Complete Verbal Ability PYQs Previous Questions (CAT PYQs 2017-22) [Download PDF]

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VERBAL ABILITY
VERBAL ABILITY

Complete Verbal Ability PYQs Previous Questions (CAT PYQs 2017-22) [Download PDF]

Welcome to our comprehensive blog series on “Complete Verbal Ability PYQs Previous Questions (CAT PYQs 2017-22).” If you’re gearing up for the CAT (Common Admission Test) and aiming to conquer the Verbal Ability section, you’ve landed at the right place. In this blog, we embark on a journey through the past years’ CAT Verbal Ability questions, meticulously analyzing and unraveling the intricacies of each.

Mastering Verbal Ability is not just a key component for CAT aspirants; it’s a skill that can significantly enhance your overall language proficiency. Whether you’re looking to crack CAT or simply aiming to sharpen your language skills, our blog series is designed to be your ultimate guide.

Throughout this series, we’ll be delving into the CAT Verbal Ability Previous Year Questions from 2017 to 2022. Each question will be dissected, and detailed solutions provided, ensuring that you not only understand the answers but also grasp the underlying concepts and strategies needed for success.

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Question 1: There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.
Sentence: Having made citizens more and less knowledgeable than their predecessors, the Internet has proved to be both a blessing and a curse.
Paragraph: Never before has a population, nearly all of whom has enjoyed at a least a secondary school education, been exposed to so much information, whether in newspapers and magazines or through YouTube, Google, and Facebook. ___(1)___. Yet it is not clear that people today are more knowledgeable than their barely literate predecessors. Contemporary advances in technology offered more serious and inquisitive students access to realms of knowledge previously unimaginable and unavailable. ___(2)___. But such readily available knowledge leads many more students away from serious study, the reading of actual texts, and toward an inability to write effectively and grammatically. ___(3)___. It has let people choose sources that reinforce their opinions rather than encouraging them to question inherited beliefs. ___(4)___.

a) Option 1

b) Option 2

c) Option 3

d) Option 4

1) Answer (D)

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Solution:

The sentence would best fit in Blank 4 because it ties together the ideas presented in the paragraph. The paragraph states that people today have access to a vast amount of information, but it is not clear if they are more knowledgeable as a result. It also mentions that the readily available knowledge can lead students away from serious study and towards an inability to write effectively. The missing sentence introduces the idea that the Internet has both positive and negative effects on knowledge and learning. It fits well in Option 4 because it connects to the idea that the Internet has let people choose sources that reinforce their opinions rather than encouraging them to question inherited beliefs, which is the final point presented in the paragraph.

Question 2: There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.
Sentence: Easing the anxiety and pressure of having a “big day” is part of the appeal for many couples who marry in secret.
Paragraph: Wedding season is upon us and – after two years of Covid chaos that saw nuptials scaled back- you may think the temptation would be to go all out. ___(1)___. But instead of expanding the guest list, many couples are opting to have entirely secret ceremonies. With Covid case numbers remaining high and the cost of living crisis meaning that many couples are feeling the pinch, it’s no wonder that some are less than eager to send out invites. ___(2)___. Plus, it can’t hurt that in celebrity circles getting married in secret is all the rage. ___(3)___. “I would definitely say that secret weddings are becoming more common,” says Landis Bejar, the founder of a therapy practice, which specialises in helping brides and grooms manage wedding stress. “People are looking for ways to get out of the spotlight and avoid the pomp and circumstance of weddings. ___(4)___. They just want to get to the part where they are married.”

a) Option 1

b) Option 2

c) Option 3

d) Option 4

2) Answer (B)

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Solution:

The sentence would best fit Blank 2 because it ties together the ideas presented in the paragraph. The paragraph describes the change in the mindset for wedding celebrations post covid. In the first two lines, the author mentions this mindset. The given
sentence will fill the blank 2 as it restates the idea presented in the previous line that many couples are marrying secretly to ease the anxiety and pressure.

Thus, the correct option is B.

