MAT 2009


Read the passage to answer the questions that follows passage.
Passage I:

After President George W. Bush signed the United States -India Nuclear Cooperation Bill, he called up Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to tell him how pleased he was at this development. While welcoming this event, the Prime Minister took the opportunity to tell the President that there remained areas of concern that needed to be addressed during the negotiation of the bilateral agreement (called the 123 agreement, after the relevant clause number in the US Atomic Energy Act, 1954) The US has entered into some twenty-five 123 agreements with various countries, including the one concerning Tarapur. The Tarapur agreement concluded in 1963 was unique in that it guaranteed supplies of enriched uranium fuel from the US for running the Tarapur reactorsfor their entirelife. However,after 1987 the US did not supply fuel saying its domestic legislation under the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Act preventedit from doing so. India argued that Tarapur was an inter-governmental agreement and henceit had to be honoured by the US. Later, US allowed France to supply fuel to India. Subsequently, the USSR (now Russia) and even China supplied fuel for Tarapur. The lesson from the Tarapur episode is that U.S. breached with impunityeven a castiron guarantee it had furnished. Considerable
bitterness grew betweenthe U.S. and India and extended to manyother areas beyond the nuclear one. When India agreed, reluctantly, in March 2006 to put imported reactors under “safeguards in perpetuity’, the US consented to the Indian insistence on assurances of fuel supply. This meant India could build up a stockpile of fuel to tide over disruption in supply and the US and Britain would arrange alternate supplies. The US would agree to work with other countries namely Russia, France, and Britain to arrange alternate supplies. The US legislation, based on the HydeBill, forbids India building up a stockpile of Nuclear fuel. It also obligates U.S. administration to work with other nuclear Supplier Group countries to get them to suspend supplies to India, if the U.S. has done so under someprovision of the Hyde Bill. It is not evident how the U.S. can address the legitimate concerns of India on continued fuel supply, given the boundaries set by the Hyde Bill. With regard to future nuclear tests, the Prime Minister has said, India is only committed to a voluntary moratorium. A moratorium is only a temporary holding off of an activity, conditioned by specific circumstances obtained atthe time when such a declaration was made. It can not be construed as a permanent ban. The Hyde Bill has sought to make the moratorium into a permanent ban. However, there is no such restraint imposed on the US, China, Pakistan or any other country. In bringing up this issue, I do not wish to suggest resumption of tests by India. But Indian can not prevent other countries from carrying out tests. It is, therefore, unacceptable that India forfeits its right to test for all time to come under the agreement with the US Even if the 123 agreement is silent on the issue, Indian negotiators must put this issue on the table. The Hyde Bill calls for suspension ofall cooperation and fuel supplies and even calls for return of all equipment and materials supplies earlier in the event of test. It baffles one how India can return reactor installations that might have been operated a few years, were such a contingency to arise in future. The differences over the definition of “full civilian nuclear cooperation” have been discussed in the media. The Indian understanding was that reprocessing of spent fuel, enrichment of uranium, and production of heavy water also formed part of the term ‘full civilian nuclear cooperation.” In the congressional debate, it has been noted that these were construed by the USto be in the nature of military activites and notcivilian, India’s future plans for thorium utilisation for civil nuclear power depend crucially on reprocessing. Similarly, civil nuclear power units using natural uranium require heavy wateras reactor coolant and moderator. Equally if India were to embark on a sizeable light water reactor programme, it may like to have control on supply ofenriched uranium for economic and supply security reasons. India has technologies of its own in these areas and will develop them further in the years ahead. If the Indo-US agreement moves ahead in the manner its sponsors have speculated, in a few decades from now some 90 per centof the nuclear installations in India would be open to International Atomic Energy Agency inspections. In that scenario, how can India reconcile to the embargo from nuclear advanced countries on the export of enrichment, Teprocessing and heavy water technologies. Even if the issue were to be papered over now, it will then look from India’s point of view to have been a very bad bargain.

Question 21

What is the Indian understanding of the definition of “full civilian nuclear cooperation”?

