CAT Previous Year RC Passages PDF

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CAT Previous Year RC Passages PDF
CAT Previous Year RC Passages PDF

CAT Previous Year RC Passages PDF

Download important CAT Reading Comprehension Passages Questions  with Solutions PDF based on previously asked questions in CAT exam. Practice Reading Comprehension Passages Questions with Solutions for CAT exam.

Download CAT Previous Year RC Passages PDF

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Instructions

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

Economists have spent most of the 20th century ignoring psychology, positive or otherwise. But today there is a great deal of emphasis on how happiness can shape global economies, or — on a smaller scale — successful business practice. This is driven, in part, by a trend in “measuring” positive emotions, mostly so they can be optimized. Neuroscientists, for example, claim to be able to locate specific emotions, such as happiness or disappointment, in particular areas of the brain. Wearable technologies, such as Spire, offer data-driven advice on how to reduce stress.

We are no longer just dealing with “happiness” in a philosophical or romantic sense — it has become something that can be monitored and measured, including by our behavior, use of social media and bodily indicators such as pulse rate and facial expressions.

There is nothing automatically sinister about this trend. But it is disquieting that the businesses and experts driving the quantification of happiness claim to have our best interests at heart, often concealing their own agendas in the process. In the workplace, happy workers are viewed as a “win-win.” Work becomes more pleasant, and employees, more productive. But this is now being pursued through the use of performance-evaluating wearable technology, such as Humanyze or Virgin Pulse, both of which monitor physical signs of stress and activity toward the goal of increasing productivity.

Cities such as Dubai, which has pledged to become the “happiest city in the world,” dream up ever-more elaborate and intrusive ways of collecting data on well-being — to the point where there is now talk of using CCTV cameras to monitor facial expressions in public spaces. New ways of detecting emotions are hitting the market all the time: One company, Beyond Verbal, aims to calculate moods conveyed in a phone conversation, potentially without the knowledge of at least one of the participants. And Facebook [has] demonstrated . . . that it could influence our emotions through tweaking our news feeds — opening the door to ever-more targeted manipulation in advertising and influence.

As the science grows more sophisticated and technologies become more intimate with our thoughts and bodies, a clear trend is emerging. Where happiness indicators were once used as a basis to reform society, challenging the obsession with money that G.D.P. measurement entrenches, they are increasingly used as a basis to transform or discipline individuals.

Happiness becomes a personal project, that each of us must now work on, like going to the gym. Since the 1970s, depression has come to be viewed as a cognitive or neurological defect in the individual, and never a consequence of circumstances. All of this simply escalates the sense of responsibility each of us feels for our own feelings, and with it, the sense of failure when things go badly. A society that deliberately removed certain sources of misery, such as precarious and exploitative employment, may well be a happier one. But we won’t get there by making this single, often fleeting emotion, the over-arching goal.

Question 1: From the passage we can infer that the author would like economists to:

a) work closely with neuroscientists to understand human behaviour.

b) incorporate psychological findings into their research cautiously.

c) correlate measurements of happiness with economic indicators.

d) measure the effectiveness of Facebook and social media advertising.

Question 2: According to the author, wearable technologies and social media are contributing most to:

a) making individuals aware of stress in their lives.

b) depression as a thing of the past.

c) disciplining individuals to be happy.

d) happiness as a “personal project”.

Question 3: In the author’s opinion, the shift in thinking in the 1970s:

a) put people in touch with their own feelings rather than depending on psychologists.

b) was a welcome change from the earlier view that depression could be cured by changing circumstances.

c) introduced greater stress into people’s lives as they were expected to be responsible for their own happiness.

d) reflected the emergence of neuroscience as the authority on human emotions.

Question 4: The author’s view would be undermined by which of the following research findings?

a) Stakeholders globally are moving away from collecting data on the well-being of individuals.

b) There is a definitive move towards the adoption of wearable technology that taps into emotions.

c) A proliferation of gyms that are collecting data on customer well-being.

d) Individuals worldwide are utilising technologies to monitor and increase their well-being.

Question 5: According to the author, Dubai:

a) collaborates with Facebook to selectively influence its inhabitants’ moods.

b) develops sophisticated technologies to monitor its inhabitants’ states of mind.

c) is on its way to becoming one of the world’s happiest cities.

d) incentivises companies that prioritise worker welfare.

