XAT 2011 Question 30

Instructions

Answer questions on the basis of the following conversation between two friends, Paradox (P) and Herodox (H)

P: The human body is but the tomb of the soul and the visible world of matter is appearance that must be overcome if we are to know reality. The former is an integral part of “being”, that which can neither come into existence nor cease to exist for it always is. Being is unmoved and undistributed. Motion and disturbance belong to the realm of “becoming”, the changing world of unreality rather than of “being” in which true reality resides. Further, motion & change by belonging to the realm of “becoming” by having no separate existence of their own are logically inconsistent with reality and hence, unworthy of serious study.

H: All things are in a state of perpetual flux. Permanence, and by extension, the concept of “being” is only an illusion. This change and continual transformation, through an often disorderly process of conflict and survival of the fittest, is the underlying principle at work in the universe. It is from this principle that all things come into existence, and forms the basis for the morals and governance patterns that attempt to preserve the social thread of societies. By extension, the study of human activity through the lens of an idealized state of “being” and as a basis for formulating moral codes of conduct is inappropriate at best.

Question 30

Which of the following statements could be considered as logically consistent with the views of paradox in the above paragraphs?
i. A fly travelling on a flying arrow perceives it to be at rest. Therefore the flying arrow belongs to the realm of being.
ii. The activities of the day to day life are concerned with the unreal part of human existence and hence, should not be subject to moral standards.
iii. Maintaining a balance among the various constituents of society is essential to the well - being and the continuing existence of the soul.
iv. Conflicts and the coming of spontaneous order do not have any underlying causes that are relevant for study as the notion of perpetual flux itself is erroneous.
v. The real is and cannot be non - existent. Further, reality is one and unique.

Solution

According to Paradox, it has been mentioned that motion and disturbance belong to the realm of "becoming" and not that of "being". The flying arrow cannot belong to realm of being by virtue of its motion. Also there is no mention about "moral standards" and "maintaining balance of the society". Hence i,ii and iii are inconsistent with the view of paradox.
Statements iv and v concurs well with the words of Paradox because according to him, there is no separate existence of change and hence it's study is irrelevant.
Hence, option C is the correct answer.



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