Read the given passage and answer the questions that follow.

Ghana was the first true African state. The reason why we are saying this is that most African states lived in tribal villages but Ghana was the centre of gold trade. This gold trade opened
new possibilities for the Ghanaians. The gold trade roots back to the 4th century, when African Soninke tribes were under the rule of the Maga, a Berber clan originating from Morocco. This clan has mastered trans-Saharan camel travel. They were known for trading salt for gold from the Soninke.

When the Arabs invaded North Africa, there was an upsurge in the trade in gold. Ghana became rich and soon after, the Soninke ousted the Maga and built their own nation under Kaya Magan Cisse, who became the Soninke king around 790.

Ghana’s ancient capital, Koumbi Salah, was the city where Africans and Berbers met and traded. Arab traders in the 9th century described Ghana as ‘the land of gold.’ The gold came from Asante and Senegal, to the south and west. The trade routes led north and east to Morocco, Libya and Aksum and so on to Europe and Asia.

Ghana had reached its peak in the 10th century. This was the country which controlled both the gold and salt trades. Other trading goods included woollen clothes, luxury items, leather
goods and slaves. Traders transported goods hundreds of kilometres across the Sahara desert with camel caravans.

Question 194

Select the one-word substitute from the passage for the given group of words.
Rapid or sudden rise

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