Video Solution
Question 22

With referenceto the passage, select which ofthe following statement(s) is/are incorrect ?
A: US did not supply fuel to India after 1987.
B: The Hyde bill calls for suspensionofall cooperation and fuel supplies.
C: India can preventother countries from carrying out the test.

Video Solution
Question 23

What was the uniqueness of the Tarapur agreement that was concluded in 1963?

Video Solution
Question 24

Which of the following countries supplied fuel for Tarapur?

Video Solution

Read the passage to answer the questions that follows passage.
Passage II:

Not even a three-day brainstroming session among top psychologists at the Chinese University could unravel one of the world’s greatest puzzles-how the Chinese mindticks. Michael Bond had reason to pace the pavement of the Chinese University campus last week. The psychologist
who co-ordinated and moderated a three day seminar in Chinese psychology and most of the participants came a long way to knock head. “If a bombhits this building, muttered Bond, half-seriously, “it would wipe out the whole discipline.” But the only thing that went off in the Cho Yiu. Conference hall of Chinese University was the picking of brains, the pouring outof brains and a refrain from an on-going mantra: “More work needsto be done’ or ‘we don't know.”Eachofthe 36 participants was allowed 30 minutes plus use of an over-head projector to condense years of research into data and theories. Their contents spilled over from 20 are as of Chinese behaviour, including reading, learning styles, sychopathology, social interaction personaticty and modernisation. An over-riding question for observers, however, was why,in this group of
21 Chinese and 15 non-Chinese, weren't there more professionals from mainland China presenting research on the indigenous people? MichaelPhilips, a psychiatrist who works in Hubei Province, explained : “The Cultural Revolution silenced and froze the research”, said the
Canadian born doctor whohaslived and worked in China for more then 10 years. “And 12 years later, research is under waybut it is roo early to have anything yet. Besides, most of the models being used are from the West anything.”In such a specialised field, how can non-Chinese academics do research without possessing fluency in Chinese? These who cannot read, write or speak the language usually team up with Chinese colleagues. “In 10 years, we won't beable to do this. It’s a moneything,”said William Gabrenya ofFlorida Institute of Technology, who described him self as anilliterate Gweilo wholacks fluency in Chinese. Dr. Gabrenya raised questions such as why is research dependent on university students, whyis research done on Chinese people in coastal cities (Singapore, Taiwan, Shanghai and Hong Kong) but not in land? “Chinese psychology is too on fucian, too neat. He’s been dead a long time. How about the guy on a motorcycle in Taipei?” Dr. Gabrenya said, urging that research have a
more contemporary outlook.
The academics came from Israel, Sweden, Taiwan, Singapore, United States, British Columbia and, ofcourse, Hong Kong. Manyofthe visual aids they used by way of illustriation contained eye-squinting type and cobweb-like graphs. One speaker, a sociologist from Illionios, even warned her colleagues that she would not give anyone enough time to digest the long, skinny collumns of numbers. Is Chinese intelligence different from Western? For half of the audience who are illiterate in Chinese, Professor Jimmy Chan of HKU examined each of the Chinese characters for “intelligence”. Phrases such as “a mindas fast as an arrow” and connections between stokes for sun and the moon were made. After his 25-minute
speech, Chan and the group lamented that using Western tests are the only measure available to psychologists, who are starving for ndigenousstudies of Chinese by Chinese. How do Chinese children learn? David Kember of Hong Kong Polytechnic University zeroed in on deep learing
versus surface. Deep is when the student is sincerely interested for his own reasons. Surface is memorizing and spitting out facts, It doesn’t nurture any deep understanding. If the languageofinstruction happensto be the children’s second language, students in Hong Kong haveall sorts of challenges with English-speaking teachers from Australia, Britain and America with accents and colloquialisms. Do Westerners have moreself-esteem than Chinese? Dr. Leung Kwok, Chairman of the psychology department of Chinese University, points his finger at belief systems: The coilectivist mind-set often stereotypes Chinese unfairly. The philosophy of “yuen”(a concept used to explain good and bad events which are pre-determined and outofthe individual’s control does notfostera positive self-concept. Neitherdo collectivist beliefs, such as sacrifice for the group, compromise and importance of using connections. “If a Chineselosesoffails, he has a stronger sense of responsibility. He tends to blame it on himself. A non-Chinese from the West may blameit on forces outside himself’, Dr. Leung said. By the end of the three day
session, there were as many questions raised as answered. It was agreed there was room for further research. To the layman, so much of the discussion wasforeign and riddled with jargon and on-going references to studies and researchers. The work of the participants will resource in a
forthcoming handbook of Chinese Psychology, which will be edited by Dr. Bond and published by Oxford University Press.

