XAT 2010

Instructions

Analyse the following passage and provide an appropriate answer for the questions that follow.

One key element of Kantian ethics is the idea that the moral worth of any action relies entirely on the motivation of the agent: human behaviour cannot be said good or bad in light of the consequences it generates, but only with regards to
what moved the agent to act in that particular way. Kant introduces the key concept of duty to clarify the rationale underpinning of his moral theory, by analysing different types of motivation. First of all individuals commit actions that arc really undertaken for the sake of duty itself, which is, done because the agent thinks they arc the right thing to do. No consideration of purpose of the action matters, but only whether the action respects a universal moral law. Another form of action (motivation) originates from immediate inclination: Every one has some inclinations, such as to preserve one's life, or to preserve honour. These are also duties that have worth in their own sake.But acting according to the maxim that these inclinations might suggests - such as taking care of one's own health - lacks for Kant true moral worth. For example, a charitable person who donates some goods to poor people might do it following her inclination to help the others - that is. because she enjoys helping the others. Kant does not consider it as moral motivation, even if the action is in conformity with duty. The person acting from duty would in fact donate to the other because she recognizes that helping the others is her moral obligation. Final type of motivation suggested by Kant include actions that can be done in conformity with duty, yet are not done from duty, but rather as a mean to some further end. In order to illustrate this type of motivation, Kant provides the following example. A shopkeeper who does not overcharge the inexperienced customer and treats all customers in the same way certainly is doing the right thing - that is, acts in conformity with duty - but we cannot say for sure that he is acting in this way because he is moved by the basic principles of honesty: "it is his advantage that requires it". Moreover, we cannot say that he is moved by an immediate inclination toward his customers, since he gives no preference to one with respect to another. Therefore, concludes Kant, "his action was done neither from duty nor from immediate inclination but merely for purposes of self - interest".

Question 11

Consider the following examples:
i) Red Cross volunteer who donates blood every year to thank an anonymous donor who saved the life of his mother some time back
ii) A voluntary organization which conducts regular blood donation camps to improve its legitimacy As per the passage, correct statement(s) related to the above examples would be:
I. The source of motivation for both examples is same
II. Individuals may commit actions for reasons beyond duty
III. Both examples illustrate the concept of moral worth

Question 12

Which of the following inferences would be against the ideas in the passage?
I. Kantian ethics considers the moral worth of an inclination on the basis of its consequence.
II. Actions motivated by the inclination of an individual lacks moral worth.
III. Elements of moral obligation reduce the moral worth of a duty, which has some worth in itself.

Instructions

For the following questions answer them individually

Question 13

“So you want me to proscribe Ceecee... ”. The most suitable inference about Ceecee can be:

Question 14

Read the sentences and choose the option that best arranges them in a logical order.
1. Well, it may mean various things; but one very likely thinks first of all that a picture of the object comes before the child’s mind when it hears the word.
2. But what does this mean?
3. I will call it “ostensive teaching of words”. I say that it will form an important part of the training, because it is so with human beings; not because it could not be imagined otherwise.
4. But now, if this does happen - is it the purpose of the word? Yes, it may be the purpose. I can imagine such a use of words (of series of sounds).
5. This ostensive teaching of words can be said to establish an association between the word and the thing.

Question 15

The boss called to inform that he _________ be coming to office that day. However the employees did not take it easy as they know it was his _________ to give them a surprise by coming in and checking who was at work. Any employee, once caught not working, would then be required to _________ on the reasons for not working and if the boss was not satisfied the employee had to work on Sunday to __________ the wrong.
The option that best fills the blanks in the above paragraph would be:


Instructions

Analyse the following passage and provide an appropriate answer for the questions that follow.

When we speak of the “probability of death”, the exact meaning of the experience can be defined in the following way only. We must not think of an individual, but of this expression can be defined in the following way only. We must not think of an individual, but of a certain class as a whole, e.g., “all insured men forty-one years old living in a given country and not engaged in certain dangerous occupations.” A probability of death is attached to the class of men or to another class that can be defined in a similar way. We can say nothing about the probability of death of an individual even if we know this condition of life and health in detail. The phrase “probability of death”, which it refers to a single person, has no meaning at all.

Question 16

Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the passage?
1. Singular, non replicable events can be assigned numerical probability value.
2. Probability calculation requires data of the class of people or of events.
3. The data about a class of events can be used to predict the future of any specific event.

Question 17

Which of the following statements would the author(s) disagree to the most?
The outcome of a boxing match to be held in Los Angeles between two boxers, Joe and Mark, belonging to two different boxing clubs can be analysed and an outcome can be assigned a numerical value:

Question 18

Which of the following statements would the author(s) agree to the most?
The outcome of a boxing match to be held in Los Angeles between two boxers, Joe and Mark, belonging to two different boxing clubs can be analysed and an outcome can be assigned a numerical value:

Instructions

For the following questions answer them individually

Question 19

“The sum of behaviour is to retain a man’s dignity without intruding upon the liberty of others”, stated Sir Francis Bacon. If this is the case, then not intruding upon another’s liberty is impossible.
The conclusion strongly implied by the author of the passage is:

Question 20

Gourmet is to gourmand as

Register with

OR

Boost your Prep!

Download App