CAT 2020 Slot 2

Instructions

The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Aggression is any behavior that is directed toward injuring, harming, or inflicting pain on another living being or group of beings. Generally, the victim(s) of aggression must wish to avoid such behavior in order for it to be considered true aggression. Aggression is also categorized according to its ultimate intent. Hostile aggression is an aggressive act that results from anger, and is intended to inflict pain or injury because of that anger. Instrumental aggression is an aggressive act that is regarded as a means to an end other than pain or injury. For example, an enemy combatant may be subjected to torture in order to extract useful intelligence, though those inflicting the torture may have no real feelings of anger or animosity toward their subject. The concept of aggression is very broad, and includes many categories of behavior (e.g., verbal aggression, street crime, child abuse, spouse abuse, group conflict, war, etc.). A number of theories and models of aggression have arisen to explain these diverse forms of behavior, and these theories/models tend to be categorized according to their specific focus. The most common system of categorization groups the various approaches to aggression into three separate areas, based upon the three key variables that are present whenever any aggressive act or set of acts is committed. The first variable is the aggressor him/herself. The second is the social situation or circumstance in which the aggressive act(s) occur. The third variable is the target or victim of aggression.

Regarding theories and research on the aggressor, the fundamental focus is on the factors that lead an individual (or group) to commit aggressive acts. At the most basic level, some argue that aggressive urges and actions are the result of inborn, biological factors. Sigmund Freud (1930) proposed that all individuals are born with a death instinct that predisposes us to a variety of aggressive behaviors, including suicide (self directed aggression) and mental illness (possibly due to an unhealthy or unnatural suppression of aggressive urges). Other influential perspectives supporting a biological basis for aggression conclude that humans evolved with an abnormally low neural inhibition of aggressive impulses (in comparison to other species), and that humans possess a powerful instinct for property accumulation and territorialism. It is proposed that this instinct accounts for hostile behaviors ranging from minor street crime to world wars. Hormonal factors also appear to play a significant role in fostering aggressive tendencies. For example, the hormone testosterone has been shown to increase aggressive behaviors when injected into animals. Men and women convicted of violent crimes also possess significantly higher levels of testosterone than men and women convicted of non violent crimes. Numerous studies comparing different age groups, racial/ethnic groups, and cultures also indicate that men, overall, are more likely to engage in a variety of aggressive behaviors (e.g., sexual assault, aggravated assault, etc.) than women. One explanation for higher levels of aggression in men is based on the assumption that, on average, men have higher levels of testosterone than women.

Question 11

The author identifies three essential factors according to which theories of aggression are most commonly categorised. Which of the following options is closest to the factors identified by the author?

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Question 12

‚Äú[A]n enemy combatant may be subjected to torture in order to extract useful¬†intelligence, though those inflicting the torture may have no real feelings of anger or¬†animosity toward their subject.‚ÄĚ Which one of the following best explicates the larger¬†point being made by the author here?

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Question 13

The author discusses all of the following arguments in the passage EXCEPT that:

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Instructions

The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

In a low-carbon world, renewable energy technologies are hot business. For investors looking to redirect funds, wind turbines and solar panels, among other technologies, seem a straightforward choice. But renewables need to be further scrutinized before being championed as forging a path toward a low-carbon future. Both the direct and indirect impacts of renewable energy must be examined to ensure that a climate-smart future does not intensify social and environmental harm. As renewable energy production requires land, water, and labor, among other inputs, it imposes costs on people and the environment. Hydropower projects, for instance, have led to community dispossession and exclusion . . . Renewable energy supply chains are also intertwined with mining, and their technologies contribute to growing levels of electronic waste . Furthermore, although renewable energy can be produced and distributed through small-scale, local systems, such an approach might not generate the high returns on investment needed to attract capital.

Although an emerging sector, renewables are enmeshed in long-standing resource extraction¬†through their dependence on minerals and metals . . . Scholars document the negative¬†consequences of mining . . . even for mining operations that commit to socially responsible¬†practices[:] ‚Äúmany of the world‚Äôs largest reservoirs of minerals like cobalt, copper, lithium,¬†[and] rare earth minerals‚ÄĚ‚ÄĒthe ones needed for renewable technologies‚ÄĒ‚Äúare found in fragile¬†states and under communities of marginalized peoples in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.‚Ä̬†Since the demand for metals and minerals will increase substantially in a renewable-powered¬†future . . . this intensification could exacerbate the existing consequences of extractive¬†activities.

Among the connections between climate change and waste, O‚ÄôNeill . . . highlights that¬†‚Äúdevices developed to reduce our carbon footprint, such as lithium batteries for hybrid and¬†electric cars or solar panels[,] become potentially dangerous electronic waste at the end of¬†their productive life.‚ÄĚ The disposal of toxic waste has long perpetuated social injustice through¬†the flows of waste to the Global South and to marginalized communities in the Global North . . .

While renewable energy is a more recent addition to financial portfolios, investments in the¬†sector must be considered in light of our understanding of capital accumulation. As¬†agricultural finance reveals, the concentration of control of corporate activity facilitates profit¬†generation. For some climate activists, the promise of renewables rests on their ability not¬†only to reduce emissions but also to provide distributed, democratized access to energy . . .¬†But Burke and Stephens . . . caution that ‚Äúrenewable energy systems offer a possibility but not¬†a certainty for more democratic energy futures.‚ÄĚ Small-scale, distributed forms of energy are¬†only highly profitable to institutional investors if control is consolidated somewhere in the¬†financial chain. Renewable energy can be produced at the household or neighborhood level.¬†However, such small-scale, localized production is unlikely to generate high returns for¬†investors. For financial growth to be sustained and expanded by the renewable sector,¬†production and trade in renewable energy technologies will need to be highly concentrated,¬†and large asset management firms will likely drive those developments.

Question 14

Which one of the following statements best captures the main argument of the last paragraph of the passage?

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Question 15

Which one of the following statements, if true, could be an accurate inference from the first paragraph of the passage?

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Question 16

Which one of the following statements, if false, could be seen as best supporting the arguments in the passage?

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Question 17

All of the following statements, if true, could be seen as supporting the arguments in the passage, EXCEPT:

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Question 18

Based on the passage, we can infer that the author would be most supportive of which one of the following practices?

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Instructions

For the following questions answer them individually

Question 19

The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

All humans make decisions based on one or a combination of two factors. This is¬†either intuition or information. Decisions made through intuition are usually fast,¬†people don‚Äôt even think about the problem. It is quite philosophical, meaning that¬†someone who made a decision based on intuition will have difficulty explaining the¬†reasoning behind it. The decision-maker would often utilize her senses in drawing¬†conclusions, which again is based on some experience in the field of study. On the¬†other side of the spectrum, we have decisions made based on information. These¬†decisions are rational ‚ÄĒ it is based on facts and figures, which unfortunately also¬†means that it can be quite slow. The decision-maker would frequently use reports,¬†analyses, and indicators to form her conclusion. This methodology results in accurate,¬†quantifiable decisions, meaning that a person can clearly explain the rationale behind¬†it.

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Question 20

The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

The rural-urban continuum and the heterogeneity of urban settings pose an obvious challenge to identifying urban areas and measuring urbanization rates in a consistent way within and across countries. An objective methodology for distinguishing between urban and rural areas that is based on one or two metrics with fixed thresholds may not adequately capture the wide diversity of places. A richer combination of criteria would better describe the multifaceted nature of a city’s function and its environment, but the joint interpretation of these criteria may require an element of human judgment.

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