôs despair‚Ķ[he is] in this instance mistaken. There was a romantic movement‚Ķand it is important to discover what it is‚ÄĚ . . .

Recent attempts to characterize romanticism and to stress its contemporary relevance follow this path. Instead of overlooking the undeniable differences between the variety of romanticisms of different nations that Lovejoy had stressed, such studies attempt to characterize romanticism, not in terms of a single definition, a specific time, or a specific place, but in terms of ‚Äúparticular philosophical questions and concerns‚ÄĚ . . .

While the German, British and French romantics are all considered, the central protagonists in the following are the German romantics. Two reasons explain this focus: first, because it
has paved the way for the other romanticisms, German romanticism has a pride of place among the different national romanticisms . . . Second, the aesthetic outlook that was developed in Germany roughly between 1796 and 1801-02 ‚ÄĒ the period that corresponds to the heyday of what is known as ‚ÄúEarly Romanticism‚ÄĚ . . .‚ÄĒ offers the most philosophical expression of romanticism since it is grounded primarily in the epistemological, metaphysical, ethical, and political concerns that the German romantics discerned in the aftermath of Kant‚Äôs philosophy.

Question 9

The main difficulty in studying romanticism is the:

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Question 10

According to the romantics, aesthetics:

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