Read the following passage carefully and then answer these questions based on what is stated or implied in the passage.
Passage I :
We call a man irrational when he acts in a passion, when he cuts off his nose to spite his face. He is irrational because he forgets that, by indulging the desire which he happensto feel moststrongly at the moment, he will thwart other desires which in the long run are more important to him. If men were rational, they would take a more correct view of their own interest than they do at present; and if all men acted from enlightened self-interest the world would be a paradise in comparison with whatit is. | do not maintain that there is nothing better than self-interest as a motive to action; but I do maintain that self-interest, like altruism, is better when it is enlightened than when it is
unenlightened. In an ordered communityit is very rarely to a man's interest to do anything which is very harmful to others. The less rational a man is, the oftener he will fail to perceive how what injures others also injures him, because hatred or envy will blind him. Therefore, although I do not pretend that enlightened self-interest is the highest morality, I do maintain that, if it became common, it would make the world an immeasurably better place than it is.
Rationality in practice may be defined as the habit of rememberingall our relevant desires, and not only the one which happens at the momentto be strongest. Like rationality in opinion, it is a matter of degree. Complete rationality is no doubt an unattainable ideal, but so long as we continue to classify some men as lunatics it is clear that we think some men morerational than others. I believe that all solid progress in the world consists of an increase in rationality, both practical and theoretical. To preach an altruistic morality appears to me somewhat useless, because it will appeal only to those who already have altruistic desires. But to preach rationality is some what different, since rationality helps us to realise our own desires on the whole, whatever they may be. A man is rational in proportion as his intelligence informs and controls his desires. I believe that the control of our acts by our intelligence is ultimately what is of most importance, and that alone will make social life remain possible as science increases the means at our disposal for injuring each other. Education, the press, politics, religion—in a word, all the great forces in the world—areat present on the sideofirrationality, they are in the hands of men who flatter King Demosin orderto
lead him astray. The remedy doesnot lie in anything heroically cataclysmic, but in the efforts of individuals towards a more sane and balanced view of our relations to our neighbours and to the world. It is to intelligence, increasingly side-spread, that we must look for the solution of the ills from which our world is suffering.
What is the central idea of the passage ?
What is the author's attitude to modern development in science and communications ?
Rationality, according to the passage means mainly
The author feels thatit is impractical to appeal to altruism because
The King Demos'refers to
Read the following passage carefully and then answer these questions based on it.
Passage II :
Over four hundred years after his death, scholars are still travelling the mysteries of Michelangelo's art. Recently one mystery that was revealed was that his famous drawing of a pensive Cleopatra included a hidden drawing of a different Cleopatra on the reverse side. This hidden Cleopatra shows a tormented woman, whose eyes stare out at the viewer and whose mouth is open, screaming in horror. The two images, drawn on two sides of the same paper, can be viewed simultaneously. A second mystery concerns Michelangelo's architectural plan for the dome of St Peter's Basilica in Rome. Did he intend for the dome to look like the model he built between 1558 and 15617? Or did he change his mind after building the model and decide to elevate the dome in the way it is today? Scholars do not agree on the answer. A third mystery about one of the greatest artists who ever .lived was why he destroyed hundreds or thousands of his drawings before he died. Did he feel they were unimportant? Did he want posterity to see only his finished products?
It can be inferred from the passage that the most unusual aspect of the Cleopatra drawingis that
The word ‘pensive’ (underlined) can best be substituted with the word
The dome of St Peter's Basilica
According to the passage, Michelangelo is
Why did Michelangelo destroy so many drawings before he died?