Instructions

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given

. . . “Everybody pretty much agrees that the relationship between elephants and people has dramatically changed,” [says psychologist Gay] Bradshaw. . . . “Where for centuries humans and elephants lived in relatively peaceful coexistence, there is now hostility and violence. Now, I use the term ‘violence’ because of the intentionality associated with it, both in the aggression of humans and, at times, the recently observed behavior of elephants.” . . .

Typically, elephant researchers have cited, as a cause of aggression, the high levels of testosterone in newly matured male elephants or the competition for land and resources between elephants and humans. But. . . Bradshaw and several colleagues argue. . . that today’s elephant populations are suffering from a form of chronic stress, a kind of species-wide trauma. Decades of poaching and culling and habitat loss, they claim, have so disrupted the intricate web of familial and societal relations by which young elephants have traditionally been raised in the wild, and by which established elephant herds are governed, that what we are now witnessing is nothing less than a precipitous collapse of elephant culture. . . .

Elephants, when left to their own devices, are profoundly social creatures. . . . Young elephants are raised within an extended, multitiered network of doting female caregivers that includes the birth mother, grandmothers, aunts and friends. These relations are maintained over a life span as long as 70 years. Studies of established herds have shown that young elephants stay within 15 feet of their mothers for nearly all of their first eight years of life, after which young females are socialized into the matriarchal network, while young males go off for a time into an all-male social group before coming back into the fold as mature adults. . . .

This fabric of elephant society, Bradshaw and her colleagues [demonstrate], ha[s] effectively been frayed by years of habitat loss and poaching, along with systematic culling by government agencies to control elephant numbers and translocations of herds to different habitats. . . . As a result of such social upheaval, calves are now being born to and raised by ever younger and inexperienced mothers. Young orphaned elephants, meanwhile, that have witnessed the death of a parent at the hands of poachers are coming of age in the absence of the support system that defines traditional elephant life. “The loss of elephant elders,” [says] Bradshaw . . . “and the traumatic experience of witnessing the massacres of their family, impairs normal brain and behavior development in young elephants.”

What Bradshaw and her colleagues describe would seem to be an extreme form of anthropocentric conjecture if the evidence that they’ve compiled from various elephant researchers. . . weren’t so compelling. The elephants of decimated herds, especially orphans who’ve watched the death of their parents and elders from poaching and culling, exhibit behavior typically associated with post-traumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related disorders in humans: abnormal startle response, unpredictable asocial behavior, inattentive mothering and hyperaggression. . . .

[According to Bradshaw], “Elephants are suffering and behaving in the same ways that we recognize in ourselves as a result of violence. . . . Except perhaps for a few specific features, brain organization and early development of elephants and humans are extremely similar.”

Question 6: Which of the following statements best expresses the overall argument of this passage?

a) The brain organisation and early development of elephants and humans are extremely similar.

b) Recent elephant behaviour could be understood as a form of species-wide trauma related response.

c) The relationship between elephants and humans has changed from one of coexistence to one of hostility.

d) Elephants, like the humans they are in conflict with, are profoundly social creatures.

Question 7: In paragraph 4, the phrase, “The fabric of elephant society . . . has[s] effectively been frayed by . . .” is:

a) an accurate description of the condition of elephant herds today.

b) a metaphor for the effect of human activity on elephant communities.

c) an exaggeration aimed at bolstering Bradshaw’s claims.

d) an ode to the fragility of elephant society today.

Question 8: The passage makes all of the following claims EXCEPT:

a) elephants establish extended and enduring familial relationships as do humans.

b) human actions such as poaching and culling have created stressful conditions for elephant communities.

c) the elephant response to deeply disturbing experiences is similar to that of humans.

d) elephant mothers are evolving newer ways of rearing their calves to adapt to emerging threats.

Question 9: In the first paragraph, Bradshaw uses the term “violence” to describe the recent change in the human-elephant relationship because, according to him:

a) both humans and elephants have killed members of each other’s species.

b) there is a purposefulness in human and elephant aggression towards each other.

c) human-elephant interactions have changed their character over time.

d) elephant herds and their habitat have been systematically destroyed by humans.

Question 10: Which of the following measures is Bradshaw most likely to support to address the problem of elephant aggression?

a) The development of treatment programmes for elephants drawing on insights gained from treating post-traumatic stress disorder in humans.

b) Increased funding for research into the similarity of humans and other animals drawing on insights gained from human-elephant similarities.

c) Studying the impact of isolating elephant calves on their early brain development, behaviour and aggression.

d) Funding of more studies to better understand the impact of testosterone on male elephant aggression.

