CMAT Reading Comprehension questions

CMAT 2023 Reading Comprehension questions

Question 1

"Poetry is the language of the imagination and the passions. It relates to whatever gives immediate pleasure or pain to the human mind. It comes home to the bosoms and business of men for nothing but what comes home to them in the most general and intelligible shape can be a subject for poetry. Poetry is the universal language which the health holds with nature and itself. He who has a contempt for poetry cannot have much respect for himself, or for anything else. Wherever there is a sense of beauty or harmony, as in the motion of a wave of the sea in the growth of a flower there is poetry in its birth."

Which of the following expressions duly correspond with the given passage:
A . Poetry ensures for the immediate pleasure and pain experienced by the creative mind.
B . It revolves around the general and intelligible feelings of the people.
C . A contempt for poetry and self-respect are mutually compatible.
D . It unavoidably relates to mankind's sense of beauty, power and harmony.
Choose the correct answer from the options given below:

Show Answer Explanation

Instruction for set 1:

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow :

What is religion? A very complex question! We know religion and we live religion. But, how do we explain or define religion? Religion is one of the most sensitive and vulnerable aspects of human life from the very beginning. Thought it looks simple, it is not a simple reality to be easily defined or explained. There are many theories proposed regarding the origin of religion as a result of the development of speculative, intellectual and scientific mind. However, in spite of the differences in the under-standing of this important element, it is confirmed that it is purely a human activity and it has become an inevitable aspect of human life. In the West, under the influence of the inherited tradition of Judeo-Christian tradition, religion was understood more theistically while in the East, it was mostly a response to the experience of the natural powers that are beyond human control and also to the inner urge for an ethical and moral reference.

Etymologically, the word 'religion' is derived from the Latin root 'religare' and it means 'to bind fast'. Then 'religion' has certainly a strong emphasis on community aspects. It is something that binds fast the members of it together. When we start thinking seriously on religion , naturally we fall upon thoughts of the definition of religion. There are numberless definitions of religion, The meaning and definition of religion differs according to the socio-cultural and psychological background of the person who reflects upon it. Even the political setting inserts its influence on the understanding of the meaning of religion. Some of the definitions are phenomenological and try to expose the common elements that we see in the acknowledged world religions. For example, the human recognition of a superhuman power entitled to obedience and worship. Some others are interpretative definitions.

Question 2

The meaning and definition of religion depends upon following factors :-
A. Socio-cultural
B. Political
C. Psychological
D. Phenomenological
Choose the correct answer from the options given below :-

Show Answer Explanation

Instruction for set 1:

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow :

What is religion? A very complex question! We know religion and we live religion. But, how do we explain or define religion? Religion is one of the most sensitive and vulnerable aspects of human life from the very beginning. Thought it looks simple, it is not a simple reality to be easily defined or explained. There are many theories proposed regarding the origin of religion as a result of the development of speculative, intellectual and scientific mind. However, in spite of the differences in the under-standing of this important element, it is confirmed that it is purely a human activity and it has become an inevitable aspect of human life. In the West, under the influence of the inherited tradition of Judeo-Christian tradition, religion was understood more theistically while in the East, it was mostly a response to the experience of the natural powers that are beyond human control and also to the inner urge for an ethical and moral reference.

Etymologically, the word 'religion' is derived from the Latin root 'religare' and it means 'to bind fast'. Then 'religion' has certainly a strong emphasis on community aspects. It is something that binds fast the members of it together. When we start thinking seriously on religion , naturally we fall upon thoughts of the definition of religion. There are numberless definitions of religion, The meaning and definition of religion differs according to the socio-cultural and psychological background of the person who reflects upon it. Even the political setting inserts its influence on the understanding of the meaning of religion. Some of the definitions are phenomenological and try to expose the common elements that we see in the acknowledged world religions. For example, the human recognition of a superhuman power entitled to obedience and worship. Some others are interpretative definitions.

Question 3

In which tradition, religion is seen as a response to the experience of the natural powers?

Show Answer Explanation

Instruction for set 1:

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow :

What is religion? A very complex question! We know religion and we live religion. But, how do we explain or define religion? Religion is one of the most sensitive and vulnerable aspects of human life from the very beginning. Thought it looks simple, it is not a simple reality to be easily defined or explained. There are many theories proposed regarding the origin of religion as a result of the development of speculative, intellectual and scientific mind. However, in spite of the differences in the under-standing of this important element, it is confirmed that it is purely a human activity and it has become an inevitable aspect of human life. In the West, under the influence of the inherited tradition of Judeo-Christian tradition, religion was understood more theistically while in the East, it was mostly a response to the experience of the natural powers that are beyond human control and also to the inner urge for an ethical and moral reference.

