Question 49

# The number of ways of distributing 15 identical balloons, 6 identical pencils and 3 identical erasers among 3 children, such that each child gets at least four balloons and one pencil, is

Solution

This question is an application of the product rule in probability and combinatorics.

In the product rule, if two events A and B can occur in x and y ways, and for an event E, both events A and B need to take place, the number of ways that E can occur is xy. This can be expanded to 3 or more events as well.

Event 1: Distribution of balloons

Since each child gets at least 4 balloons, we will initially allocate these 4 balloons to each of them.

So we are left with 15 - 4 x 3 = 15 - 12 = 3 balloons and 3 children.

Now we need to distribute 3 identical balloons to 3 children.

This can be done in $$^{n+r-1}C_{r-1}$$ ways, where n = 3 and r = 3.

So, number of ways = $$^{3+3-1}C_{3-1}=^5C_2=\frac{5\times\ 4}{2\times\ 1}=10$$

Event 2: Distribution of pencils

Since each child gets at least one pencil, we will allocate 1 pencil to each child. We are now left with 6 - 3 = 3 pencils.

We now need to distribute 3 identical pencils to 3 children.

This can be done in $$^{n+r-1}C_{r-1}$$ ways, where n = 3 and r = 3.

So, number of ways = $$^{3+3-1}C_{3-1}=^5C_2=\frac{5\times\ 4}{2\times\ 1}=10$$

Event 3: Distribution of erasers

We need to distribute 3 identical erasers to 3 children.

This can be done in $$^{n+r-1}C_{r-1}$$ ways, where n = 3 and r = 3.

So, number of ways = $$^{3+3-1}C_{3-1}=^5C_2=\frac{5\times\ 4}{2\times\ 1}=10$$

Applying the product rule, we get the total number of ways = 10 x 10 x 10 = 1000.