Question 51

# The number of groups of three or more distinct numbers that can be chosen from 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 so that the groups always include 3 and 5, while 7 and 8 are never included together is

Solution

The possible arrangements are of the form

35 _ Can be chosen in 6 ways.

35 _ _ We can choose 2 out of the remaining 6 in $$^6C_2=15$$ways. We remove 1 case where 7 and 8 are together to get 14 ways.

35 _ _ _We can choose 3 out of the remaining 6 in $$^6C_3=20$$ways. We remove 4 cases where 7 and 8 are together to get 16 ways.

35 _ _ _ _We can choose 4 out of the remaining 6 in $$^6C_4=15$$ways. We remove 6 case where 7 and 8 are together to get 9 ways.

35 _ _ _ _ _ We choose 1 out of 7 and 8 and all the remaining others in 2 ways.

Thus, total number of cases = 6+14+16+9+2 = 47.

Alternatively,

The arrangement requires a selection of 3 or more numbers while including 3 and 5 and 7, 8 are never included together. We have cases including a selection of only 7, only 8 and neither 7 nor 8.

Considering the cases, only 7 is selected.

We can select a maximum of 7 digit numbers. We must select 3, 5, and 7.

Hence we must have ( 3, 5, 7) for the remaining 4 numbers we have

Each of the numbers can either be selected or not selected and we have 4 numbers :

Hence we have _ _ _ _ and 2 possibilities for each and hence a total of 2*2*2*2 = 16 possibilities.

SImilarly, including only 8, we have 16 more possibilities.

Cases including neither 7 nor 8.

We must have 3 and 5 in the group but there must be no 7 and 8 in the group.

Hence we have 3 5 _ _ _ _.

For the 4 blanks, we can have 2 possibilities for either placing a number or not among 1, 2, 4, 6.

= 16 possibilities

But we must remove the case where neither of the 4 numbers are placed because the number becomes a two-digit number.

Hence 16 - 1 = 15 cases.

Total = 16+15+16 = 47 possibilities

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