Etymologically, the word 'religion' is derived from the Latin root 'religare' and it means 'to bind fast'. Then 'religion' has certainly a strong emphasis on community aspects. It is something that binds fast the members of it together. When we start thinking seriously on religion , naturally we fall upon thoughts of the definition of religion. There are numberless definitions of religion, The meaning and definition of religion differs according to the socio-cultural and psychological background of the person who reflects upon it. Even the political setting inserts its influence on the understanding of the meaning of religion. Some of the definitions are phenomenological and try to expose the common elements that we see in the acknowledged world religions. For example, the human recognition of a superhuman power entitled to obedience and worship. Some others are interpretative definitions.

Question 4

Which of the phrases is closest in meaning to etymology?

Show Answer Explanation

Instruction for set 1:

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow :

What is religion? A very complex question! We know religion and we live religion. But, how do we explain or define religion? Religion is one of the most sensitive and vulnerable aspects of human life from the very beginning. Thought it looks simple, it is not a simple reality to be easily defined or explained. There are many theories proposed regarding the origin of religion as a result of the development of speculative, intellectual and scientific mind. However, in spite of the differences in the under-standing of this important element, it is confirmed that it is purely a human activity and it has become an inevitable aspect of human life. In the West, under the influence of the inherited tradition of Judeo-Christian tradition, religion was understood more theistically while in the East, it was mostly a response to the experience of the natural powers that are beyond human control and also to the inner urge for an ethical and moral reference.

Etymologically, the word 'religion' is derived from the Latin root 'religare' and it means 'to bind fast'. Then 'religion' has certainly a strong emphasis on community aspects. It is something that binds fast the members of it together. When we start thinking seriously on religion , naturally we fall upon thoughts of the definition of religion. There are numberless definitions of religion, The meaning and definition of religion differs according to the socio-cultural and psychological background of the person who reflects upon it. Even the political setting inserts its influence on the understanding of the meaning of religion. Some of the definitions are phenomenological and try to expose the common elements that we see in the acknowledged world religions. For example, the human recognition of a superhuman power entitled to obedience and worship. Some others are interpretative definitions.

Question 5

Which of these statements are correct with reference to the above passage?
A. Religion is one of the most sensitive aspects of human life form.
B. Religion is purely a human activity.
C. Religion doesn't bind the members of a community together.
Choose from the options given below:

Show Answer Explanation

CMAT 2022 Reading Comprehension questions

Instruction for set 1:

Read the following passage and answer the question that follow:

Urbanization - the demographic shift from country to city - began with industrialization, and it has not let up. In 1900, fewer than 15 percent of the world’s population lived in cities. Fifty years later, that number had doubled to 30 percent of the world’s population of 750 million. By 2000, 2.9 billion people, or 47 percent of the world’s population, were living in urban areas, with the greatest growth occurring in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In 2007, for the first time in history, the urban population exceeded 50 percent, and by 2050, according to World Health Organization (WHO), seven out of ten people will call urban areas home….

Contrary to common belief, fewer than 10 percent of urban dwellers are residents of megacities with populations of over ten million. A megacity consists of the city proper and its adjoining suburban centers. An example is the New York-Newark aggregation, which in 1950 was the world’s only megacity; by 2011, it was the sixth largest of 21 megacities. The population of Greater Tokyo, the world’s largest urban area and home to 36.7 million residents, is forecast to exceed 37 million by 2020.Megaciites Mumbai, Delhi, Dhaka, and Lagos, which do not yet appear on the Top Ten list, are steadily moving up the ladder. About half of the world’s urban dwellers live in cities of under half a million people, and these cities continue to outpace megacities in growth.

While the benefits of developed infrastructure, public transportation system, employment opportunities, better health care, and education, plus a wide range of services, make cities the place to live, work, and enjoy, they are plagued with enormous problems. As engines of growth, cities have also become engines of pollution, traffic congestion, waste production, and environmental destruction….