Question 25

According to the passage the author suggests that

Video Solution
Question 26

It can be inferred from the passage that

Video Solution
Question 27

According to the passage, William Gabrenya refers to himself as an‘illirerate gweilo’. This suggests that

Video Solution
Question 28

According to the passage, all of the following are true except

Video Solution
Question 29

According to the passage which of the followingis nor true?

Video Solution

Read the passage to answer the questions that follows passage.
Passage III:

“Since wars begin in the minds of men,” so runs the historic UNESCO Preamble, “It is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed.” Wars erupt out when the minds of menare inflamed, when the human mindis blinded and wounded, succumbsto frustration and self-negation. Waris the transference ofthis self-negation into the other-negation. The three Indo-Pak wars and the persisting will to terrorise have emanated from this sawage instinct of other-negationthatis the legacy of the partition carnage and its still-bleeding and_unhealed wound,
Truncated from its eastern wing in 1971, Pakistan ever since has suffered from a sense of total existential self-negation. Plus the scars left by the twopreviously lost wars to India and Kargil fill the Army and the Pakistan pysche with a seething urge to revenge: that Indian has to
be negated, destroyed — in a deep psychological sense, another Hiroshima in the subcontinent is imaginable and possible. Terrorism in Kashmir springs from such deep negating existential grounds. Like the former Soviet Union, Pakistan came into beingas a result of a grand delusion and
massive perversion of reality — the so called two-nation theory. Like the former Soviet Union, it stand in danger of crumbling unless it modifies its reality perception and comesto terms with its post-Bangladesh identity within the prevailing subcontinental equation. Failing this, Pakistan is bound to break up, nudging the region to a nuclear nightmare, including, possible South Asian Hiroshimas. With‘hotpursuits’ and ‘surgical operations’ freely making rounds amongthepolicy elite and the public at large, the national atmosphere looks ominously charged. “On the
brink,” headlines The Week adding, “As men and machines are quickly positioned by India and Pakistan, the threat of war looms real.” To which Gen. Musharraf counters, “If any war is thrust on Pakistan, Pakistan’s armed forces and the 140 million people of Pakistan are fully prepared to faceall consequences with all their might.” According to Indian Express, “Pakistan has deployed medium rangeballistic missile batteries (MRBBs) along the Line of Control (LOC) near Jammu and Poonch sectors in a action that will further escalate the tension between the two countries.”
AndIndia’s Defence Minister ups the ante, “We could take a (nuclear) strike, survive and then hit back, Pakistan would be finished.” (Hindustan Times, December 30, 2001). Mr. Fernandes’s formulation is certainly a tactical super shot, even a strategical super hit in as much as this is
the very logic of India’s ‘No-first-stike’ doctrine. The Defence Minister obviously has no idea of the ethical, phenomeno logical implications of abandoning chunks of the Indian population to ransom for potential Hiroshimas and then ‘finishing’ the neighbouring country of 140 in
what could be nothing short of an Armageddon. Forget these horrendous scenarios. But does this not repudiate the grain of truth for which India’s civilisation stood for and vindicated across the untold millennia ofits history? Yet, Mr. Fernandes, the pacifist and Gandhian, is no
warmonger. As Defence Minister he had to react at a level with the Pakistanis, with their proclivity to drop the nuclear speak whenever that suited them, could have.

Question 30

According to the passage, Pakistan is boundto disintegrate
I.and it will throw the subcontinent into a nuclear backlash.
II. if it refuses to accept its presentidentity.
III. if it does not stop fuelling terrorism in Kashmir.

Video Solution

Boost your Prep!

Download App