Para Summary Questions for CAT [PDF]

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CAT level para summary questions pdf

Para Summary Questions for CAT

Para Summary is one of the most important topics in the CAT Verbal Ability section. Over the past few years, CAT Para Summary questions have made a recurrent appearance in the Verbal Ability section. You can also check out these Para Summary Questions for CAT PDFs from the CAT Previous year’s papers

You can expect around 1-2 questions in the new format of the CAT Verbal Ability section. If you’re new to this section, you can check out the CAT Para Summary Questions from the CAT Previous Year papers. In this article, we will look into some very important CAT level Para Summary questions PDF(with solutions) for CAT. If you want to practice these questions, you can download this CAT Para Summary Questions PDF (most important) along with the detailed solutions below, which is completely Free.

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Question 1: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Brazil’s growth rate has been low, yet most Brazilians say their financial situation has improved, and they expect it to get even better. This is because most incomes are rising fast, with higher minimum wages and very low unemployment. The result is falling inequality and a growing middle class — the result of economic stabilization, improved social security and universal primary education. But despite recent improvements the Brazilian economy is still painfully unequal, with poor Brazilians paying the biggest share of their income in taxes and getting the least back in government services.

a) Economic reforms have benefitted many Brazilians, but they are unaware of the impending problems from rising inequalities in their society.

b) Good economic indicators have masked the unfair taxation of the poor that is likely to destabilise the Brazilian economy in the next few years.

c) Most Brazilians feel they have benefitted from recent economic events, but the poor continue to be dealt unfairly by the state.

d) With rising incomes and falling unemployment, most Brazilians are being misled into thinking that their economy is doing well.

1) Answer (C)

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Solution:

The main points of the paragraph are:

1. The Brazilian economy has been stagnant, but the popular perception is that the times have improved.

2. The reasons are falling inequality and other important services.

3. Despite this, the economy is brutally unequal.

A: Ignorance on the part of Brazilians is not implied. What the author is saying that though things have improved for the ones who say so, others are still being dealt a rough hand.

B: The paragraph does not imply that the good economic indicators are being used as subterfuge to cover up the prevailing inequality.

C: Comes the closest in capturing the three points. Hence, is the answer.

D: It has a problem similar to Option A. Things have improved for that section of people. They are not ignorant, nor are they being misled into believing something.

Question 2: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
The human mind is wired to see patterns. Not only does the brain process information as it comes in, it also stores insights from all our past experiences. Every interaction, happy or sad, is catalogued in our memory. Intuition draws from that deep memory well to inform our decisions going forward. In other words, intuitive decisions are based on data, and not contrary to data as many would like to assume. When we subconsciously spot patterns, the body starts firing neurochemicals in both the brain and gut. These “somatic markers” are what give us that instant sense that something is right … or that it’s off. Not only are these automatic processes faster than rational thought, but our intuition draws from decades of diverse qualitative experience (sights, sounds, interactions, etc.) – a wholly human feature that big data alone could never accomplish.

a) Intuition is infinitely richer than big data which is based on rational thought and accomplishes more than what big data can.

b) Intuitions are automatic processes and are therefore faster than rational thought, and so decisions based on them are better.

c) Intuition draws from deep memory, and may not be related to data, but to decades of diverse qualitative experience.

d) Intuitions are neuro-chemical firings based on pattern recognition and draw upon a rich and vast database of experiences.

2) Answer (D)

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Solution:

The main points of the paragraph are as follows:

1. Intuition draws from a vast array of memories that our brain keeps in store.

2. When our brain recognises a pattern from past memories, neuron firing starts, which gives us the gut feeling of intuition.

A: Distortion: The passage does not give any detail about big data being based on rational thought.

B: Out of scope. The paragraph does not allude to whether the decisions based on intuition are better or worse.

C: Incorrect: The passage says that intuitive decisions are based on data.

D: Correctly covers the mentioned points and hence, is the answer.

Question 3: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
People view idleness as a sin and industriousness as a virtue, and in the process have developed an unsatisfactory relationship with their jobs. Work has become a way for them to keep busy, even though many find their work meaningless. In their need for activity people undertake what was once considered work (fishing, gardening) as hobbies. The opposing view is that hard work has made us prosperous and improved our levels of health and education. It has also brought innovation and labour and time-saving devices, which have lessened life’s drudgery.

a) Despite some detractors, hard work is essential in today’s world to enable economic progress, for education and health and to propel innovations that make life easier.

b) Hard work has overtaken all aspects of our lives and has enabled economic prosperity, but it is important that people reserve their leisure time for some idleness.

c) Some believe that hard work has been glorified to the extent that it has become meaningless, and led to greater idleness, but it has also had enormous positive impacts on everyday life.

d) While the idealisation of hard work has propelled people into meaningless jobs and endless activity, it has also led to tremendous social benefits from prosperity and innovation.

