Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

 The COVID-19 pandemic will have significant financial implications for most communities around the world. We now have a global opportunity to declare war on climate change and to link our efforts to sustainable growth. Take the aviation industry as an example. For historic reasons, international air travel - along with the maritime industry - has not been part of government-led international emission reduction agreements such as the first Earth Summit in Rio in 1992 and the Paris agreement. Efforts are being made to change this through the International Civil Aviation Organization, and hopefully the industry's targets will align with the Paris agreement.

However, the efforts by the aviation sector to reduce emissions are still largely voluntary - despite good intentions from the industry. And now with the industry grounded - some airlines have, at least temporarily, reduced their capacity by as much as 85% - there is an opportunity for governments and airlines to cooperate on the projects that might change the industry, and to explore a world beyond what they could have imagined before the coronavirus.

We need to link financial aid packages with requirements for the development of zero- emission flight that for instance are powered sustainably - by electrofuels, for example - over time. The key to regulating well is not to decide on the type of fuel or design we want by law, but to make financial support and legislation conditional on the required amount of emission reductions or other such long-term goals that tie into a cleaner and healthier world. And we should be sure to make our response both design and technology agnostic. Any relevant law or policy should set goals, and then allow designers and engineers to create the innovations that will make a difference.

Financial stimuli across all sectors and industries must be purposed with creating a better world - one in which shareholder value isn't the only driver. Rescue measures should come with conditions attached; the French government's bailout of Air France is a good example. The rescue must be designed in such a way as to serve both public and planetary interests over the long term. Stimuli should be designed to reward value creation instead of value extraction by encouraging investment in sustainable growth and the reduction of carbon footprints. We must invest in design-led innovation so that the return on public investment is for the greater good.

Design innovation is already pushing boundaries in some sectors without stimuli, with an added benefit for the planet. Just look at how social distancing policies have sparked a virtual revolution; already, international companies are starting to step up the use of online meetings and collaboration. If we make it a part of our long-term work culture, we may in the future save ourselves many unnecessary day trips by plane.

Question 93

Which of the following does NOT reflect the author's perspective?


In the third and fourth paragraphs, the author mentions the need for financial aid for the aviation sector for implementing sustainable measures.

In the last paragraph, the author states the importance of design thinking and the major role it could play.

In the third paragraph, the author states that any new law or policy should set goals.

Nowhere in the paragraph does the author mention the coronavirus pandemic being a blessing.

Hence, the answer is option C.

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