CAT 2020 Slot 2 - VARC

Instructions

The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

The claims advanced here may be condensed into two assertions: [first, that visual] culture is what images, acts of seeing, and attendant intellectual, emotional, and perceptual sensibilities do to build, maintain, or transform the worlds in which people live. [And second, that the] study of visual culture is the analysis and interpretation of images and the ways of seeing (or gazes) that configure the agents, practices, conceptualities, and institutions that put images to work. . . .

Accordingly, the study of visual culture should be characterized by several concerns. First, scholars of visual culture need to examine any and all imagery - high and low, art and non-art. . . . They must not restrict themselves to objects of a particular beauty or aesthetic value. Indeed, any kind of imagery may be found to offer up evidence of the visual construction of reality. . . .

Second, the study of visual culture must scrutinize visual practice as much as images themselves, asking what images do when they are put to use. If scholars engaged in this enterprise inquire what makes an image beautiful or why this image or that constitutes a masterpiece or a work of genius, they should do so with the purpose of investigating an artist’s or a work’s contribution to the experience of beauty, taste, value, or genius. No amount of social analysis can account fully for the existence of Michelangelo or Leonardo. They were unique creators of images that changed the way their contemporaries thought and felt and have continued to shape the history of art, artists, museums, feeling, and aesthetic value. But study of the critical, artistic, and popular reception of works by such artists as Michelangelo and Leonardo can shed important light on the meaning of these artists and their works for many different people. And the history of meaning-making has a great deal to do with how scholars as well as lay audiences today understand these artists and their achievements.

Third, scholars studying visual culture might properly focus their interpretative work on life worlds by examining images, practices, visual technologies, taste, and artistic style as constitutive of social relations. The task is to understand how artifacts contribute to the construction of a world. . . . Important methodological implications follow: ethnography and reception studies become productive forms of gathering information, since these move beyond the image as a closed and fixed meaning-event. . . .

Fourth, scholars may learn a great deal when they scrutinize the constituents of vision, that is, the structures of perception as a physiological process as well as the epistemological frameworks informing a system of visual representation. Vision is a socially and a biologically constructed operation, depending on the design of the human body and how it engages the interpretive devices developed by a culture in order to see intelligibly. . . . Seeing . . . operates on the foundation of covenants with images that establish the conditions for meaningful visual experience.

Finally, the scholar of visual culture seeks to regard images as evidence for explanation, not as epiphenomena.

Question 1

‚ÄúSeeing . . . operates on the foundation of covenants with images that establish the¬†conditions for meaningful visual experience.‚ÄĚ In light of the passage, which one of the¬†following statements best conveys the meaning of this sentence?

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Question 2

All of the following statements may be considered valid inferences from the passage, EXCEPT:

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Question 3

Which one of the following best describes the word ‚Äúepiphenomena‚ÄĚ in the last¬†sentence of the passage?

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Question 4

‚ÄúNo amount of social analysis can account fully for the existence of Michelangelo or¬†Leonardo.‚ÄĚ In light of the passage, which one of the following interpretations of this¬†sentence is the most accurate?

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Question 5

Which set of keywords below most closely captures the arguments of the passage?

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Instructions

The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

174 incidents of piracy were reported to the International Maritime Bureau last year, with Somali pirates responsible for only three. The rest ranged from the discreet theft of coils of rope in the Yellow Sea to the notoriously ferocious Nigerian gunmen attacking and hijacking oil tankers in the Gulf of Guinea, as well as armed robbery off Singapore and the Venezuelan coast and kidnapping in the Sundarbans in the Bay of Bengal. For [Dr. Peter] Lehr, an expert on modern-day piracy, the phenomenon’s history should be a source of instruction rather than entertainment, piracy past offering lessons for piracy present. . . .

But . . . where does piracy begin or end? According to St Augustine, a corsair captain once told Alexander the Great that in the forceful acquisition of power and wealth at sea, the difference between an emperor and a pirate was simply one of scale. By this logic, European empire-builders were the most successful pirates of all time. A more eclectic history might have included the conquistadors, Vasco da Gama and the East India Company. But Lehr sticks to the disorganized small fry, making comparisons with the renegades of today possible.

The main motive for piracy has always been a combination of need and greed. Why toil away as a starving peasant in the 16th century when a successful pirate made up to £4,000 on each raid? Anyone could turn to freebooting if the rewards were worth the risk . . . .

