In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each,five words are suggested, one of which fills the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.

The rise of Asian manufacturers in the 1990s hit African rms hard; many were wiped out. Northern Nigeria,
which once had a ____1____ garments industry, was unable to ____2____ with low-cost imports. South Africa has similar problems; its manufacturing failed to grow last year ____3____ the continental boom.

This is partly the ____4____ of governments. Buoyed by commodity income, they have neglected industry's needs, ____5____ for roads and electricity. But that, too, may at last be changing. Wolfgang Fengler, a World Bank economist, says, "Africa is now in a good position to industrialise with the right mix of ingredients." This includes ____6____ demography, urbanisation, an emerging middle class and strong services. "For this to happen," he adds, "the continent will need to scale up its infrastructure ____7____ and improve the business climate and many [African] countries have started to ____8____ these challenges in recent years." Kenya is not about to become ____9____ next South Korea. African countries are likely to follow a more diverse path, bene ting from the growth of countless small and medium-sized businesses, as well as some big ones. For the next decade or so, services will still generate more jobs and wealth in Africa than manufacturing, which is ne. India has ____10____ for more than two decades on the back of services, while steadily building a manufacturing sector from a very low base. Do not bet against Africa doing the same.

Question 103


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