Question 23

The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

With the Treaty of Westphalia, the papacy had been confined to ecclesiastical functions, and the doctrine of sovereign equality reigned. What political theory could then explain the origin and justify the functions of secular political order? In his Leviathan, published in 1651, three years after the Peace of Westphalia, Thomas Hobbes provided such a theory. He imagined a “state of nature” in the past when the absence of authority produced a “war of all against all.” To escape such intolerable insecurity, he theorized, people delivered their rights to a sovereign power in return for the sovereign’s provision of security for all within the state’s border. The sovereign state’s monopoly on power was established as the only way to overcome the perpetual fear of violent death and war.

Solution

Let's look at the options one by one. Option 1 talks about voluntary surrender of rights. But the passage talks about "transfer" of rights, not "surrender" of rights.

The main point is not about "powers of papacy", option 2 is inconsequential.

Option 3 does not cover one of the main points of the passage, the transfer of rights, between people and the sovereign power. It's an incomplete option.

Option 4 is the correct summary, it talks about the transactional relationship i.e give and take or transfer of rights between people and sovereign government. 

Video Solution

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