Increased globalisation has done more to encourage piracy than suppress it. European¬†colonialism weakened delicate balances of power, leading to an influx of opportunists on the¬†high seas. A rise in global shipping has meant rich pickings for freebooters. Lehr writes: ‚ÄúIt¬†quickly becomes clear that in those parts of the world that have not profited from globalisation¬†and modernisation, and where abject poverty and the daily struggle for survival are still a¬†reality, the root causes of piracy are still the same as they were a couple of hundred years¬†ago.‚ÄĚ . . .

Modern pirate prevention has failed. After the French yacht Le Gonant was ransomed for $2 million in 2008, opportunists from all over Somalia flocked to the coast for a piece of the action. . . . A consistent rule, even today, is there are never enough warships to patrol pirate-infested waters. Such ships are costly and only solve the problem temporarily; Somali piracy is bound to return as soon as the warships are withdrawn. Robot shipping, eliminating hostages, has been proposed as a possible solution; but as Lehr points out, this will only make pirates switch their targets to smaller carriers unable to afford the technology.

His advice isn’t new. Proposals to end illegal fishing are often advanced but they are difficult to enforce. Investment in local welfare put a halt to Malaysian piracy in the 1970s, but was dependent on money somehow filtering through a corrupt bureaucracy to the poor on the periphery. Diplomatic initiatives against piracy are plagued by mutual distrust: the Russians execute pirates, while the EU and US are reluctant to capture them for fear they’ll claim asylum.

Question 6

‚ÄúWhy toil away as a starving peasant in the 16th century when a successful pirate¬†made up to ¬£4,000 on each raid?‚ÄĚ In this sentence, the author‚Äôs tone can best be¬†described as being:

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Question 7

‚ÄúA more eclectic history might have included the conquistadors, Vasco da Gama and¬†the East India Company. But Lehr sticks to the disorganised small fry . . .‚ÄĚ From this¬†statement we can infer that the author believes that:

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Question 8

We can deduce that the author believes that piracy can best be controlled in the long run:

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Question 9

The author ascribes the rise in piracy today to all of the following factors EXCEPT:

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Instructions

The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Aggression is any behavior that is directed toward injuring, harming, or inflicting pain on another living being or group of beings. Generally, the victim(s) of aggression must wish to avoid such behavior in order for it to be considered true aggression. Aggression is also categorized according to its ultimate intent. Hostile aggression is an aggressive act that results from anger, and is intended to inflict pain or injury because of that anger. Instrumental aggression is an aggressive act that is regarded as a means to an end other than pain or injury. For example, an enemy combatant may be subjected to torture in order to extract useful intelligence, though those inflicting the torture may have no real feelings of anger or animosity toward their subject. The concept of aggression is very broad, and includes many categories of behavior (e.g., verbal aggression, street crime, child abuse, spouse abuse, group conflict, war, etc.). A number of theories and models of aggression have arisen to explain these diverse forms of behavior, and these theories/models tend to be categorized according to their specific focus. The most common system of categorization groups the various approaches to aggression into three separate areas, based upon the three key variables that are present whenever any aggressive act or set of acts is committed. The first variable is the aggressor him/herself. The second is the social situation or circumstance in which the aggressive act(s) occur. The third variable is the target or victim of aggression.

Regarding theories and research on the aggressor, the fundamental focus is on the factors that lead an individual (or group) to commit aggressive acts. At the most basic level, some argue that aggressive urges and actions are the result of inborn, biological factors. Sigmund Freud (1930) proposed that all individuals are born with a death instinct that predisposes us to a variety of aggressive behaviors, including suicide (self directed aggression) and mental illness (possibly due to an unhealthy or unnatural suppression of aggressive urges). Other influential perspectives supporting a biological basis for aggression conclude that humans evolved with an abnormally low neural inhibition of aggressive impulses (in comparison to other species), and that humans possess a powerful instinct for property accumulation and territorialism. It is proposed that this instinct accounts for hostile behaviors ranging from minor street crime to world wars. Hormonal factors also appear to play a significant role in fostering aggressive tendencies. For example, the hormone testosterone has been shown to increase aggressive behaviors when injected into animals. Men and women convicted of violent crimes also possess significantly higher levels of testosterone than men and women convicted of non violent crimes. Numerous studies comparing different age groups, racial/ethnic groups, and cultures also indicate that men, overall, are more likely to engage in a variety of aggressive behaviors (e.g., sexual assault, aggravated assault, etc.) than women. One explanation for higher levels of aggression in men is based on the assumption that, on average, men have higher levels of testosterone than women.