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Instructions

Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions

NOT everything looks lovelier the longer and closer its inspection. But Saturn does. It is gorgeous through Earthly telescopes. However, the 13 years of close observation provided by Cassini, an American spacecraft, showed the planet, its moons and its remarkable rings off better and better, revealing finer structures, striking novelties and greater drama. . . .

By and large the big things in the solar system—planets and moons—are thought of as having been around since the beginning. The suggestion that rings and moons are new is, though, made even more interesting by the fact that one of those moons, Enceladus, is widely considered the most promising site in the solar system on which to look for alien life. If Enceladus is both young and bears life, that life must have come into being quickly. This is also believed to have been the case on Earth. Were it true on Enceladus, that would encourage the idea that life evolves easily when conditions are right.

One reason for thinking Saturn’s rings are young is that they are bright. The solar system is suffused with comet dust, and comet dust is dark. Leaving Saturn’s ring system (which Cassini has shown to be more than 90% water ice) out in such a mist is like leaving laundry hanging on a line downwind from a smokestack: it will get dirty. The lighter the rings are, the faster this will happen, for the less mass they contain, the less celestial pollution they can absorb before they start to discolour. . . . Jeff Cuzzi, a scientist at America’s space agency, NASA, who helped run Cassini, told the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference in Houston that combining the mass estimates with Cassini’s measurements of the density of comet-dust near Saturn suggests the rings are no older than the first dinosaurs, nor younger than the last of them—that is, they are somewhere between 200m and 70m years old.

That timing fits well with a theory put forward in 2016, by Matija Cuk of the SETI Institute, in California and his colleagues. They suggest that at around the same time as the rings came into being an old set of moons orbiting Saturn destroyed themselves, and from their remains emerged not only the rings but also the planet’s current suite of inner moons—Rhea, Dione, Tethys, Enceladus and Mimas. . . .

Dr Cuk and his colleagues used computer simulations of Saturn’s moons’ orbits as a sort of time machine. Looking at the rate at which tidal friction is causing these orbits to lengthen they extrapolated backwards to find out what those orbits would have looked like in the past. They discovered that about 100m years ago the orbits of two of them, Tethys and Dione, would have interacted in a way that left the planes in which they orbit markedly tilted. But their orbits are untitled. The obvious, if unsettling, conclusion was that this interaction never happened—and thus that at the time when it should have happened, Dione and Tethys were simply not there. They must have come into being later. . . .

Question 11: Based on information provided in the passage, we can infer that, in addition to water ice, Saturn’s rings might also have small amounts of:

a) methane and rock particles.

b) helium and methane.

c) helium and comet dust.

d) rock particles and comet dust.

Question 12: Based on information provided in the passage, we can conclude all of the following EXCEPT:

a) none of Saturn’s moons ever had suitable conditions for life to evolve.

b) Thethys and Dione are less than 100 million years old.

c) Saturn’s lighter rings discolour faster than rings with greater mass.

d) Saturn’s rings were created from the remains of older moons.

Question 13: The phrase “leaving laundry hanging on a line downwind from a smokestack” is used to explain how the ringed planet’s:

a) rings lose mass over time.

b) rings discolour and darken over time.

c) moons create a gap between the rings.

d) atmosphere absorbs comet dust.

Question 14: Data provided by Cassini challenged the assumption that:

a) new celestial bodies can form from the destruction of old celestial bodies.

b) all big things in the solar system have been around since the beginning.

c) there was life on earth when Saturn’s rings were being formed.

d) Saturn’s ring system is composed mostly of water ice.

Question 15: The main objective of the passage is to:

a) highlight the beauty, finer structures and celestial drama of Saturn’s rings and moons.

b) establish that Saturn’s rings and inner moons have been around since the beginning of time.

c) provide evidence that Saturn’s rings and moons are recent creations.

d) demonstrate how the orbital patterns of Saturn’s rings and moons change over time.

Instructions

Read the passage carefully and answer the questions given

More and more companies, government agencies, educational institutions and philanthropic organisations are today in the grip of a new phenomenon: ‘metric fixation’. The key components of metric fixation are the belief that it is possible – and desirable – to replace professional judgment (acquired through personal experience and talent) with numerical indicators of comparative performance based upon standardised data (metrics); and that the best way to motivate people within these organisations is by attaching rewards and penalties to their measured performance.

