DIRECTIONS for questions: Each question consists of five statements followed by options consisting of three statements put together in a specific order. Choose the option which indicates a valid argument, that is, where the third statement is a conclusion drawn from the preceding two statements. Example:

A. All cigarettes are hazardous to health.

B. Brand X is a cigarette.

C. Brand X is hazardous to health.

ABC is a valid option, where statement C can be concluded from statements A and B.

Question 111

A. Traffic congestion increases carbon monoxide in the environment.

B. Increase in carbon monoxide is hazardous to health.

C. Traffic congestion is hazardous to health.

D. Some traffic congestion does not cause increased carbon monoxide.

E. Some traffic congestion is not hazardous to health.


Option A: Traffic congestion and increase in carbon monoxide are hazardous to health. But, we cannot infer that one is a result of other. Hence, option A is wrong.

Option B: Option B is wrong because the traffic congestion that does not cause increased carbon monoxide might cause some thing else that is hazardous to health.

Option C: C and D are not related. So, we cannot infer E.

Option D: Increase in Carbon monoxide is hazardous to health and traffic congestion increases Carbon monoxide. So, we can say that traffic congestion is hazardous to health.

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