3) Answer (D)

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Solution:

The main points of the passage are:

1. People increasingly view idleness as sin and industriousness as a virtue, pushing them into meaningless jobs.

2. On the other hand, this has also saved us from many of life’s drudgeries.

A: Misses out on point 1.

B: A distortion. The author does not advocate idleness. Also, 1 is not covered properly.

C: Incorrect. ‘led to greater idleness’ is not implied anywhere in the passage.

D: Covers both the points aptly and is the answer.

Question 4: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
The unlikely alliance of the incumbent industrialist and the distressed unemployed worker is especially powerful amid the debris of corporate bankruptcies and layoffs. In an economic downturn, the capitalist is more likely to focus on costs of the competition emanating from free markets than on the opportunities they create. And the unemployed worker will find many others in a similar condition and with anxieties similar to his, which will make it easier for them to organize together. Using the cover and the political organization provided by the distressed, the capitalist captures the political agenda.

a) In an economic downturn, the capitalists use the anxieties of the unemployed and their political organisation to set the political agenda to suit their economic interests.

b) The purpose of an unlikely alliance between the industrialist and the unemployed during an economic downturn is to stifle competition in free markets.

c) An economic downturn creates competition because of which the capitalists capture the political agenda created by the political organisation provided by the unemployed.

d) An unlikely alliance of the industrialist and the unemployed happens during an economic downturn in which they come together to unite politically and capture the political agenda.

4) Answer (A)

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Solution:

The main points of the paragraph are:

1. In an economic disaster, the atypical alliance of established industrialist and unemployed workers proves powerful.

2. Anxieties and anticipation lead them to look after their interests.

3. It is the industrialist that benefits the most as he is able to use the latter to achieve his vested political interests.

A: Comes the closest in capturing all three points, and hence, is the answer.

B: Distortion. This purpose has not been mentioned in the passage.

C: Distortion. It has not been mentioned that an economic downturn creates competition. It has been mentioned that during such a disaster, the industrialist is more likely to focus on the downsides emerging from free-market (competition) than the upsides.

D: Distortion. It has been implied that the industrialist manipulates the situation to fulfill his own political agenda, and not that the two parties come together to achieve a single goal.

Question 5: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Creativity is now viewed as the engine of economic progress. Various organizations are devoted to its study and promotion; there are encyclopedias and handbooks surveying creativity research. But this proliferating success has tended to erode creativity’s stable identity: it has become so invested with value that it has become impossible to police its meaning and the practices that supposedly identify and encourage it. Many people and organizations committed to producing original thoughts now feel that undue obsession with the idea of creativity gets in the way of real creativity.

a) The obsession with original thought, how it can be promoted and researched, has made it impossible for people and organizations to define the concept anymore.

b) The industry that has built up around researching what comprises and encourages creativity has destroyed the creative process itself.

c) Creativity has proliferated to the extent that is no longer a stable process, and its mutating identity has stifled the creative process.

d) The value assigned to creativity today has assumed such proportions that the concept itself has lost its real meaning and this is hampering the engendering of real creativity.

5) Answer (D)

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Solution:

The main points of the paragraph are:

1. The value of creativity to economic progress has been realised, with serious investment being done to study/promote it.

2. But this success fires back. Policing its meaning can lead to obsession, hampering creativity itself.

A: It is extreme in approach. The paragraph does not imply that it has become impossible to define the concept, but it becomes difficult to practice creativity when it is being forced on oneself.

B: It is also extreme. The obsession hampers, not completely destroys the creative process.

C: This option is a distortion and fails to capture the above points.

D: Comes the closest to capturing the above two points, and hence, is the answer.

