Question 23

The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

The dominant hypotheses in modern science believe that language evolved to allow humans to exchange factual information about the physical world. But an alternative view is that language evolved, in modern humans at least, to facilitate social bonding. It increased our ancestors’ chances of survival by enabling them to hunt more successfully or to cooperate more extensively. Language meant that things could be explained and that plans and past experiences could be shared efficiently.

Solution

One predominant viewpoint: language originated to exchange factual information

An alternative viewpoint: language originated to facilitate social bonding and consequently, to ensure human survival.

The summary needs to highlight these two core viewpoints. Option C does this without deviating from the discussion.

Option A: The evolution of language is not the focal point here; the views held in this regard are. {"language has been continuously evolving to higher forms"} Thus, we can eliminate this option since it comes across as a misrepresentation.

Option B: This is a trap wherein the statement captures both the core viewpoints but there is a distortion involved: "...From the belief ..."  to "...scholars now..." indicates a shift in the viewpoint. However, this is not the case - the author simply states two prevalent perspectives on the subject. 

Option D: is again a distortion since experts are not "challenging any views; the author simply highlights the presence of two viewpoints {no conflict presented}

Hence, Option C is the correct answer.

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