In the 1960s, the concept of urban ecology emerged from the growing awareness of cities’ impact on the environment. In 1975, the nonprofit organization Urban Ecology was founded in Berkeley, California, with the purpose of rebuilding cities in balance with nature. The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro established Agenda 21, a plan for the sustainable development of cities, and in 2002, 1,200 representatives (including 200 slum dwellers) from 80 countries participated in the first World Urban Forum, making urban ecology and sustainable eco-cities based on environment, economy, education, equity more than just a nice idea.

Question 1

Match each of the following meanings with the corresponding underlined words/phrases in the numbered items below:
(i) Reaching a higher position
(ii) Seriously suffering from
(iii) The absolute best
(iv) Something not very practical
A. “Megacities Mumbai, Delhi, Dhaka, and Lagos, which do not yet appear on the Top Ten list, are steadily moving up the ladder.”
B. “... the benefits of developed infrastructure, public transportation system, employment opportunities, better health care, and education, plus a wide range of services, make cities the place to live, work, and enjoy....”
C. “... they are plagued with enormous problems.”
D. “... making urban ecology and sustainable ecocities based on environment, economy, education, equity more than just a nice idea.

Show Answer Explanation

Instruction for set 1:

Read the following passage and answer the question that follow:

Urbanization - the demographic shift from country to city - began with industrialization, and it has not let up. In 1900, fewer than 15 percent of the world’s population lived in cities. Fifty years later, that number had doubled to 30 percent of the world’s population of 750 million. By 2000, 2.9 billion people, or 47 percent of the world’s population, were living in urban areas, with the greatest growth occurring in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In 2007, for the first time in history, the urban population exceeded 50 percent, and by 2050, according to World Health Organization (WHO), seven out of ten people will call urban areas home….

Contrary to common belief, fewer than 10 percent of urban dwellers are residents of megacities with populations of over ten million. A megacity consists of the city proper and its adjoining suburban centers. An example is the New York-Newark aggregation, which in 1950 was the world’s only megacity; by 2011, it was the sixth largest of 21 megacities. The population of Greater Tokyo, the world’s largest urban area and home to 36.7 million residents, is forecast to exceed 37 million by 2020.Megaciites Mumbai, Delhi, Dhaka, and Lagos, which do not yet appear on the Top Ten list, are steadily moving up the ladder. About half of the world’s urban dwellers live in cities of under half a million people, and these cities continue to outpace megacities in growth.

While the benefits of developed infrastructure, public transportation system, employment opportunities, better health care, and education, plus a wide range of services, make cities the place to live, work, and enjoy, they are plagued with enormous problems. As engines of growth, cities have also become engines of pollution, traffic congestion, waste production, and environmental destruction….

In the 1960s, the concept of urban ecology emerged from the growing awareness of cities’ impact on the environment. In 1975, the nonprofit organization Urban Ecology was founded in Berkeley, California, with the purpose of rebuilding cities in balance with nature. The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro established Agenda 21, a plan for the sustainable development of cities, and in 2002, 1,200 representatives (including 200 slum dwellers) from 80 countries participated in the first World Urban Forum, making urban ecology and sustainable eco-cities based on environment, economy, education, equity more than just a nice idea.

Question 2

Megacities are classified according to __________.

Show Answer Explanation

Instruction for set 1:

Read the following passage and answer the question that follow:

Urbanization - the demographic shift from country to city - began with industrialization, and it has not let up. In 1900, fewer than 15 percent of the world’s population lived in cities. Fifty years later, that number had doubled to 30 percent of the world’s population of 750 million. By 2000, 2.9 billion people, or 47 percent of the world’s population, were living in urban areas, with the greatest growth occurring in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In 2007, for the first time in history, the urban population exceeded 50 percent, and by 2050, according to World Health Organization (WHO), seven out of ten people will call urban areas home….

Contrary to common belief, fewer than 10 percent of urban dwellers are residents of megacities with populations of over ten million. A megacity consists of the city proper and its adjoining suburban centers. An example is the New York-Newark aggregation, which in 1950 was the world’s only megacity; by 2011, it was the sixth largest of 21 megacities. The population of Greater Tokyo, the world’s largest urban area and home to 36.7 million residents, is forecast to exceed 37 million by 2020.Megaciites Mumbai, Delhi, Dhaka, and Lagos, which do not yet appear on the Top Ten list, are steadily moving up the ladder. About half of the world’s urban dwellers live in cities of under half a million people, and these cities continue to outpace megacities in growth.