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Question 6: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Biologists who publish their research directly to the Web have been labelled as “rogue”, but physicists have been routinely publishing research digitally (“preprints”), prior to submitting in a peer-reviewed journal. Advocates of preprints argue that quick and open dissemination of research speeds up scientific progress and allows for wider access to knowledge. But some journals still don’t accept research previously published as a preprint. Even if the idea of preprints is gaining ground, one of the biggest barriers for biologists is how they would be viewed by members of their conservative research community.

a) One of the advantages of digital preprints of research is they hasten the dissemination process, but these are not accepted by most scientific communities.

b) Compared to biologists, physicists are less conservative in their acceptance of digital pre-publication of research papers, which allows for faster dissemination of knowledge.

c) While digital publication of research is gaining popularity in many scientific disciplines, almost all peer-reviewed journals are reluctant to accept papers that have been published before.

d) Preprints of research are frowned on by some scientific fields as they do not undergo a rigourous reviewing process but are accepted among biologists as a quick way to disseminate information.

6) Answer (B)

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Solution:

The main points of the paragraph are:
1. As compared to physicists, biologists are more conservative when it comes to the subject of preprints.
2. Preprints allow faster dissemination of knowledge.

A: Misses out the comparison between biologists and physicists.

B: Captures both the points appropriately and is the answer.

C: Also misses out the comparison between biologists and physicists.

D: Factually incorrect, physicists and not biologists are open to the idea of preprints.

Question 7: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Developing countries are becoming hotbeds of business innovation in much the same way as Japan did from the 1950s onwards. They are reinventing systems of production and distribution, and experimenting with entirely new business models. Why are countries that were until recently associated with cheap hands now becoming leaders in innovation? Driven by a mixture of ambition and fear they are relentlessly climbing up the value chain. Emerging-market champions have not only proved highly competitive in their own backyards, they are also going global themselves.

a) Competition has driven emerging economies, once suppliers of cheap labour, to become innovators of business models that have enabled them to move up the value chain and go global.

b) Innovations in production and distribution are helping emerging economies compete with countries to which they once supplied cheap labour.

c) Developing countries are being forced to invent new business models which challenge the old business models, so they can remain competitive domestically.

d) Production and distribution models are going through rapid innovations worldwide as developed countries are being challenged by their earlier suppliers from the developing world.

7) Answer (A)

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Solution:

The main points of the paragraph are:

1. Developing economies are becoming hotbeds of economic innovation.

2. Earlier they used to be associated with cheap labour, but now ambition and fear have made them competitive globally.

Option A: It correctly captures the two main points and hence is the answer.

Option B: This option is distorted. Business innovations have not been mentioned as the reason why emerging economies have become competitive globally. It has only been mentioned as a factor in close association.

Option C: Again, the paragraph does not mention that the developing economies are being forced to do this in order to stay competitive. This option suggests an element of necessity for the survival of the economies, which is not implied.

Option D: This option is distorted. The passage only mentions innovations in developing economies and not worldwide.

Question 8: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Foreign peacekeepers often exist in a bubble in the poor countries in which they are deployed; they live in posh compounds, drive fancy vehicles, and distance themselves from locals. This may be partially justified as they are outsiders, living in constant fear, performing a job that is emotionally draining. But they are often despised by the locals, and many would like them to leave. A better solution would be bottom-up peacebuilding, which would involve their spending more time working with communities, understanding their grievances and earning their trust, rather than only meeting government officials.

a) Peacekeeping duties would be more effectively performed by local residents given their better understanding, knowledge and rapport with their own communities.

b) The environment in poor countries has tended to make foreign peacekeeping forces live in enclaves, but it is time to change this scenario.

c) Extravagant lifestyles and an aloof attitude among the foreigners working as peacekeepers in poor countries have justifiably made them the target of local anger.

d) Peacekeeping forces in foreign countries have tended to be aloof for valid reasons but would be more effective if they worked more closely with local communities.

8) Answer (D)

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Solution:

The main points of the paragraph are:

1. The peacekeeping forces often exist in a bubble. Though there are valid reasons behind this, this also results in the locals feeling antipathy towards them.

2. The solution to this problem is to build rapport with the locals too instead of focusing only on the government officials.

Option A: Not implied in the paragraph. The paragraph suggests building relationships with the locals. Appointing only locals as peacekeepers has not been implied.

Option B: This option distorts what is being presented in the paragraph. The paragraph suggests that the bubble is justified sometimes and also suggest measures to counter that. The option implicates the country’s environment as being responsible for that bubble, hence the blame is shifted completely. Also, the option fails to mention the antipathy and the measures suggested to counter the bubble.

Option C: This option is distorted. Where the paragraph says that the aloof attitude is justified sometimes, the option blames the peacekeeping forces and their ‘extravagant lifestyles’ for the antipathy they face. Hence, can be eliminated.

Option D: Option D correctly captures the main points and is the answer.

