CAT 2020 Slot 3

Instructions

The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

I‚Äôve been following the economic crisis for more than two years now. I began working on the¬†subject as part of the background to a novel, and soon realized that I had stumbled across the¬†most interesting story I‚Äôve ever found. While I was beginning to work on it, the British bank¬†Northern Rock blew up, and it became clear that, as I wrote at the time, ‚ÄúIf our laws are not¬†extended to control the new kinds of super-powerful, super-complex, and potentially super¬†¬†risky investment vehicles, they will one day cause a financial disaster of global-systemic¬†proportions.‚ÄĚ . . . I was both right and too late, because all the groundwork for the crisis had¬†already been done‚ÄĒthough the sluggishness of the world‚Äôs governments, in not preparing for¬†the great unraveling of autumn 2008, was then and still is stupefying. But this is the first¬†reason why I wrote this book: because what‚Äôs happened is extraordinarily interesting. It is an¬†absolutely amazing story, full of human interest and drama, one whose byways of¬†mathematics, economics, and psychology are both central to the story of the last decades¬†and mysteriously unknown to the general public. We have heard a lot about ‚Äúthe two cultures‚Ä̬†of science and the arts‚ÄĒwe heard a particularly large amount about it in 2009, because it was¬†the fiftieth anniversary of the speech during which C. P. Snow first used the phrase. But I‚Äôm¬†not sure the idea of a huge gap between science and the arts is as true as it was half a¬†century ago‚ÄĒit‚Äôs certainly true, for instance, that a general reader who wants to pick up an¬†education in the fundamentals of science will find it easier than ever before. It seems to me¬†that there is a much bigger gap between the world of finance and that of the general public¬†and that there is a need to narrow that gap, if the financial industry is not to be a kind of¬†priesthood, administering to its own mysteries and feared and resented by the rest of us.¬†Many bright, literate people have no idea about all sorts of economic basics, of a type that¬†financial insiders take as elementary facts of how the world works. I am an outsider to finance¬†and economics, and my hope is that I can talk across that gulf.

My need to understand is the same as yours, whoever you are. That‚Äôs one of the strangest¬†ironies of this story: after decades in which the ideology of the Western world was personally¬†and economically individualistic, we‚Äôve suddenly been hit by a crisis which shows in the¬†starkest terms that whether we like it or not‚ÄĒand there are large parts of it that you would¬†have to be crazy to like‚ÄĒwe‚Äôre all in this together. The aftermath of the crisis is going to¬†dominate the economics and politics of our societies for at least a decade to come and¬†perhaps longer.

Question 11

Which one of the following best captures the main argument of the last paragraph of
the passage?

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Question 12

According to the passage, the author is likely to be supportive of which one of the
following programmes?

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Question 13

All of the following, if true, could be seen as supporting the arguments in the passage, EXCEPT:

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Question 14

Which one of the following, if false, could be seen as supporting the author’s claims?

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Instructions

The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

[There is] a curious new reality: Human contact is becoming a luxury good. As more screens appear in the lives of the poor, screens are disappearing from the lives of the rich. The richer you are, the more you spend to be off-screen. . . .

The joy ‚ÄĒ at least at first ‚ÄĒ of the internet revolution was its democratic nature. Facebook is¬†the same Facebook whether you are rich or poor. Gmail is the same Gmail. And it‚Äôs all free.¬†There is something mass market and unappealing about that. And as studies show that time¬†on these advertisement-support platforms is unhealthy, it all starts to seem d√©class√©, like¬†drinking soda or smoking cigarettes, which wealthy people do less than poor people. The¬†wealthy can afford to opt out of having their data and their attention sold as a product. The¬†poor and middle class don‚Äôt have the same kind of resources to make that happen.

Screen exposure starts young. And children who spent more than two hours a day looking at a screen got lower scores on thinking and language tests, according to early results of a landmark study on brain development of more than 11,000 children that the National Institutes of Health is supporting. Most disturbingly, the study is finding that the brains of children who spend a lot of time on screens are different. For some kids, there is premature thinning of their cerebral cortex. In adults, one study found an association between screen time and depression. . . .

Tech companies worked hard to get public schools to buy into programs that required schools to have one laptop per student, arguing that it would better prepare children for their screen-based future. But this idea isn’t how the people who actually build the screen-based future raise their own children. In Silicon Valley, time on screens is increasingly seen as unhealthy. Here, the popular elementary school is the local Waldorf School, which promises a back-to-nature, nearly screen-free education. So as wealthy kids are growing up with less screen time, poor kids are growing up with more. How comfortable someone is with human engagement could become a new class marker.

Human contact is, of course, not exactly like organic food . . . . But with screen time, there has been a concerted effort on the part of Silicon Valley behemoths to confuse the public. The poor and the middle class are told that screens are good and important for them and their children. There are fleets of psychologists and neuroscientists on staff at big tech companies working to hook eyes and minds to the screen as fast as possible and for as long as possible. And so human contact is rare. . . .

There is a small movement to pass a ‚Äúright to disconnect‚ÄĚ bill, which would allow workers to¬†turn their phones off, but for now, a worker can be punished for going offline and not being¬†available. There is also the reality that in our culture of increasing isolation, in which so many¬†of the traditional gathering places and social structures have disappeared, screens are filling¬†a crucial void.

Question 15

Which of the following statements about the negative effects of screen time is the author least likely to endorse?

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Question 16

The statement ‚ÄúThe richer you are, the more you spend to be off-screen‚ÄĚ is supported¬†by which other line from the passage?

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Question 17

The author claims that Silicon Valley tech companies have tried to ‚Äúconfuse the¬†public‚ÄĚ by:

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Question 18

The author is least likely to agree with the view that the increase in screen-time is fuelled by the fact that:

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Instructions

For the following questions answer them individually

Question 19

The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. Complex computational elements of the CNS are organized according to a¬†‚Äúnested‚ÄĚ hierarchic criterion; the organization is not permanent and can change¬†dynamically from moment to moment as they carry out a computational task.
2. Echolocation in bats exemplifies adaptation produced by natural selection; a function not produced by natural selection for its current use is exaptation -- feathers might have originally arisen in the context of selection for insulation.
3. From a structural standpoint, consistent with exaptation, the living organism is¬†organized as a complex of ‚ÄúRussian Matryoshka Dolls‚ÄĚ -- smaller structures are¬†contained within larger ones in multiple layers.
4. The exaptation concept, and the Russian-doll organization concept of living beings deduced from studies on evolution of the various apparatuses in mammals, can be applied for the most complex human organ: the central nervous system (CNS).

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Question 20

The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. It advocated a conservative approach to antitrust enforcement that espouses faith in efficient markets and voiced suspicion regarding the merits of judicial intervention to correct anticompetitive practices.
2. Many industries have consistently gained market share, the lion‚Äôs share - without¬†any official concern; the most successful technology companies have grown into¬†veritable titans, on the premise that they advance ‚Äėpublic interest‚Äô.
3. That the new anticompetitive risks posed by tech giants like Google, Facebook, and Amazon, necessitate new legal solutions could be attributed to the dearth of enforcement actions against monopolies and the few cases challenging mergers in the USA.
4. The criterion of ‚Äėconsumer welfare standard‚Äô and the principle that antitrust law¬†should serve consumer interests and that it should protect competition rather than¬†individual competitors was an antitrust law introduced by, and named after, the¬†'Chicago school'.

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