Question 20

The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

For nearly a century most psychologists have embraced one view of intelligence. Individuals are born with more or less intelligence potential (I.Q.); this potential is heavily influenced by heredity and difficult to alter; experts in measurement can determine a person’s intelligence early in life, currently from paper-and-pencil measures, perhaps eventually from examining the brain in action or even scrutinizing his/her genome. Recently, criticism of this conventional wisdom has mounted. Biologists ask if speaking of a single entity called “intelligence” is coherent and question the validity of measures used to estimate heritability of a trait in humans, who, unlike plants or animals, are not conceived and bred under controlled conditions.


The paragraph highlights the following:

1. The validity of the ubiquitous perspective held by psychologists {of intelligence being a measurable, unalterable entity that is greatly influenced by heredity} is now being questioned by biologists.

2. The dubiety concerning the aspect of intelligence being hereditary {given the fact that "humans, who, unlike plants or animals, are not conceived and bred under controlled conditions."}

Thus, a statement capturing these elements is bound to be the answer. Option A aptly encompasses these two key points.

Option B: Calling the widely -held perspective as conventional wisdom would be inappropriate. Additionally, the statement here fails to capture point (2).

Option C: Although close, it misses out on the second half of the discussion.

Option D: This option might appear confusing, given that it touches upon both the key elements. However, it is unspecific and comes across as a bit odd {"ways in which what is inherited" doesn't make sense}. Between Options A and D, A is definitely the better choice.

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