Question 9: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
McGurk and MacDonald (1976) reported a powerful multisensory illusion occurring with audio-visual speech. They recorded a voice articulating a consonant ‘ba-ba-ba’ and dubbed it with a face articulating another consonant ‘ga-ga-ga’. Even though the acoustic speech signal was well recognized alone, it was heard as another consonant after dubbing with incongruent visual speech i.e., ‘da-da-da’. The illusion, termed as the McGurk effect, has been replicated many times, and it has sparked an abundance of research. The reason for the great impact is that this is a striking demonstration of multisensory integration, where that auditory and visual information is merged into a unified, integrated percept.

a) Visual speech mismatched with auditory speech can result in the perception of an entirely different message: this illusion is known as the McGurk effect.

b) When the quality of auditory information is poor, the visual information wins over the auditory information.

c) The McGurk effect which is a demonstration of multisensory integration has been replicated many times.

d) When the auditory speech signal does not match the visual speech movements, the acoustic speech signal is confusing and integration of the two is imperfect.

9) Answer (A)

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Solution:

The main points of the paragraph are:

1. A multisensory illusion, dubbing a different visual cue to audio, makes the subject perceive a different sound. (Important point)

2. This illusion is called McGurk effect. (Important point. Related to 1)

3. An impactful subject of research as it demonstrates multisensory integration. (Secondary point. 1 and 2 can stand without this point)

Option A: Covers 1 and 2. Hence, a plausible option.

Option B: It distorts what the author is trying to say. It draws a conclusion out of the results of the study instead of paraphrasing the passage.

Option C: Option C covers only 3. It does not mention 1 and hence is not a good summary.

Option D: Mentions only 1. Not an apt summary.

Hence, the answer is Option A.

Question 10: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

With the Treaty of Westphalia, the papacy had been confined to ecclesiastical functions, and the doctrine of sovereign equality reigned. What political theory could then explain the origin and justify the functions of secular political order? In his Leviathan, published in 1651, three years after the Peace of Westphalia, Thomas Hobbes provided such a theory. He imagined a “state of nature” in the past when the absence of authority produced a “war of all against all.” To escape such intolerable insecurity, he theorized, people delivered their rights to a sovereign power in return for the sovereign’s provision of security for all within the state’s border. The sovereign state’s monopoly on power was established as the only way to overcome the perpetual fear of violent death and war.

a) Thomas Hobbes theorized the voluntary surrender of rights by people as essential for emergence of sovereign states.

b) Thomas Hobbes theorized the emergence of sovereign states as a form of transactional governance to limit the power of the papacy.

c) Thomas Hobbes theorized that sovereign states emerged out of people’s voluntary desire to overcome the sense of insecurity and establish the doctrine of sovereign equality.

d) Thomas Hobbes theorized the emergence of sovereign states based on a transactional relationship between people and sovereign state that was necessitated by a sense of insecurity of the people.

10) Answer (D)

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Solution:

Let’s look at the options one by one. Option 1 talks about voluntary surrender of rights. But the passage talks about “transfer” of rights, not “surrender” of rights.

The main point is not about “powers of papacy”, option 2 is inconsequential.

Option 3 does not cover one of the main points of the passage, the transfer of rights, between people and the sovereign power. It’s an incomplete option.

Option 4 is the correct summary, it talks about the transactional relationship i.e give and take or transfer of rights between people and sovereign government.

Question 11: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
The rural-urban continuum and the heterogeneity of urban settings pose an obvious challenge to identifying urban areas and measuring urbanization rates in a consistent way within and across countries. An objective methodology for distinguishing between urban and rural areas that is based on one or two metrics with fixed thresholds may not adequately capture the wide diversity of places. A richer combination of criteria would better describe the multifaceted nature of a city’s function and its environment, but the joint interpretation of these criteria may require an element of human judgment.

a) With the diversity of urban landscapes, measurable criteria for defining urban areas may need to be supplemented with human judgement.

b) Current methodologies used to define urban and rural areas are no longer relevant to our being able to study trends in urbanisation.

c) The difficulty of accurately identifying urban areas means that we need to create a rich combination of criteria that can be applied to all urban areas.

d) Distinguishing between urban and rural areas might call for some judgement on the objective methodology being used to define a city’s functions.

11) Answer (A)

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Solution:

Option B is incorrect, as it mentions “is no longer relevant” whereas the author says may no longer be relevant.

Option C is incorrect too, as the passage talks about distinguishing between urban/rural, not about accurately identifying rural areas.