The rewards can be monetary, in the form of pay for performance, say, or reputational, in the form of college rankings, hospital ratings, surgical report cards and so on. But the most dramatic negative effect of metric fixation is its propensity to incentivise gaming: that is, encouraging professionals to maximise the metrics in ways that are at odds with the larger purpose of the organisation. If the rate of major crimes in a district becomes the metric according to which police officers are promoted, then some officers will respond by simply not recording crimes or downgrading them from major offences to misdemeanours. Or take the case of surgeons. When the metrics of success and failure are made public – affecting their reputation and income – some surgeons will improve their metric scores by refusing to operate on patients with more complex problems, whose surgical outcomes are more likely to be negative. Who suffers? The patients who don’t get operated upon.

When reward is tied to measured performance, metric fixation invites just this sort of gaming. But metric fixation also leads to a variety of more subtle unintended negative consequences. These include goal displacement, which comes in many varieties: when performance is judged by a few measures, and the stakes are high (keeping one’s job, getting a pay rise or raising the stock price at the time that stock options are vested), people focus on satisfying those measures – often at the expense of other, more important organisational goals that are not measured. The best-known example is ‘teaching to the test’, a widespread phenomenon that has distorted primary and secondary education in the United States since the adoption of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.

Short-termism is another negative. Measured performance encourages what the US sociologist Robert K Merton in 1936 called ‘the imperious immediacy of interests … where the actor’s paramount concern with the foreseen immediate consequences excludes consideration of further or other consequences’. In short, advancing short-term goals at the expense of long-range considerations. This problem is endemic to publicly traded corporations that sacrifice long-term research and development, and the development of their staff, to the perceived imperatives of the quarterly report.

To the debit side of the ledger must also be added the transactional costs of metrics: the expenditure of employee time by those tasked with compiling and processing the metrics in the first place – not to mention the time required to actually read them. . . .

Question 16: All of the following can be a possible feature of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, EXCEPT:

a) school funding and sanctions are tied to yearly improvement shown on tests.

b) standardised test scores can be critical in determining a student’s educational future.

c) assessment is dependent on the teacher’s subjective evaluation of students’ class participation.

d) the focus is more on test-taking skills than on higher order thinking and problem-solving.

Question 17: What main point does the author want to convey through the examples of the police officer and the surgeon?

a) Some professionals are likely to be significantly influenced by the design of performance measurement systems.

b) Metrics-linked rewards may encourage unethical behaviour among some professionals.

c) Critical public roles should not be evaluated on metrics-based performance measures.

d) The actions of police officers and surgeons have a significantly impact on society.

Question 18: Which of the following is NOT a consequence of the ‘metric fixation’ phenomenon mentioned in the passage?

a) Finding a way to show better results without actually improving performance.

b) Improving cooperation among employees leading to increased organisational effectiveness in the long run.

c) Deviating from organisationally important objectives to measurable yet less important objectives.

d) Short-term orientation induced by frequent measurement of performance.

Question 19: Of the following, which would have added the least depth to the author’s argument?

a) Assessment of the pros and cons of a professional judgment-based evaluation system.

b) An analysis of the reasons why metrics fixation is becoming popular despite its drawbacks.

c) A comparative case study of metrics- and non-metrics-based evaluation, and its impact on the main goals of an organisation.

d) More real-life illustrations of the consequences of employees and professionals gaming metrics-based performance measurement systems.

Question 20: What is the main idea that the author is trying to highlight in the passage?

a) Performance measurement needs to be precise and cost-effective to be useful for evaluating organisational performance.

b) Evaluating performance by using measurable performance metrics may misguide organisational goal achievement.

c) Long-term organisational goals should not be ignored for short-term measures of organisational success.

d) All kinds of organisations are now relying on metrics to measure performance and to give rewards and punishments.

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Answers & Solutions:

1) Answer (B)

We can infer that the author adopts a cautionary tone in the passage. He warns that quantification of happiness might be useful in certain contexts but making measuring happiness the primary goal can lead to unwanted consequences. He warns that happiness will become a personal project if we take the metrics too seriously. Therefore, the author is likely to recommend economists to incorporate the research findings cautiously and hence, option B is the right answer.

