Read the following passage and answer the THREE questions that follow.

Interpretation in our own time, however, is even more complex. For the contemporary zeal for the project of interpretation is often prompted not by piety toward the troublesome text (which may conceal an aggression), but by an open aggressiveness, an overt contempt for appearances. The old style of interpretation was insistent, but respectful; it erected another meaning on top of the literal one. The modern style of interpretation excavates, and as it excavates, destroys; it digs “behind” the text, to find a sub-text which is the true one. The most celebrated and influential modern doctrines, those of Marx and Freud, actually amount to elaborate systems of hermeneutics, aggressive and impious theories of interpretation. All observable phenomena are bracketed, in Freud’s phrase, as manifest content. This manifest content must be probed and pushed aside to find the true meaning—the latent content beneath. For Marx, social events like revolutions and wars; for Freud, the events of individual lives (like neurotic symptoms and slips of the tongue) as well as texts (like a dream or a work of art)—all are treated as occasions for interpretation. According to Marx and Freud, these events only seem to be intelligible. Actually, they have no meaning without interpretation. To understand is to interpret. And to interpret is to restate the phenomenon, in effect to find an equivalent for it.

Thus, interpretation is not (as most people assume) an absolute value, a gesture of mind situated in some timeless realm of capabilities. Interpretation must itself be evaluated, within a historical view of human consciousness. In some cultural contexts, interpretation is a liberating act. It is a means of revising, of transvaluing, of escaping the dead past. In other cultural contexts, it is reactionary, impertinent, cowardly and stifling.

Question 15

Which of the following BEST differentiates manifest content from the latent content?


Option A is correct because it accurately differentiates between manifest content and latent content as described in the passage. Manifest content refers to the apparent, surface-level content, while latent content is hidden, requiring interpretation. The words "apparent" and "hidden" effectively capture this distinction, making Option A the best choice.

Option B mischaracterizes manifest content and latent content by introducing terms like "loaded" and "elusive" that do not align with the passage's description.

Option C: The passage doesn't make a distinction based on natural or cultural elements but focuses on the visibility and hidden nature of the content.

Option D misinterprets the nature of manifest and latent content; manifest content is not necessarily obscure, and latent content is not inherently lucid.

Option E: They are not hierarchical in a superset-subset relationship but rather represent different layers of meaning in interpretation.

Create a FREE account and get:

  • All Quant Formulas and shortcuts PDF
  • 15 XAT previous papers with solutions PDF
  • XAT Trial Classes for FREE


    Boost your Prep!

    Download App