Option D is distorted. Judgement would be required on the richer criteria , not on the objective methodology, as mentioned in this option.

Option A is correct as it correctly captures the essence of the passage.

Question 12: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
All humans make decisions based on one or a combination of two factors. This is either intuition or information. Decisions made through intuition are usually fast, people don’t even think about the problem. It is quite philosophical, meaning that someone who made a decision based on intuition will have difficulty explaining the reasoning behind it. The decision-maker would often utilize her senses in drawing conclusions, which again is based on some experience in the field of study. On the other side of the spectrum, we have decisions made based on information. These decisions are rational — it is based on facts and figures, which unfortunately also means that it can be quite slow. The decision-maker would frequently use reports, analyses, and indicators to form her conclusion. This methodology results in accurate, quantifiable decisions, meaning that a person can clearly explain the rationale behind it.

a) It is better to make decisions based on information because it is more accurate, and the rationale behind it can be explained.

b) Decisions based on intuition and information result in differential speed and ability to provide a rationale.

c) While decisions based on intuition can be made fast, the reasons that led to these cannot be spelt out.

d) We make decisions based on intuition or information on the basis of the time available.

12) Answer (B)

View Video Solution

Solution:

Let’s look at the options one by one.

The author has not made any comparisons between the two methodologies, about which method is better. Hence optionA is incorrect.

Option 3 is incorrect too because it doesnot summarise the para accurately. Nothing is mentioned about decisions based on information.

Although time is a factor, nowhere it is mentioned that time is the factor in determining the method of our decision making. Hence Option4 is incorrect too.

Option 2 correctly summarises the passage by differentiating between the two methods. Hence it is correct.

Question 13: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Brown et al. (2001) suggest that ‘metabolic theory may provide a conceptual foundation for much of ecology just as genetic theory provides a foundation for much of evolutionary biology’. One of the successes of genetic theory is the diversity of theoretical approaches and models that have been developed and applied. A Web of Science (v. 5.9. Thomson Reuters) search on genetic* + theor* + evol* identifies more than 12000 publications between 2005 and 2012. Considering only the 10 most-cited papers within this 12000 publication set, genetic theory can be seen to focus on genome dynamics, phylogenetic inference, game theory and the regulation of gene expression. There is no one fundamental genetic equation, but rather a wide array of genetic models, ranging from simple to complex, with differing inputs and outputs, and divergent areas of application, loosely connected to each other through the shared conceptual foundation of heritable variation.

a) Genetic theory has evolved to spawn a wide range of theoretical models and applications but Metabolic theory need not evolve in a similar manner in the field of ecology

b) Genetic theory has a wide range of theoretical approaches and application and is foundational to evolutionary biology and Metabolic theory has the potential to do the same for ecology

c) Genetic theory has a wide range of theoretical approaches and applications and Metabolic theory must have the same in the field of ecology

d) Genetic theory provides an example of how a range of theoretical approaches and applications can make a theory successful.

13) Answer (B)

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Solution:

There are two key points discussed in the passage:

1. The prospect of “metabolic theory” being foundational to the field of ecology; the same as is the case in (2)

2. Genetic theory being the conceptual basis of evolutionary biology {given the diverse and extensive theoretical approaches and models available}.

Thus, the summary needs to capture both these points. Option B fulfils this requirement.

Option A: is a distorted claim since it is not implied in the passage; the author does not assert that “metabolic theory need not evolve in a similar manner”.

Option C: is again a misinterpretation because the author does not claim that metabolic theory “must” contribute in a similar fashion. Instead, the focus is on the “potential” of this theory.

Option D: is divergent since the author does not discuss the “success” of a theory.

Hence, Option B is the correct answer.

Question 14: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Aesthetic political representation urges us to realize that ‘the representative has autonomy with regard to the people represented’ but autonomy then is not an excuse to abandon one’s responsibility. Aesthetic autonomy requires cultivation of ‘disinterestedness’ on the part of actors which is not indifference. To have disinterestedness, that is, to have comportment towards the beautiful that is devoid of all ulterior references to use – requires a kind of aesthetic commitment; it is the liberation of ourselves for the release of what has proper worth only in itself.

a) Aesthetic political representation advocates autonomy for the representatives manifested through disinterestedness which itself is different from indifference.

b) Aesthetic political representation advocates autonomy for the representatives drawing from disinterestedness, which itself is different from indifference.

c) Disinterestedness is different from indifference as the former means a non-subjective evaluation of things which is what constitutes aesthetic political representation

d) Disinterestedness, as distinct from indifference, is the basis of political representation.