While the benefits of developed infrastructure, public transportation system, employment opportunities, better health care, and education, plus a wide range of services, make cities the place to live, work, and enjoy, they are plagued with enormous problems. As engines of growth, cities have also become engines of pollution, traffic congestion, waste production, and environmental destruction….

In the 1960s, the concept of urban ecology emerged from the growing awareness of cities’ impact on the environment. In 1975, the nonprofit organization Urban Ecology was founded in Berkeley, California, with the purpose of rebuilding cities in balance with nature. The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro established Agenda 21, a plan for the sustainable development of cities, and in 2002, 1,200 representatives (including 200 slum dwellers) from 80 countries participated in the first World Urban Forum, making urban ecology and sustainable eco-cities based on environment, economy, education, equity more than just a nice idea.

Question 3

Indicate which of the two statements in the following pairs contains a main idea (M) and which contains a supporting details (SD)?
(I) Tokyo is the world’s largest megacity.
(II) Megacities are growing, but not as rapidly as smaller cities.

Show Answer Explanation

Instruction for set 1:

Read the following passage and answer the question that follow:

Urbanization - the demographic shift from country to city - began with industrialization, and it has not let up. In 1900, fewer than 15 percent of the world’s population lived in cities. Fifty years later, that number had doubled to 30 percent of the world’s population of 750 million. By 2000, 2.9 billion people, or 47 percent of the world’s population, were living in urban areas, with the greatest growth occurring in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. In 2007, for the first time in history, the urban population exceeded 50 percent, and by 2050, according to World Health Organization (WHO), seven out of ten people will call urban areas home….

Contrary to common belief, fewer than 10 percent of urban dwellers are residents of megacities with populations of over ten million. A megacity consists of the city proper and its adjoining suburban centers. An example is the New York-Newark aggregation, which in 1950 was the world’s only megacity; by 2011, it was the sixth largest of 21 megacities. The population of Greater Tokyo, the world’s largest urban area and home to 36.7 million residents, is forecast to exceed 37 million by 2020.Megaciites Mumbai, Delhi, Dhaka, and Lagos, which do not yet appear on the Top Ten list, are steadily moving up the ladder. About half of the world’s urban dwellers live in cities of under half a million people, and these cities continue to outpace megacities in growth.

While the benefits of developed infrastructure, public transportation system, employment opportunities, better health care, and education, plus a wide range of services, make cities the place to live, work, and enjoy, they are plagued with enormous problems. As engines of growth, cities have also become engines of pollution, traffic congestion, waste production, and environmental destruction….

In the 1960s, the concept of urban ecology emerged from the growing awareness of cities’ impact on the environment. In 1975, the nonprofit organization Urban Ecology was founded in Berkeley, California, with the purpose of rebuilding cities in balance with nature. The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro established Agenda 21, a plan for the sustainable development of cities, and in 2002, 1,200 representatives (including 200 slum dwellers) from 80 countries participated in the first World Urban Forum, making urban ecology and sustainable eco-cities based on environment, economy, education, equity more than just a nice idea.

Question 4

What does the phrasal verb “let up” means in the first sentence:

Show Answer Explanation

CMAT 2021 Reading Comprehension questions

Question 1

Read the passage and answer the question that follows:

In tough times or in times of a crisis, the democratic nation often becomes an authoritarian one. During ordinary times, nobody thinks about the political system. People just vote for those who make promises and try to keep them. As long as the country is secure and there is reasonable development, no one is bothered about the leaders and the policies. But, if there is some kind of aggressive revolution or a shortage of basic supplies or a lot of unemployed citizens, the leadership comes under question.

Which one of the following statements best describes the central idea of the passage above:

Show Answer Explanation

Instruction for set 1:

Read the given passage and answerthe questionsthat follow.

Education is not only an instrument for enhancingefficiency but also an effective tool of augmenting and widening democratic participation and upgrading the overall quality of individual and society. India has a vast population and to capture the potential demographic dividend to remove the acute regional, social and gender imbalances. the government is committed to make concerted efforts for improving the quality of education as mere quantitative expansion will not deliver the desired results in view of the fast changing domestic and global scenario.

Question 2

High quality education can help the individual to balance between

Show Answer Explanation

Instruction for set 1:

Read the given passage and answerthe questionsthat follow.

