Question 26

The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author's position.

Both Socrates and Bacon were very good at asking useful questions. In fact, Socrates is largely credited with coming up with a way of asking questions, 'the Socratic method,' which itself is at the core of the 'scientific method,' popularised by Bacon. The Socratic method disproves arguments by finding exceptions to them, and can therefore lead your opponent to a point where they admit something that contradicts their original position. In common with Socrates, Bacon stressed it was as important to disprove a theory as it was to prove one — and real-world observation and experimentation were key to achieving both aims. Bacon also saw science as a collaborative affair, with scientists working together, challenging each other.


According to the paragraph, Socrates and Bacon were good at asking questions. The Socratic method works in a way by finding exceptions to the arguments of the opponent, which makes the opponent to agree on something that contradicts their original position. In a similar way, Bacon stressed that it was important to disprove theory as it is to prove it. Thus both Socrates and Bacon stressed on examining arguments from both ends - to prove as well as disprove. 

Option A, which speaks only about disproving of arguments, can be eliminated.

Option B talks only about examining and observation. Hence, it can be eliminated.

Option C talks only about confirming of arguments and not the other way. Hence, it can be eliminated.

Option D captures the main points which we discussed earlier. 

Hence, option D is the right answer. 

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