2) Answer (C)

In the penultimate paragraph, the author mentions “Where happiness indicators were once used as a basis to reform society, challenging the obsession with money that G.D.P. measurement entrenches, they are increasingly used as a basis to transform or discipline individuals”.  He states that wearable technologies shift the onus on the person for his depression. In the last paragraph, the author mentions how these technologies are helping in disciplining individuals to be happy rather than addressing the cause of depression. Therefore, option C is the right answer.

3) Answer (C)

In the last paragraph, the author mentions that since 1970s, depression is viewed as the defect of the individual rather than as the effect of his circumstances. He feels that this approach puts the person under pressure since being depressed is being viewed as the fault of the individual. The author does not view the shift in a positive light. Only option C captures the fact that the development was a detrimental step and hence, option C is the right answer.

4) Answer (A)

The primary intention of the author is to warn about the trend of collecting data to monitor emotions and in turn promote happiness as an overarching goal. He says that such a practice will lead to adoption of intrusive methods and make happiness a personal project to be worked on. If it is proved that less data is being collected than earlier, it will weaken the very basis of the author’s arguments.

Options B and C indicate a trend that the author is warning about. Therefore, we can eliminate these 2 options.
Option D states that individuals worldwide are using technologies to monitor their well-being. The author’s argument is not that such technologies should not be used. He just states that proliferation of such technologies, especially when used by external parties like nations and corporations, might put people under greater stress. Therefore, we can eliminate option D as well.

Option A states that stakeholders are moving away from collecting data. This statement goes against the warning issued by the author. Therefore, option A will undermine the author’s arguments the most and hence, option A is the right answer.

5) Answer (B)

The author does not consider happiness indicators to be the gold standard of happiness. Therefore, we cannot say that Dubai is on its way to becoming one of the happiest cities in the world just because it tries to discipline its citizens to be happy.

Nowhere has it been mentioned that Dubai collaborates with Facebook or incentivises companies that promote worker welfare.

‘Cities such as Dubai, which has pledged to become the “happiest city in the world,” dream up ever-more elaborate and intrusive ways of collecting data on well-being — to the point where there is now talk of using CCTV cameras to monitor facial expressions in public spaces’.

We can infer that Dubai comes up with new intrusive ways of collecting data on the well-being of its citizens. Therefore, option B is the right answer.

6) Answer (B)

Through the passage, the author explains how the ways elephants behave is similar to the trauma related response evoked in individuals. He explains how the elephant society is affected by the human activity and the impact of the same on the brain development of young elephants.

The primary purpose of the passage is not to draw an analogy between elephants and humans in any way. Therefore, we can eliminate options A and D. Option C states that the relationship between elephants and humans has changed from one of coexistence to one of hostility. Though this point is true, it is not the central theme of the passage. The author places much emphasis on how the elephant behaviour can be explained as a species-wide trauma response and hence, option B is the right answer.

7) Answer (B)

The author uses strong comparison in the given line. The author has not mentioned that the elephant society, which is like a fabric, is frayed by human activities. He uses the term ‘the fabric of elephant society’ and this comparison is called a metaphor.

We can eliminate option A since it fails to capture the fact that a comparison has been used.

Option D states that the line is an ode to the fragility of elephant society today.  Option D fails to capture the fact that human activities are wrecking the social structure of elephants.

Option C states that the line is an exaggeration to bolster Bradshaw’s claims. The author is not exaggerating the facts to substantiate Bradshaw’s claims. He tries to capture the effects of human activities on the elephant society metaphorically. Therefore, option B is the right answer.

8) Answer (D)

The author explains how elephants are profoundly social creatures like humans and how human activities are putting elephants under stress. Then, he explains how the recent elephant behaviour is similar to post traumatic stress syndrome observed in humans. Options A, B, and C can be inferred.

The author expresses apprehension that young calves are raised by inexperienced elephant mothers and this, in turn, affects the brain development of the calves. Nowhere has it been mentioned that elephant mothers are developing newer ways of rearing their calves. Therefore, option D is the right answer.

9) Answer (B)

In the first paragraph of the passage, the author uses the line “Now, I use the term ‘violence’ because of the intentionality associated with it”. Therefore, we can infer that the author specifically uses the term violence to emphasize that the actions of the elephants on humans are deliberate just like those of humans on elephants. Therefore, option B is the right answer.

10) Answer (A)

The author tries to establish that the elephant behaviour is similar to stress related response induced in humans. From the tone of the passage, we can infer that the author is concerned about the elephants. He does not adopt a detached view point. The passage tries to evoke empathy from the audience and has not been written as a science research paper.

