PGDBA 2018


In each of the questions a word has been used in sentences in four different ways. Choose the option corresponding to the sentence in which the usage of the word is incorrect or inappropriate.

Question 1


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Question 2


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Arrange the sentences in the most logical order to form a coherent paragraph. From the given options (A, B, C, D) choose the appropriate sequence.

Question 3

i. Big Tobacco is doing nothing illegal by producing and marketing cigarettes.
ii. Even so, regulators weighing up how to treat safer alternatives to cigarettes are often too harsh.
iii. No wonder people are cynical when they hear tobacco bosses evangelise about e-cigarettes.
iv. The industry has an inglorious history of lying about the effects of cigarettes on human health.

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Question 4

i. The data came from the UK Biobank, which contains genetic and medical data from half a million people.
ii. Intriguingly, this analysis suggests genetic contributions to intelligence and educational achievement are currently disfavoured by natural selection.
iii. Positive correlation means an association with successful reproduction; negative one means exactly the opposite.
iv. A study just published uses a new statistical method to examine how genetic contributions to certain human traits such as intelligence correlate With how many children a person has.

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Question 5

i. I am confident that you gentlemen will review without passion the evidence you have heard come to a decision, and restore this defendant to his family.
ii. I'm no idealist to believe firmly in the integrity of our courts and in the jury system that iS no ideal to me, it is a living, working reality.
iii. A court is only as sound as its jury, and a jury is only as sound as the men who make it up.
iv. Gentlemen, a court is no better than each man of you sitting before me on this jury.

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Read the passage and choose the most appropriate answer for the question that follow.

In my research on leadership transitions, I have observed that career advances require all of us to move way beyond our comfort zones. At the same time, however, they trigger a strong countervailing impulse to protect our identities: When we are unsure of ourselves or our ability to perform well or measure up in a new setting, we often retreat to familiar behaviors and styles.

But my research also demonstrates that the moments that most challenge our sense of self are the ones that can teach us the most about leading effectively. By viewing ourselves as works in progress and evolving our professional identities through trial and error, we can develop a personal style that feels right to us and suits our organizations’ changing needs.

That takes courage, because learning, by definition, starts with unnatural and often superficial behaviors that can make us feel calculating instead of genuine and spontaneous. But the only way to avoid being pigeonholed and ultimately become better leaders is to do the things that a rigidly authentic sense of self would keep us from doing.

The word “authentic” traditionally referred to any work of art that is an original, not a copy. When used to describe leadership, of course, it has other meanings—and they can be problematic. For example, the notion of adhering to one “true self” flies in the face of much research on how people evolve with experience, discovering facets of themselves they would never have unearthed through introspection alone. And being utterly transparent—disclosing every single thought and feeling—is both unrealistic and risky.

Question 6

From the passage, we can infer that

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Question 7

The term "work in progress" in the passage, refers to

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Question 8

For the author, a leadership transition requires a manager to

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Question 9

The most appropriate title for this passage would be

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Read the passage and choose appropriate answer for the questions that follow.

As rough sleeping rises nationally, the exact scale of the crisis remains hare to capture. The official data shows that in England, rough sleeping has risen for six years in a row, The latest figures estimated that 4,134 people bedded down outside in 2016, up 16%on the previous year. Though London remains the centre of rough sleeping, accounting for 23% of the national total (and in Westminster, with 260 rough sleepers, the highest numberof cases), the rate is increasing much faster outside the capital, in faces such as Brighton, Manchester and Birmingham.

Each winter across the country, council’send teamsof volunteers to conduct night-time counts of all the rough sleepers in the borough to assess how acute the problem is, Recent counts in the homelessness hotspots of Cambridge and Hackney, east London, the problem is evolving.

“This is their bedroom yasare entering. Be respectful of tha warned the organiser of the Cambridge count, before teams set out to count rough sleepers in the historic centre in early Friday. For bedroom, read shop doorway, church graveyard, or multi-storey car park - anywherein the cold night air where a street sleeper might hopeto find a yard or two of dry shelter and, if they are lucky, a degree of privacy.

At 3 am, as the last of the evening's city-centre revellers are going home, the teams set out. This is the time when rough sleepers considerit safe enough and sufficiently quiet to bed down. Dotted alonga line of shops on a main shopping street were several people in brightly coloured sleeping bags in doorways, surrounded by the paraphernalia of street life: plastic bags stuffed with belongings, cardboard under sheets to insulate them from the cold, the odd halfempty wine bottle.

There are strict definitions of what constitutes a rough sleeper for the purposes people must hp sleeping, about to bed down or bedded down on the of mount:doorways, parks, tents, bus shelters, cars, barns, sheds and other street' i" not designed for habitation. Homeless people who are resident in hostels Or sheers on places the night in question are not counted. The count is not a precise science: bad weather can depress the figures; counters can miss rough sleepers if they are well hidden; regular sleepers may by chance spend the night elsewhere. Good housing support services, too, can have a positive effect in reducing the numbers.

As the main city within a large rural area, and one with good homelessness provision such as hostels, Cambridge has always acted as a magnet for rough sleepers. Relationship breakdown and substance abuse remain important triggers of homelessness. But increasingly other factors have come into play, not least poverty: the lack of affordable housing, high rents and unstable tenancies, housing benefit cuts, and precarious incomes caused by the rise of zero-hours working.

Exactly how bad the problem has got is a matter for debate. Between October and the end of November each year, every English local authority is required to submit snapshot estimates of the number of people sleeping out on a specified night.

Question 10

The term 'rough sleeping', as used in this passage refers to

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