Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow.

Though the US prides itself on being a leader in the World community, a recent report shows that it lags far behind other industrialised countries in meeting the needs of its youngest and most vulnerable citizens. The US has a higher infant mortality rate, a higher proportion of low birth weight babies, a smaller proportion of babies immunised against childhood diseases and a much higher rate of adolescent pregnancies. These findings, described as a ‘quiet crisis' requiring immediate and far reaching action, appeared in a report prepared by a task force of educators, doctors, politicians and business people.

According to the report, a fourth of the nation's 12 million infants and toddlers live in poverty. As many as half confront risk factors that could harm their ability to develop intellectually, physically and socially. Child immunisations are too low, more children are born into poverty, more are in substandard care, while their parents work and more are being raised by single parents. When taken together, these and other risk factors can lead to educational and health problems that are much harder and costlier to reverse.

The crisis begins in the womb with unplanned parenthood. Women with unplanned pregnancies are less likely to seek pre-natal care. In the US, 80% of teenage pregnancies and 56% of all pregnancies are unplanned. The problems continue after birth, where unplanned pregnancies and unstable partnerships often go hand in hand. Since 1950, the number of single parent families has nearly tripled. More than 25% of all births today are to unmarried mothers, As the number of single parent families grows and more women enter the work force, infants and toddlers are increasingly in the care of people other than their parents. Most disturbingly, recent statistics show that American parents are increasingly neglecting or abusing their children. In only four years from 1987-1991, the number of children in foster care increased by over 50%. Babies under the age of one are the fastest growing category of children entering foster care. This crisis affects children under the age of three most severely, the report says. Yet, it is this period - from infancy through preschool years - that sets the stage for a child's future.

Question 1

Which of the following statements best summarises what the author is trying to do in this passage?

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Question 2

Which of the following sets of words does NOT capture the main ideas expressed in the passage?

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Question 3

Which of the following is NOT an instance of the ‘quiet crisis' referred to in the passage?

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Question 4

All of the following statements can be inferred from the passage, EXCEPT:

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Question 5

Which of the following would NOT be a measure suggested by the task force?

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Read the given passage and answer the question that follows.

We live in a networked world. The internet is built for sharing things at little to no cost. We forward our emails, capture photos on cellphones and tweet opinions, all activities that leave a trail of data that can be collected without our knowledge. Privacy — the right to be free from unwanted intrusion — no longer exists in an absolute sense.

Regulating tech companies could create problems worse than the ones we seek to solve. The biggest companies — led by Facebook, Amazon, Netflix and Google in the United States . . . have all become both hugely profitable and vital to the global economy. The Department of Labor estimates that employment in the computer and information technology sectors in the United States will grow 12 percent from 2016 to 2026, much faster than the average for all occupations. The companies also provide income to millions of non-employees, including Airbnb hosts, Instagram influencers, eBay sellers, and Uber and Lyft drivers. If we constrict their fuel — data — we may hurt not only the quality, cost and speed of their services, but also the drivers of growth for the world’s economy.

Innovation will also suffer. Our culture celebrates entrepreneurship and accepts failure as part of the process. As a result, the United States has been the architect of the new economy. But privacy evangelists have made villains of the very companies the world emulates. Rather than debate how to expand this economic opportunity, they call for fettering it. The evangelists assert that regulating access to data or breaking up big companies will put that data back in our control. But this is naive. We share our photos, emails and other personal data daily. Almost any individual or company, big or small, can collect and misuse it. Size doesn't make a difference.

If safety is the actual goal of protecting privacy, consider this: Large tech companies may be our best line of defense against hackers, state surveillance and terrorists. These companies have the talent and resources to match well-funded and sophisticated adversaries. As the threat of cyberwarfare grows, shouldn't we consider whether it would be prudent to break up companies that are our best allies against foreign and criminal intrusion? . .. Consumers, on the other hand, potentially can have more influence over these companies. When those companies violate the public's trust, the news travels fast — often on the platforms themselves — and people stop visiting the sites, causing them to lose revenue. .. . If we untether ourselves from the old paradigms, we can open our minds to real solutions to expand opportunity and innovation while ensuring our safety. Where privacy is actually the issue, our laws should focus on deterring companies, institutions and individuals from misusing data to cause actual harms, such as slander, harassment, human trafficking, discrimination, fraud and corruption.

The big tech companies are neither heroes nor villains in this narrative. They create jobs and render certain jobs obsolete. . . . Progress is a messy business. Instead of trying to preserve what was, let's realistically debate the world we want.

Question 6

The author lists all of the following arguments to refute the claims that “privacy evangelists" make about big tech companies EXCEPT:

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Question 7

All of the following have been suggested as ways to tackle the infringement of data privacy EXCEPT:

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Question 8

In the first paragraph, the author:

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Question 9

he author makes all of the following observations regarding restricting data access EXCEPT:

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Question 10

The author cites all of the following benefits from today's big technology companies EXCEPT:

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