Options B, C, and D do not address the issue at hand. They are not steps towards addressing elephant aggression. Only option A proposes a method to treat the elephants and hence, option A is the right answer.

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11) Answer (D)

In the fourth paragraph, it is mentioned that “they suggest that at around the same time as the rings came into being an old set of moons orbiting Saturn destroyed themselves, and from their remains emerged not only the rings……”. From this, we can infer that the rings were formed from the moons. Also, from the third paragraph, it can be inferred that Saturn’s rings consist of comet dust.
Hence, option D is the correct answer.

12) Answer (A)

In the last paragraph, it is given that about 100m years ago, Thethys and Dione were not there. From the last line of the passage we can conclude that Thethys and Dione are less than 100 million years old. Option B can be concluded.
In the third paragraph, it is mentioned “The lighter the rings are, the faster this will happen”. Option C can be concluded.
From the fourth paragraph, option D can be concluded.
Sufficient information has not been provided from which we can conclude that none of Saturn’s moons ever had suitable conditions for life to evolve.
Hence, option A is the correct answer.

13) Answer (B)

The phrase explains how clothes would darken over time if left hanging and facing smokestack. The phrase refers to the darkening of the Saturn’s rings under the influence of comet dust.
Hence, option B is the correct answer.

14) Answer (B)

Referring to the first paragraph and first few lines of the second paragraph, it was believed that the celestial bodies had been existing from the beginning. However, the data provided by Cassini gave an insight that the rings and moons of Saturn are newly created. Thus, it challenged the earlier held notion.
Hence, option B is the correct answer.

15) Answer (C)

Refer to the lines from the passage – “The suggestion that rings and moons are new is,” “One reason for thinking Saturn’s rings are young is that they are bright.”, “Cassini’s measurements of the density of comet-dust near Saturn suggests the rings are no older than the first dinosaurs, nor younger than the last of them.”
Throughout the passage, the author has emphasized on the fact that the rings and the moons of Saturn are recent phenomena. Option C is the most relevant in this context.
Option A is not the primary objective of the passage otherwise the author would not have detailed the timeline of the formation of the moons and the rings of Saturn.
Option B is factually wrong as per the information given in the passage.
Option D is out of context.
Hence, option C is the correct answer.

16) Answer (C)

The author has criticized the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. So, it should be against what the author has supported in the passage. We know that the author has been critical of metric fixation. Therefore, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 must have the features of metric fixation.
Option C cannot be a feature of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 as it mentions the subjective evaluation of students based on their participation in the class which is against the theory of metric fixation.
Hence, option C is the correct answer.

17) Answer (B)

In the second paragraph, the author discusses that one of the major drawbacks of metric fixation is the rise in unethical behaviour in order to maximize the metrics. The author, further, goes on to give the examples of the police officer and the surgeon to substantiate his claims.  Therefore, option B is the correct answer.
Option A does not mention that the influence would be unethical and harmful in nature.
Option C is the underlying message of the author but, he does not explicitly provide the examples of the police officer and the surgeon to prove this.
Option D is too broad and has no specifics about the unethical behaviour which could be encouraged by metric fixation.

18) Answer (B)

From the second paragraph, we can say that metric fixation encourages professionals to maximize the metrics in ways that are at odds with the larger purpose of the organization. Option A is a consequence of metric fixation.
From the third paragraph, we can infer that metric fixation leads to goal displacement.
The author has stated short-termism as a consequence of metric fixation in the penultimate paragraph.
Option B as a consequence of metric fixation has not been discussed in the paragraph.
Hence, option B is the correct answer.

19) Answer (D)

In the passage, the author has discussed the ill-effects of metric fixation. He has discussed gaming of the metrics-based performance system in detail. By providing more real-life illustrations of the same, the author would not have added any value to the main argument.
Options A, B and C are relevant to the discussion and will surely add weight to the main idea of the passage.
Hence, option  D is the correct answer.

20) Answer (B)

The author has criticized the method of metric fixation in the passage. He has stated that metric fixation will lead professionals to adhere to practices that are at odds with the larger purpose of the organization. He has also explained that metric fixation will lead to goal displacement. In this light, option B is the most relevant.
Option A is incorrect because it is against the author’s view.
Option C is narrow as it focuses on short-termism only which is one of the ill-effects of metric fixation as mentioned in the passage.
Option D does not state that the author is criticizing the metric fixation method to measure the performance.
Hence, option B is the correct answer.

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