The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.


The Chinese have two different concepts of a copy. Fangzhipin . . . are imitations where the difference from the original is obvious. These are small models or copies that can be purchased in a museum shop, for example. The second concept for a copy is fuzhipin . . . They are exact reproductions of the original, which, for the Chinese, are of equal value to the original. It has absolutely no negative connotations. The discrepancy with regard to the understanding of what a copy is has often led to misunderstandings and arguments between China and Western museums. The Chinese often send copies abroad instead of originals, in the firm belief that they are not essentially different from the originals. The rejection that then comes from the Western museums is perceived by the Chinese as an insult. . . .

The Far Eastern notion of identity is also very confusing to the Western observer. The Ise Grand Shrine [in Japan] is 1,300 years old for the millions of Japanese people who go there on pilgrimage every year. But in reality this temple complex is completely rebuilt from scratch every 20 years. . . .

The cathedral of Freiburg Minster in southwest Germany is covered in scaffolding almost all year round. The sandstone from which it is built is a very soft, porous material that does not withstand natural erosion by rain and wind. After a while, it crumbles. As a result, the cathedral is continually being examined for damage, and eroded stones are replaced. And in the cathedral’s dedicated workshop, copies of the damaged sandstone figures are constantly being produced. Of course, attempts are made to preserve the stones from the Middle Ages for as long as possible. But at some point they, too, are removed and replaced with new stones.

Fundamentally, this is the same operation as with the Japanese shrine, except in this case the production of a replica takes place very slowly and over long periods of time. . . . In the field of art as well, the idea of an unassailable original developed historically in the Western world. Back in the 17th century [in the West], excavated artworks from antiquity were treated quite differently from today. They were not restored in a way that was faithful to the original. Instead, there was massive intervention in these works, changing their appearance. . . .

It is probably this intellectual position that explains why Asians have far fewer scruples about cloning than Europeans. The South Korean cloning researcher Hwang Woo-suk, who attracted worldwide attention with his cloning experiments in 2004, is a Buddhist. He found a great deal of support and followers among Buddhists, while Christians called for a ban on human cloning. . . . Hwang legitimised his cloning experiments with his religious affiliation: ‘I am Buddhist, and I have no philosophical problem with cloning. And as you know, the basis of Buddhism is that life is recycled through reincarnation. In some ways, I think, therapeutic cloning restarts the circle of life.’

Question 5

Based on the passage, which one of the following copies would a Chinese museum be unlikely to consider as having less value than the original?


The passage discusses cultural differences in the concept of a copy and the value placed on originality, particularly in relation to art and religious buildings. In China, copies (fuzhipin) are considered to be of equal value to the original and do not carry negative connotations, while in the Western world, the idea of an unassailable original has historically held more importance. This difference in perspective has led to misunderstandings and tensions between China and Western museums when Chinese museums send copies abroad. 

Based on the above, a Chinese museum would be unlikely to consider Option B [Pablo Picasso's painting of Vincent van Gogh's original painting, identical in every respect] as having less value than the original. This is because the Chinese concept of a copy (fuzhipin) refers to exact reproductions of the original that are considered to be of equal value to the original and do not carry negative connotations. Contrarily, Option A - a painting of Vincent van Gogh's original painting by Pablo Picasso with Picasso's signature - would not be considered a fuzhipin as it is not an exact reproduction of the original and bears the signature of a different artist. Similarly, Options C and D would also not be considered a fuzhipin since they are not an exact reproduction of the original [but merely different versions/formats].

Hence, Option B is the correct choice.

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