CAT 2005

Instructions

A game of strategy, as currently conceived in game theory, is a situation in which two or more “players” make choices among available alternatives (moves). The totality of choices determines the outcomes of the game, and it is assumed that the rank order of preferences for the outcomes is different for different players. Thus the “interests” of the players are generally in conflict. Whether these interests are diametrically opposed or only partially opposed depends on the type of game.

Psychologically, most interesting situations arise when the interests of the players are partly coincident and partly opposed, because then one can postulate not only a conflict among the players but also inner conflicts within the players. Each is torn between a tendency to cooperate, so as to promote the common interests, and a tendency to compete, so as to enhance his own individual interests.

Internal conflicts are always psychologically interesting. What we vaguely call “interesting” psychology is in very great measure the psychology of inner conflict. Inner conflict is also held to be an important component of serious literature as distinguished from less serious genres. The classical tragedy, as well as the serious novel, reveals the inner conflict of central figures. The superficial adventure story, on the other hand, depicts only external conflict; that is, the threats to the person with whom the reader (or viewer) identifies stem in these stories exclusively from external obstacles and from the adversaries who create them. On the most primitive level this sort of external conflict is psychologically empty. In the fisticuffs between the protagonists of good and evil, no psychological problems are involved or, at any rate, none are depicted in juvenile representations of conflict.

The detective story, the “adult” analogue of a juvenile adventure tale, has at times been described as a glorification of intellectualized conflict. However, a great deal of the interest in the plots of these stories is sustained by withholding the unraveling of a solution to a problem. The effort of solving the problem is in itself not a conflict if the adversary (the unknown criminal) remains passive, like Nature, whose secrets the scientist supposedly unravels by deduction. If the adversary actively puts obstacles in the detective’s path toward the solution, there is genuine conflict. But the conflict is psychologically interesting only to the extent that it contains irrational components such as a tactical error on the criminal’s part or the detective’s insight into some psychological quirk of the criminal or something of this sort. Conflict conducted in a perfectly rational manner is psychologically no more interesting than a standard Western. For example, Tic-tac-toe, played perfectly by both players, is completely devoid of psychological interest. Chess may be psychologically interesting but only to the extent that it is played not quite rationally. Played completely rationally, chess would not be different from Tic-tac-toe.

In short, a pure conflict of interest (what is called a zero-sum game) although it offers a wealth of interesting conceptual problems, is not interesting psychologically, except to the extent that its conduct departs from rational norms.

Question 61

According to the passage, internal conflicts are psychologically more interesting than external conflicts because

Question 62

Which, according to the author, would qualify as interesting psychology?

Question 63

According to the passage, which of the following options about the application of game theory to a conflict-of-interest situation is true?


Question 64

The problem solving process of a scientist is different from that of a detective because

Instructions

The sentences given in the question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph.

Question 65

The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph.

(A) Similarly, turning to caste, even though being lower caste is undoubtedly a separate cause of disparity, its impact is all the greater when the lower-caste families also happen to be poor.

(B) Belonging to a privileged class can help a woman to overcome many barriers that obstruct women from less thriving classes.

(C) It is the interactive presence of these two kinds of deprivation - being low class and being female - that massively impoverishes women from the less privileged classes.

(D) A congruence of class deprivation and gender discrimination can blight the lives of poorer women very severely.

(E) Gender is certainly a contributor to societal inequality, but it does not act independently ofclass.

Question 66

(A) When identity is thus ‘defined by contrast’, divergence with the West becomes central.

(B) Indian religious literature such as the Bhagavad Gita or the Tantric texts, which are identified as differing from secular writings seen as ‘western’, elicits much greater interest in the West thando other Indian writings, including India’s long history of heterodoxy.

(C) There is a similar neglect of Indian writing on non-religious subjects, from mathematics,epistemology and natural science to economics and linguistics.

(D) Through selective emphasis that point up differences with the West, other civilizations can, in this way, be redefined in alien terms, which can be exotic and charming, or else bizarre and terrifying, or simply strange and engaging.

(E) The exception is the Kamasutra in which western readers have managed to cultivate an interest.


Instructions

For the following questions answer them individually

Question 67

The sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the given choices to construct a coherent paragraph.

A) This is now orthodoxy to which I subscribe - up to a point.

B) It emerged from the mathematics of chance and statistics.

C) Therefore the risk is measurable and manageable.

D) The fundamental concept: Prices are not predictable, but the mathematical laws of chance can describe their fluctuations.

E) This is how what business schools now call modern finance was born.

Question 68

Choose the option in which the usage of the word is incorrect or inappropriate.

"Near"

Question 69

Choose the option in which the usage of the word is incorrect or inappropriate.

"Hand"

[CAT 2005]


Question 70

Choose the option in which the usage of the word is incorrect or inappropriate.

"For"

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