Question 10

All of the following statements can be seen as logically implied by the arguments of the passage EXCEPT:

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Question 11

The author identifies three essential factors according to which theories of aggression are most commonly categorised. Which of the following options is closest to the factors identified by the author?

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Question 12

‚Äú[A]n enemy combatant may be subjected to torture in order to extract useful¬†intelligence, though those inflicting the torture may have no real feelings of anger or¬†animosity toward their subject.‚ÄĚ Which one of the following best explicates the larger¬†point being made by the author here?

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Question 13

The author discusses all of the following arguments in the passage EXCEPT that:

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Instructions

The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

In a low-carbon world, renewable energy technologies are hot business. For investors looking to redirect funds, wind turbines and solar panels, among other technologies, seem a straightforward choice. But renewables need to be further scrutinized before being championed as forging a path toward a low-carbon future. Both the direct and indirect impacts of renewable energy must be examined to ensure that a climate-smart future does not intensify social and environmental harm. As renewable energy production requires land, water, and labor, among other inputs, it imposes costs on people and the environment. Hydropower projects, for instance, have led to community dispossession and exclusion . . . Renewable energy supply chains are also intertwined with mining, and their technologies contribute to growing levels of electronic waste . Furthermore, although renewable energy can be produced and distributed through small-scale, local systems, such an approach might not generate the high returns on investment needed to attract capital.

Although an emerging sector, renewables are enmeshed in long-standing resource extraction¬†through their dependence on minerals and metals . . . Scholars document the negative¬†consequences of mining . . . even for mining operations that commit to socially responsible¬†practices[:] ‚Äúmany of the world‚Äôs largest reservoirs of minerals like cobalt, copper, lithium,¬†[and] rare earth minerals‚ÄĚ‚ÄĒthe ones needed for renewable technologies‚ÄĒ‚Äúare found in fragile¬†states and under communities of marginalized peoples in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.‚Ä̬†Since the demand for metals and minerals will increase substantially in a renewable-powered¬†future . . . this intensification could exacerbate the existing consequences of extractive¬†activities.

Among the connections between climate change and waste, O‚ÄôNeill . . . highlights that¬†‚Äúdevices developed to reduce our carbon footprint, such as lithium batteries for hybrid and¬†electric cars or solar panels[,] become potentially dangerous electronic waste at the end of¬†their productive life.‚ÄĚ The disposal of toxic waste has long perpetuated social injustice through¬†the flows of waste to the Global South and to marginalized communities in the Global North . . .

While renewable energy is a more recent addition to financial portfolios, investments in the¬†sector must be considered in light of our understanding of capital accumulation. As¬†agricultural finance reveals, the concentration of control of corporate activity facilitates profit¬†generation. For some climate activists, the promise of renewables rests on their ability not¬†only to reduce emissions but also to provide distributed, democratized access to energy . . .¬†But Burke and Stephens . . . caution that ‚Äúrenewable energy systems offer a possibility but not¬†a certainty for more democratic energy futures.‚ÄĚ Small-scale, distributed forms of energy are¬†only highly profitable to institutional investors if control is consolidated somewhere in the¬†financial chain. Renewable energy can be produced at the household or neighborhood level.¬†However, such small-scale, localized production is unlikely to generate high returns for¬†investors. For financial growth to be sustained and expanded by the renewable sector,¬†production and trade in renewable energy technologies will need to be highly concentrated,¬†and large asset management firms will likely drive those developments.

Question 14

Which one of the following statements best captures the main argument of the last paragraph of the passage?

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Question 15

Which one of the following statements, if true, could be an accurate inference from the first paragraph of the passage?

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Question 16

Which one of the following statements, if false, could be seen as best supporting the arguments in the passage?

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Question 17

All of the following statements, if true, could be seen as supporting the arguments in the passage, EXCEPT:

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Question 18

Based on the passage, we can infer that the author would be most supportive of which one of the following practices?

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Instructions

For the following questions answer them individually

Question 19

The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

All humans make decisions based on one or a combination of two factors. This is¬†either intuition or information. Decisions made through intuition are usually fast,¬†people don‚Äôt even think about the problem. It is quite philosophical, meaning that¬†someone who made a decision based on intuition will have difficulty explaining the¬†reasoning behind it. The decision-maker would often utilize her senses in drawing¬†conclusions, which again is based on some experience in the field of study. On the¬†other side of the spectrum, we have decisions made based on information. These¬†decisions are rational ‚ÄĒ it is based on facts and figures, which unfortunately also¬†means that it can be quite slow. The decision-maker would frequently use reports,¬†analyses, and indicators to form her conclusion. This methodology results in accurate,¬†quantifiable decisions, meaning that a person can clearly explain the rationale behind¬†it.