14) Answer (B)

View Video Solution

Solution:

The paragraph discusses two essential elements: it begins by presenting the facet of autonomy enjoyed by the representative in Aesthetic political representation and then highlights the cultivation of “disinterestedness” in this regard. Additionally, the author distinctly identifies the aforementioned concept as being not the same as that of “indifference”. Post this, towards the end. The author presents the reason behind this assertion. Option B correctly captures these two aspects without distorting the overall meaning.

Option A: The author does not claim that the autonomy “manifested” through disinterestedness.

Option C: The statement here contains added elements which cannot be inferred from the passage.

Option D: This alternative fails to capture the essence of the discussion and describes a single component. {‘political representation’ might again be incorrect}

Hence, of the given summaries, Option B aptly captures the substance of the passage.

Question 15: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
The dominant hypotheses in modern science believe that language evolved to allow humans to exchange factual information about the physical world. But an alternative view is that language evolved, in modern humans at least, to facilitate social bonding. It increased our ancestors’ chances of survival by enabling them to hunt more successfully or to cooperate more extensively. Language meant that things could be explained and that plans and past experiences could be shared efficiently.

a) Since its origin, language has been continuously evolving to higher forms, from being used to identify objects to ensuring human survival by enabling our ancestors to bond and cooperate.

b) From the belief that humans invented language to process factual information, scholars now think that language was the outcome of the need to ensure social cohesion and thus human survival.

c) Most believe that language originated from a need to articulate facts, but others think it emerged from the need to promote social cohesion and cooperation, thus enabling human survival.

d) Experts are challenging the narrow view of the origin of language, as being merely used to describe facts and label objects, to being necessary to promote more complex interactions among humans

15) Answer (C)

View Video Solution

Solution:

One predominant viewpoint: language originated to exchange factual information

An alternative viewpoint: language originated to facilitate social bonding and consequently, to ensure human survival.

The summary needs to highlight these two core viewpoints. Option C does this without deviating from the discussion.

Option A: The evolution of language is not the focal point here; the views held in this regard are. {“language has been continuously evolving to higher forms”} Thus, we can eliminate this option since it comes across as a misrepresentation.

Option B: This is a trap wherein the statement captures both the core viewpoints but there is a distortion involved: “…From the belief …”  to “…scholars now…” indicates a shift in the viewpoint. However, this is not the case – the author simply states two prevalent perspectives on the subject.

Option D: is again a distortion since experts are not “challenging any views; the author simply highlights the presence of two viewpoints {no conflict presented}

Hence, Option C is the correct answer.

Question 16: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

As Soviet power declined, the world became to some extent multipolar, and Europe strove to define an independent identity. What a journey Europe has undertaken to reach this point. It had in every century changed its internal structure and invented new ways of thinking about the nature of international order. Now at the culmination of an era, Europe, in order to participate in it, felt obliged to set aside the political mechanisms through which it had conducted its affairs for three and a half centuries. Impelled also by the desire to cushion the emergent unification of Germany, the new European Union established a common currency in 2002 and a formal political structure in 2004. It proclaimed a Europe united, whole, and free, adjusting its differences by peaceful mechanisms.

a) Europe has consistently changed in keeping with the changing world order and that has culminated in a united Europe.

b) The establishment of a formal political structure in Europe was hastened by the unification of Germany and the emergence of a multipolar world.

c) Europe has consistently changed its internal structure to successfully adapt to the changing world order.

d) Europe has chosen to lower political and economic heterogeneity, in order to adapt itself to an emerging multi-polar world.

16) Answer (D)

View Video Solution

Solution:

The passage begins by highlighting Europe’s continual attempt to adapt itself in a multipolar world by striving to be a dynamic entity- nationally and internationally{“changed its internal structure and invented new ways of thinking about the nature of international order“}.  Post this, the author portrays how certain stimuli in the modern world has lead Europe to review its political components {“set aside the political mechanisms through which it had conducted its affairs for three and a half centuries“} and to make changes in its economic structure {“established a common currency “}. Thus, the passage presents two key elements: (1) the fact that Europe has consistently tried to adapt to a changing world and (2) the manner in which Europe has attempted to achieve that in the existing multi-polar setup. Option D correctly highlights these points.

Option A: This misses out on the point (2). Furthermore, directly ascribing the unification of Europe to its attempt to rapidly change would be incorrect.

