A Study found that music therapy sessions have a positive effect on the neurorehabilitation of acute stroke patients. The research was carried out on a 26-bed stroke and rehabilitation unit at a hospital in the UK. In total, 177 patients took part in 675 Neurologic Music Therapy (NMT) sessions over a two-year period. According to the researchers, music therapy is understood to help stroke patients through mood regulation, improved concentration and promoting changes in the brain to improve function, known as neural reorganisation. Lots of repetition or "massed practice", is central to neurorehabilitation. In addition to playing physical instruments (keyboard, drum and hand-held percussion), touch screen instruments were used in the trial to help patients with hand rehabilitation, through improving finger dexterity, and cognitive training.

NMT sessions were run along side existing stroke rehabilitation treatment including physiotherapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, and clinical psychology. Of the 139 patients, relatives and hospital staff who completed mood-scale questionnaires, the average response was that NMT was helpful or very helpful. And of the 52 patients who completed mood-scale questionnaire, there was a reduction in sadness and an increase in happy responses immediately following a session. Speech and language the-rapists observed a positive impact on patient engagement and reported that it may help patients overcome low mood and fatigue - both common following stroke - and therefore be beneficial for their rehabilitation.

"The fact 675 session were carried out in two years is in itself an indication of the success of the treatment. It shows that staff are referring patients because they understand the mechanisms of the exercise and can see how it can benefit their patients. It also shows that patients are willing to do the exercises, with each one participating in an average of five sessions", a researcher said.

Question 191

What was the duration of the research experiment?

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