Education is not only an instrument for enhancingefficiency but also an effective tool of augmenting and widening democratic participation and upgrading the overall quality of individual and society. India has a vast population and to capture the potential demographic dividend to remove the acute regional, social and gender imbalances. the government is committed to make concerted efforts for improving the quality of education as mere quantitative expansion will not deliver the desired results in view of the fast changing domestic and global scenario.

Question 3

According to the author, education not only enhances the efficiency of the learner, it also

Show Answer Explanation

Instruction for set 1:

Read the given passage and answerthe questionsthat follow.

Education is not only an instrument for enhancingefficiency but also an effective tool of augmenting and widening democratic participation and upgrading the overall quality of individual and society. India has a vast population and to capture the potential demographic dividend to remove the acute regional, social and gender imbalances. the government is committed to make concerted efforts for improving the quality of education as mere quantitative expansion will not deliver the desired results in view of the fast changing domestic and global scenario.

Question 4

Mere quantitative expression of education doesn't deliver the desired results, because

Show Answer Explanation

Instruction for set 2:

Read the Passage below and answer the question that follows:

Human beings are connected at the level of feeling and emotion: in such a degree that there is practically a subterranean network of the psyche in which some encounters are damaging, some nourishing. This emotional exchange is typically at a subtle. almost imperceptible level. The way a colleague says ‘thank you’ can leave one feeling ignored, resented or genuinely welcomed and appreciated. We catch feelings from one another as though they were some kind of social virus. Every space is full of emotional signals and every time people connect, they transmit and receive those signals. These emotional encounters have an effect on all the people in that particular circle. Those who are socially skillful can control these emotional messages. A civil and polite society is able to regulate and control these emotional relationships in less damaging ways. The Emotional Quotient of a society is the sum total of the emotional intelligence of its citizens. When we compliment others for being considerate, we are actually acknowledging their emotional intelligence. The company of such people is a relaxing experience and they are a valuable and enriching presence in any society. Whether we like it or not, we are all interdependent in terms of our feelings and emotions and our emotional intelligence form the framework of society.

Question 5

The authorfeels that when we meet people some meetings can be

Show Answer Explanation

Instruction for set 2:

Read the Passage below and answer the question that follows:

Human beings are connected at the level of feeling and emotion: in such a degree that there is practically a subterranean network of the psyche in which some encounters are damaging, some nourishing. This emotional exchange is typically at a subtle. almost imperceptible level. The way a colleague says ‘thank you’ can leave one feeling ignored, resented or genuinely welcomed and appreciated. We catch feelings from one another as though they were some kind of social virus. Every space is full of emotional signals and every time people connect, they transmit and receive those signals. These emotional encounters have an effect on all the people in that particular circle. Those who are socially skillful can control these emotional messages. A civil and polite society is able to regulate and control these emotional relationships in less damaging ways. The Emotional Quotient of a society is the sum total of the emotional intelligence of its citizens. When we compliment others for being considerate, we are actually acknowledging their emotional intelligence. The company of such people is a relaxing experience and they are a valuable and enriching presence in any society. Whether we like it or not, we are all interdependent in terms of our feelings and emotions and our emotional intelligence form the framework of society.

Question 6

The company of what kind of people is relaxing?

Show Answer Explanation

Instruction for set 3:

Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow.

Our government has taken/ propose a number of major initiatives during the eleventh Five Year Plan. Some of the new initiative in the school and literacy sector and higher and technical education sector include : right of children to free and compulsory education, launching a Saakshar Bharat, ICT in secondary school and in open and distance learning. evolving a national curriculum framework for teacher education, examination reform in accordance with NCF- 2005, introducing a system of replacement of marks by grades at the secondary stage in school affiliated to CBSE. recommendation of Yash Pal Committee and National Knowledge Commission, establishment of 14 innovation Universities aiming at world class standards, setting up 10 new national institutes of technology. launching of new scheme of interest. subsidy on educational loan taken for professional courses by the economically weaker students, scheme for setting up of 374 model degree colleges in districts, 150 women’s hostels for women of weaker sections and minorities, academic reforms like semester system, choice based credit system, regular revision of syllabi, impetus to research etc.

Question 7

The free and compulsory education bill of the eleventh Five Year Plan is a major initiative towards

Show Answer Explanation

Instruction for set 3:

Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow.

