Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

The value of socialization through sports has long been recognized, which is one reason for state support of physical education in the schools and adult-organized children’s sports programs. The effects of sports socialization, however, are not always what the socializers expect. They are in fact quite controversial. From the mid-19th to the early 21st century, sports were alleged to train young athletes in self-discipline, teamwork, leadership, and other highly prized traits and behaviours. Empirical research has shown that involvement in sports can also inculcate a socially destructive desire to win at all costs. Depending on the values of the socializing agents, sports can encourage young people to play fairly or to cheat. The evidence suggests that the propensity to cheat increases with age and the level of competition.

Another important aspect of the experience of sports is emotion, the feelings that reflect athletes’ self-evaluation or expectation of their performance and their perception of others’ evaluations and expectations. Some of the feelings expressed are anticipatory, prior to performing. Pregame “butterflies in the stomach” are as familiar to an athlete as stage fright is to an actor. Other feelings occur during and after the performance. All these feelings are “scripted” by the subculture of the sport in question. These scripts, or “feeling rules,” guide athletes as they manage their emotions, prompting, for instance, appropriate behaviour during pregame renditions of national anthems or during postgame victory celebrations. Norms for the display of emotions vary widely among sports. Rugby players and boxers are permitted to express their feelings with ostentatious displays that are impermissible for golfers and sumo wrestlers. The importance of the contest is another variable influencing the emotions involved. Exhibition matches evoke less-intense feelings than football’s World Cup championship game.

The orchestration of emotions in sports begins with the arousal of expectations, provoking a diffuse emotional state that is then directed into a series of discrete and identifiable emotional displays. In other words, competitors become “psyched up.” In elite sports, players have already internalized the scripts that coaches call upon them to rehearse immediately before the contest and to adhere to during the contest. It is not, however, just the players who experience this scripting. Drawing upon fans’ previous experiences, media pundits and other “stage setters” also contribute to the management of the fans’ emotions. Cues provided by the stage setters prompt fans to express a variety of emotions throughout a game. These emotions range from passionate identification with one’s representative team and with one’s fellow fans to hatred for the opposing team and its misguided supporters. Fans feel despair when an idolized player is injured; they feel ecstasy when a last-minute goal transforms humiliating defeat into triumphant victory.

While there may be a scripting or an orchestration of the emotions, individuals vary in the degree to which they internalize and follow scripts. Despite such individual variations, rules do structure the emotional experience of sports subcultures. These emotional processes, which help define roles of players, coaches, and fans, also help forge the link between sports and national identity

Question 100

Which of the following does the author NOT suggest as an emotion that fans are orchestrated to experience?


The author does not suggest "fright" as an emotion that fans are orchestrated to experience. The passage does not mention or imply that fans are intentionally orchestrated to experience fear or fright as part of their emotional engagement with sports. The passage mainly focuses on the emotions of athletes and how they are socialized into feeling rules, while briefly mentioning the emotions of fans in the context of collective effervescence and emotional contagion. The emotions mentioned in the passage in relation to fans are despair, ecstasy, and hatred, but not fright.

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