Option B: This does not fully capture the essence of the passage and misses out on point 1.

Option C: Although the statement in this option captures point 1, it misses out on point 2.

Hence, Option D is the correct answer.

Question 17: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

For nearly a century most psychologists have embraced one view of intelligence. Individuals are born with more or less intelligence potential (I.Q.); this potential is heavily influenced by heredity and difficult to alter; experts in measurement can determine a person’s intelligence early in life, currently from paper-and-pencil measures, perhaps eventually from examining the brain in action or even scrutinizing his/her genome. Recently, criticism of this conventional wisdom has mounted. Biologists ask if speaking of a single entity called “intelligence” is coherent and question the validity of measures used to estimate heritability of a trait in humans, who, unlike plants or animals, are not conceived and bred under controlled conditions.

a) Biologists have questioned the long-standing view that ‘intelligence’ is a single entity and the attempts to estimate it’s heritability.

b) Biologists have criticised that conventional wisdom that individuals are born with more or less intelligence potential.

c) Biologists have started questioning psychologists’ view of ‘intelligence’ as a measurable immutable characteristic of an individual.

d) Biologists have questioned the view that ‘intelligence’ is a single entity and the ways in which what is inherited

17) Answer (A)

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Solution:

The paragraph highlights the following:

1. The validity of the ubiquitous perspective held by psychologists {of intelligence being a measurable, unalterable entity that is greatly influenced by heredity} is now being questioned by biologists.

2. The dubiety concerning the aspect of intelligence being hereditary {given the fact that “humans, who, unlike plants or animals, are not conceived and bred under controlled conditions.“}

Thus, a statement capturing these elements is bound to be the answer. Option A aptly encompasses these two key points.

Option B: Calling the widely -held perspective as conventional wisdom would be inappropriate. Additionally, the statement here fails to capture point (2).

Option C: Although close, it misses out on the second half of the discussion.

Option D: This option might appear confusing, given that it touches upon both the key elements. However, it is unspecific and comes across as a bit odd {“ways in which what is inherited” doesn’t make sense}. Between Options A and D, A is definitely the better choice.

Question 18: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Physics is a pure science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter without regard to whether it will afford any practical benefit. Engineering is the correlative applied science in which physical theories are put to some specific use, such as building a bridge or a nuclear reactor. Engineers obviously rely heavily on the discoveries of physicists, but an engineer’s knowledge of the world is not the same as
the physicist’s knowledge. In fact, an engineer’s know-how will often depend on physical theories that, from the point of view of pure physics, are false. There are some reasons for this. First, theories that are false in the purest and strictest sense are still sometimes very good approximations to the true ones, and often have the added virtue of being much easier to work with. Second, sometimes the true theories
apply only under highly idealized conditions which can only be created under controlled experimental situations. The engineer finds that in the real world, theories rejected by physicists yield more accurate predictions than the ones that they accept.

a) Though engineering draws heavily from pure science, it contributes to knowledge, by incorporating the constraints and conditions in the real world.

b) Engineering and physics fundamentally differ on matters like building a bridge or a nuclear reactor.

c) The relationship between pure and applied science is strictly linear, with the pure science directing applied science, and never the other way round.

d) The unique task of the engineer is to identify, understand, and interpret the design constraints to produce a successful result.

18) Answer (A)

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Solution:

The passage says that pure science intends to discover without any end-goal in mind. While engineers use these benefits for practical applications. The author says that the science behind these practical applications are often considered false by pure science since they are approximated or not applied as per ideal conditions. In any case, even though they are rejected, these approximated science theories find lot of practical applications in everyday life.

Option A is correct. By diluting science, these theories are put into practical benefits. Hence, option A is correct

Option B is incorrect as no such implication can be drawn from the passage

Option C is incorrect. Linear relationship indicates that, if a certain theory is rejected by pure science, it is bound to be rejected by applied science too. This is clearly not the case as engineers use rejected theories for practical benefits.

Option D speaks only about engineers and has no reference to sciences or the main point of the paragraph. The paragraph intends to compare the functionalities of scientists and engineers while option D is specific to engineers and does not encapsulate the essence of the paragraph.

