Read the following passage and answer the THREE questions that follow.

Corporations continue to ignore the threat of global warming, probably because global warming is a hyper-object, very difficult to touch and feel. Because hyper-objects have much wider time-space boundaries than human beings, we tend to consider hyper-objects as given and non-existent. Therefore, it is very difficult to deal with hyper-objects as their common understanding is lacking. Some of us continue to believe that global warming is blown out of proportion-it is not a serious threat. Even those who understood hyper-objects have yet to figure out right response to them.

The lack of understanding and response from corporations to “climate change” is evident from the fact that most of businesses have remained largely human-centric. Some businesses have adopted green practices- voluntarily, or involuntary. These efforts attempt to reduce emissions through better energy efficiency. Though laudable, the efforts have failed to make any significant dent at the global level; the planet continues to get warmer. Moreover, most of the efforts are still in the sphere of “business as usual” and “what is good for us”.

Business as usual, the current model of economic production and distribution is deeply flawed as it is based mainly on the capitalistic ethos of free-market legitimized through private property, competition, and unlimited consumption. The word “free” has come to mean that there are no constraints on individuals, and the word market has come to mean that buying and selling are the primary mechanisms, and everything is a transaction. Private property gives individuals/nations a chance to create legal rights to own more and more, subject to very little constraints. It is evident in income inequalities witnessed across the world. The very notion of ownership is control-oriented and human-centric that promotes unlimited extraction from environment, hyper-nationalism, and hyper-individualism. The extraction and exploitation of the environment has served our economic interests, and led to the growth and survival of businesses. However, it has also led to the destruction of environment. Global warming is the response of nature to human actions driven by businesses operating on the principles of surplus, predictability, control, hyper-rationality, linearity, and quantification. In other words, “business as usual” has yet to dance to the rhythm of nature.

Question 21

According to the passage, which of the following will be closest to the idea of hyper-object?


Option D is the correct answer because it aligns with the concept of a hyper-object as described in the passage. A hyper-object is characterized by extensive time-space boundaries that are challenging for humans to fully comprehend. The changing orbit of the Earth over centuries involves a broad time-scale and complex spatial dynamics, making it closer to the idea of a hyper-object compared to the other options.

Option A involves a cyclical and relatively more immediate phenomenon, not reflecting the extensive time-space boundaries associated with hyper-objects.

Option B is a more localized cause-and-effect relationship, lacking the complexity and broader scope of a hyper-object.

Option C represents a specific cause-and-effect scenario within a limited context, not meeting the criteria of a hyper-object.

Option E involves a specific and relatively more immediate technological contribution, not encompassing the extensive time-space boundaries characteristic of hyper-objects.

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