Instructions

Odsville has five firms - Alfloo, Bzygoo, Czechy, Drjbna and Elavalaki. Each of these firms was founded in some year and also closed down a few years later.

Each firm raised Rs. 1 crore in its first and last year of existence. The amount each firm raised every year increased until it reached a maximum, and then decreased until the firm closed down. No firm raised the same amount of money in two consecutive years. Each annual increase and decrease was either by Rs. 1 crore or by Rs. 2 crores. The table below provides partial information about the five firms.

Question 6

For which firm(s) can the amounts raised by them be concluded with certainty in each year?

Solution

In this set, we are told thatĀ the amount each firm raised every year increased until it reached a maximum, and then decreased until the firm closed down and no firm raised the same amount of money in two consecutive years.

The increase or decrease can beĀ $$\pm\ 1$$ orĀ $$\pm\ 2$$. => (1)

We are also told thatĀ each firm raised Rs. 1 crore in its first and last year of existence

Consider A:

It raised money for 8 years

=> The raising pattern looks like follows:

1, a, b, c, d, e, f, 1 => where a, b, c,..,, f are the unknown amounts raised.

Also a + b +Ā c +Ā d + e + f = 21 - 2 = 19.

We can observe that 19/6 is slightly greater than 3 => The average amount raised should be around 3.

If a = 3 and f = 3 => b + c + d +Ā e = 13 (not possible) as the minimum case would be (4, 5, 6, 4) => Not possible.

If a = 3 and f = 2 => b + c + d + e = 14 (not possible) as the minimum case would be (4, 5, 4, 3) => Not possible.

=> a = 2 and f = 2 => b + c + d + e = 15 the minimum case is (3, 4, 5, 3) or (3, 5, 4, 3) which gives a sum of 15.

So, the possible cases for A are:

Consider B:

The patterns looks as follows:

1, a, b, 1

If a = 2, b has to be equal to 3 to satisfy (1)

if a = 3, b has to be equal to 2 to satisfy (1)

=> The possible cases for B are:

Consider C:

The pattern looks as follows:

1, ..., 1

Let us assume there are 2 gaps between => a + b = 7 (Not possible) as maximum case would be 1, 3, 2, 1

Let us assume there are 3 gaps between => a + b +Ā c = 7, the minimum case possible is 1, 2, 3, 2, 1 => Satisfies.

Now, if there are 4 gaps => a + b +Ā c + d = 7 => The average value is 7/4 which is less than 2 => Not possible.

=> The possible cases for C are:

Consider D:

The pattern looks as follows:

1, a, b, c, 1

=> a + b + c = 8

When a = 2 and c = 2 => b = 4 => 2, 4, 2 => Satisfies.

When a = 2 and c = 3, b should be 3 (Not satisfying (1))

When a = 3 and c = 3, b should be 2 (Not satisfying (1))

=> The possible cases for D are:

Consider E:

The pattern looks as follows:

1,.....,1

For 1 or 2 gaps, we can't get a sum of 11.

Assume 3 gaps => a + b +Ā c = 11, the maximum case is 3, 5, 3 => Satisfies.

Now, assume 4 gaps

=> a + b +Ā c +Ā d = 11, the minimum case is 2, 3, 4, 2 or 2, 4, 3, 2 which satisfies (1) and 2 + 3 + 4 + 2 = 11.

=> The possible cases for E are:

In summary, the possible cases for all 5 companies is:

We see that only for C and D, we can conclude theĀ amounts raised with certainty.

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