Hence, by way of elimination Option A is the most suitable summary

Question 19: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
A distinguishing feature of language is our ability to refer to absent things, known as displaced reference. A speaker can bring distant referents to mind in the absence of any obvious stimuli. Thoughts, not limited to the here and now, can pop into our heads for unfathomable reasons. This ability to think about distant things necessarily precedes the ability to talk about them. Thought precedes meaningful referential communication. A prerequisite for the emergence of human-like meaningful symbols is that the mental categories they relate to can be invoked even in the absence of immediate stimuli.

a) Displaced reference is particular to humans and thoughts pop into our heads for no real reason.

b) Thoughts precede all speech acts and these thoughts pop up in our heads even in the absence of any stimulus.

c) Thoughts are essential to communication and only humans have the ability to think about objects not present in their surroundings.

d) The ability to think about objects not present in our environment precedes the development of human communication.

19) Answer (D)

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Solution:

The paragraph says that humans think about past occurrences suddenly without any immediate stimuli.
The author also says that thinking/thoughts about a certain distant past is a necessity before one can speak about it.
He says that thoughts are a pre-requisite before one talks about it. He also gives an example that various human-like symbols might have emerged without any immediate stimuli.

Option A and C: There is no mention of specificity to humans in the passage
Option B : “All speech acts” is a false generalisation. The passage says that speaking about distant past requires thinking about it first
Option D : It clearly captures the essence of the passage and says that one needs to think about distant past events before talking about them
Hence option D is correct.

Question 20: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
A distinguishing feature of language is our ability to refer to absent things, known as displaced reference. A speaker can bring distant referents to mind in the absence of any obvious stimuli. Thoughts, not limited to the here and now, can pop into our heads for unfathomable reasons. This ability to think about distant things necessarily precedes the ability to talk about them. Thought precedes meaningful referential communication. A prerequisite for the emergence of human-like meaningful symbols is that the mental categories they relate to can be invoked even in the absence of immediate stimuli.

a) Displaced reference is particular to humans and thoughts pop into our heads for no real reason.

b) Thoughts precede all speech acts and these thoughts pop up in our heads even in the absence of any stimulus.

c) Thoughts are essential to communication and only humans have the ability to think about objects not present in their surroundings.

d) The ability to think about objects not present in our environment precedes the development of human communication.

20) Answer (D)

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Solution:

The paragraph says that humans think about past occurrences suddenly without any immediate stimuli.
The author also says that thinking/thoughts about a certain distant past is a necessity before one can speak about it.
He says that thoughts are a pre-requisite before one talks about it. He also gives an example that various human-like symbols might have emerged without any immediate stimuli.

Option A and C: There is no mention of specificity to humans in the passage
Option B : “All speech acts” is a false generalisation. The passage says that speaking about distant past requires thinking about it first
Option D : It clearly captures the essence of the passage and says that one needs to think about distant past events before talking about them
Hence option D is correct.

Question 21: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Vance Packard’s The Hidden Persuaders alerted the public to the psychoanalytical techniques used by the advertising industry. Its premise was that advertising agencies were using depth interviews to identify hidden consumer motivations, which were then used to entice consumers to buy goods. Critics and reporters often wrongly assumed that Packard was writing mainly about subliminal advertising. Packard never mentioned the word subliminal, however, and devoted very little space to discussions of “subthreshold” effects. Instead, his views largely aligned with the notion that individuals do not always have access to their conscious thoughts and can be persuaded by supraliminal messages without their knowledge.

a) Packard held that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ understands the hidden motivations of consumers and works at the supraliminal level, though the people targeted have no awareness of being persuaded.

b) Packard held that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ builds on peoples’ conscious thoughts and awareness, by understanding the hidden motivations of consumers and works at the subliminal level.

c) Packard argued that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ works at the supraliminal level, wherein the people targeted are aware of being persuaded, after understanding the hidden motivations of consumers and works.

d) Packard argued that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ understands the hidden motivations of consumers and works at the subliminal level, on the subconscious level of the awareness of the people targeted.

21) Answer (A)

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Solution:

In this context, “Psychoanalytical analytical technique” implies that the advertising agencies are adapting methods to tap into the unconscious mind of the consumers. They are conducting detailed interviews to identify hidden motivations.

Here, subliminal advertising represents some portion of the ad being difficult to comprehend or simply put, when one of the motives of the ad is so subtle that it is difficult to be understood by a layman.

While supraliminal advertising can be clearly conceived by most people.

Packard claims that the ‘Hidden persuaders’ use supraliminal advertising to entice customers by tapping into consumers without their knowledge.  (….can be persuaded by supraliminal messages without their knowledge.)

Option B and D say that the method is subliminal, hence, it is incorrect
Option C says that people are well aware about being persuaded, hence incorrect.
Option A is a wholesome summary of the method of persuation.

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