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Question 20

The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

The rural-urban continuum and the heterogeneity of urban settings pose an obvious challenge to identifying urban areas and measuring urbanization rates in a consistent way within and across countries. An objective methodology for distinguishing between urban and rural areas that is based on one or two metrics with fixed thresholds may not adequately capture the wide diversity of places. A richer combination of criteria would better describe the multifaceted nature of a city’s function and its environment, but the joint interpretation of these criteria may require an element of human judgment.

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Question 21

Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:

1. You can observe the truth of this in every e-business model ever constructed: monopolise and protect data.
2. Economists and technologists believe that a new kind of capitalism is being created - different from industrial capitalism as was merchant capitalism.
3. In 1962, Kenneth Arrow, the guru of mainstream economics, said that in a free  market economy the purpose of inventing things is to create intellectual property rights.
4. There is, alongside the world of monopolised information and surveillance, a different dynamic growing up: information as a social good, incapable of being owned or exploited or priced.
5. Yet information is abundant. Information goods are freely replicable. Once a thing is made, it can be copied and pasted infinitely.

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Question 22

The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. But the attention of the layman, not surprisingly, has been captured by the atom bomb, although there is at least a chance that it may never be used again.
2. Of all the changes introduced by man into the household of nature, [controlled] large-scale nuclear fission is undoubtedly the most dangerous and most profound.
3. The danger to humanity created by the so-called peaceful uses of atomic energy may, however, be much greater.
4. The resultant ionizing radiation has become the most serious agent of pollution of the environment and the greatest threat to man’s survival on earth.

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Question 23

The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

With the Treaty of Westphalia, the papacy had been confined to ecclesiastical¬†functions, and the doctrine of sovereign equality reigned. What political theory could¬†then explain the origin and justify the functions of secular political order? In his¬†Leviathan, published in 1651, three years after the Peace of Westphalia, Thomas¬†Hobbes provided such a theory. He imagined a ‚Äústate of nature‚ÄĚ in the past when the¬†absence of authority produced a ‚Äúwar of all against all.‚ÄĚ To escape such intolerable¬†insecurity, he theorized, people delivered their rights to a sovereign power in return for¬†the sovereign‚Äôs provision of security for all within the state‚Äôs border. The sovereign¬†state‚Äôs monopoly on power was established as the only way to overcome the perpetual¬†fear of violent death and war.

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Question 24

Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:

1. The victim’s trauma after assault rarely gets the attention that we lavish on the moment of damage that divided the survivor from a less encumbered past.
2. One thing we often do with narratives of sexual assault is sort their respective parties into different temporalities: it seems we are interested in perpetrators’ futures and victims’ pasts.
3. One result is that we don‚Äôt have much of a vocabulary for what happens in a¬†victim‚Äôs life after the painful past has been excavated, even when our shared¬†language gestures toward the future, as the term ‚Äúsurvivor‚ÄĚ does.
4. Even the most charitable questions asked about the victims seem to focus on the past, in pursuit of understanding or of corroboration of painful details.
5. As more and more stories of sexual assault have been made public in the last two years, the genre of their telling has exploded --- crimes have a tendency to become not just stories but genres.

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Question 25

The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

1. It also has four movable auxiliary telescopes 1.8 m in diameter.
2. Completed in 2006, the Very Large Telescope (VLT) has four reflecting telescopes, 8.2 m in diameter that can observe objects 4 billion times weaker than can normally be seen with the naked eye.
3. This configuration enables one to distinguish an astronaut on the Moon.
4. When these are combined with the large telescopes, they produce what is called interferometry: a simulation of the power of a mirror 16 m in diameter and the resolution of a telescope of 200 m.

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Question 26

The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. While you might think that you see or are aware of all the changes that happen in your immediate environment, there is simply too much information for your brain to fully process everything.
2. Psychologists use the term ‚Äėchange blindness‚Äô to describe this tendency of¬†people to be blind to changes though they are in the immediate environment.
3. It cannot be aware of every single thing that happens in the world around you.
4. Sometimes big shifts happen in front of your eyes and you are not at all aware of these changes.

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