Our government has taken/ propose a number of major initiatives during the eleventh Five Year Plan. Some of the new initiative in the school and literacy sector and higher and technical education sector include : right of children to free and compulsory education, launching a Saakshar Bharat, ICT in secondary school and in open and distance learning. evolving a national curriculum framework for teacher education, examination reform in accordance with NCF- 2005, introducing a system of replacement of marks by grades at the secondary stage in school affiliated to CBSE. recommendation of Yash Pal Committee and National Knowledge Commission, establishment of 14 innovation Universities aiming at world class standards, setting up 10 new national institutes of technology. launching of new scheme of interest. subsidy on educational loan taken for professional courses by the economically weaker students, scheme for setting up of 374 model degree colleges in districts, 150 women’s hostels for women of weaker sections and minorities, academic reforms like semester system, choice based credit system, regular revision of syllabi, impetus to research etc.

Question 8

Technical education is encouraged by our government by the introduction of

Show Answer Explanation

Instruction for set 3:

Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow.

Our government has taken/ propose a number of major initiatives during the eleventh Five Year Plan. Some of the new initiative in the school and literacy sector and higher and technical education sector include : right of children to free and compulsory education, launching a Saakshar Bharat, ICT in secondary school and in open and distance learning. evolving a national curriculum framework for teacher education, examination reform in accordance with NCF- 2005, introducing a system of replacement of marks by grades at the secondary stage in school affiliated to CBSE. recommendation of Yash Pal Committee and National Knowledge Commission, establishment of 14 innovation Universities aiming at world class standards, setting up 10 new national institutes of technology. launching of new scheme of interest. subsidy on educational loan taken for professional courses by the economically weaker students, scheme for setting up of 374 model degree colleges in districts, 150 women’s hostels for women of weaker sections and minorities, academic reforms like semester system, choice based credit system, regular revision of syllabi, impetus to research etc.

Question 9

In order to ensure all round development in the field of education our government should take steps towards

Show Answer Explanation

Instruction for set 3:

Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow.

Our government has taken/ propose a number of major initiatives during the eleventh Five Year Plan. Some of the new initiative in the school and literacy sector and higher and technical education sector include : right of children to free and compulsory education, launching a Saakshar Bharat, ICT in secondary school and in open and distance learning. evolving a national curriculum framework for teacher education, examination reform in accordance with NCF- 2005, introducing a system of replacement of marks by grades at the secondary stage in school affiliated to CBSE. recommendation of Yash Pal Committee and National Knowledge Commission, establishment of 14 innovation Universities aiming at world class standards, setting up 10 new national institutes of technology. launching of new scheme of interest. subsidy on educational loan taken for professional courses by the economically weaker students, scheme for setting up of 374 model degree colleges in districts, 150 women’s hostels for women of weaker sections and minorities, academic reforms like semester system, choice based credit system, regular revision of syllabi, impetus to research etc.

Question 10

The overall Idea behind the passage is

Show Answer Explanation

Instruction for set 4:

Read the passage and answerthe question thatfollows:

The human body is nothing but a set of chemical reactions in some form or the other. The religious scriptures believe that man was made out of the image of the creator of the universe. Does this mean that Oxygen was pumped into the human body and carbon dioxide pumped out to create this being? Is life just the process of oxygenation and decarburization? If the human body is managed by these two processes, then we can safely believe that life came into existence due to these chemical reactions. The highly complex chemicals compounds present in the human body are not evident in lower animals or plants. These substances were born because of the synthesis of other smaller molecules.

A large number of recognized chemicals has been observed and provedto be involved in the transmission of impulses from one tissue or cell to another. Some examples of such chemicals are adrenaline, dopamine, acetylcholine, endorphins and encephalin. The increase or decrease of any one of these chemicals, interferes with the normal functioning of cells and tissues. This creates diseases in the body, and the restoration of their supply cures the diseases. The deficiency of acetylcholine leads to Alzheimer’s disease, while a decrease in dopamine leads to Parkinson’s disease and its increase causes schizophrenia, a mental disorder. Endorphins and encephalon work like a drug to produce sensations like pleasure and reduce pain. In depressed persons, lower levels of serotonin and adrenaline are observed. Exercise and meditation help release endorphins in order to produce a scene of calmness and pleasure. As for love, the brain releases a chemical substance called phenyl ethylene which acts like an amphetamineto increase mental alertness and physical energy. People with low levels of these chemicals develop a craving for foods such as chocolates, which are rich in such compounds.

Question 11

Which one of the words given below can be used in place of ‘a mental disorder’ as used in the passage?

Show Answer Explanation
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