Question 3: There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.
Sentence: Most were first-time users of a tablet and a digital app.
Paragraph: Aage Badhein’s USP lies in the ethnographic research that constituted the foundation of its development process. Customizations based on learning directly from potential users were critical to making this self-paced app suitable for both a literate and non-literate audience. ___(1)___ The user interface caters to a Hindi-speaking audience who have minimal to no experience with digital services and devices. ___(2)___ The content and functionality of the app are suitable for a wide audience. This includes youth preparing for an independent role in life or a student ready to create a strong foundation of financial management early in her life. ___(3)___ Household members desirous of improving their family’s financial strength to reach their aspirations can also benefit. We piloted Aage Badhein in early 2021 with over 400 women from rural areas. ___(4)___ The digital solution generated a large amount of interest in the communities.

a) Option 1

b) Option 2

c) Option 3

d) Option 4

3) Answer (D)

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Solution:

The sentence “Most were first-time users of a tablet and a digital app” would fit best in blank 4 because it provides information about the specific group of people who were involved in the pilot study for the app. The preceding sentence mentions that the app was piloted in early 2021 with over 400 women from rural areas, and the added sentence provides further detail about the specific experiences that these users had with technology. This information helps to clarify that the pilot study for the app involved a group of people who may be unfamiliar with digital devices and services, and it also helps to emphasize the potential impact that the app may have had on these users.

Placing the sentence in blank 4 is logical because it provides relevant and specific information about the pilot study for the app, which is the topic being discussed in that part of the paragraph. By contrast, placing the sentence in any of the other blanks would be less logical because it would be introducing information that is not directly related to the main topic being discussed in those parts of the paragraph.

Hence, Option D is the correct choice.

Question 4: There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.
Sentence: This was years in the making but fast-tracked during the pandemic, when “people started being more mindful about their food”, he explained.
Paragraph: For millennia, ghee has been a venerated staple of the subcontinental diet, but it fell out of favour a few decades ago when saturated fats were largely considered to be unhealthy. ___(1)___ But more recently, as the thinking around saturated fats is shifting globally, Indians are finding their own way back to this ingredient that is so integral to their cuisine. ___(2)___ For Karmakar, a renewed interest in ghee is emblematic of a return-to-basics movement in India. ___(3)___ This movement is also part of an overall trend towards “slow food”. In keeping with the movement’s philosophy, ghee can be produced locally (even at home) and has inextricable cultural ties. ___(4)___ At a basic level, ghee is a type of clarified butter believed to have originated in India as a way to preserve butter from going rancid in the hot climate.

a) Option 1

b) Option 2

c) Option 3

d) Option 4

4) Answer (C)

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Solution:

We can easily eliminate Options A and B since the given sentence “This was years in the making but fast-tracked during the pandemic, when “people started being more mindful about their food”, he explained” uses the pronoun “he,” which must refer to “Karmakar.” The sentence should take the spot of blank 3 since it fits in well with the idea that ghee is part of a “return-to-basics movement in India”, as it mentions that the renewed interest in ghee has been developing for a while but was accelerated during the pandemic when people became more conscious about their food choices. Additionally, the idea that this movement is part of an overall trend towards “slow food” is also mentioned in the sentence, as it talks about people being mindful of their food. By contrast, placing the sentence in any of the other blanks would be less logical because it would be introducing information that is not directly related to the main topic being discussed in those parts of the paragraph.

Hence, Option C is the correct choice.

Question 5: There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.
Sentence: When people socially learn from each other, they often learn without understanding why what they’re copying—the beliefs and behaviours and technologies and know-how—works.
Paragraph: ___(1)___. The dual-inheritance theory ….says….that inheritance is itself an evolutionary system. It has variation. What makes us a new kind of animal, and so different and successful as a species, is we rely heavily on social learning, to the point where socially acquired information is effectively a second line of inheritance, the first being our genes…. ___(2)___. People tend to home in on who seems to be the smartest or most successful person around, as well as what everybody seems to be doing—the majority of people have something worth learning. ___(3)___. When you repeat this process over time, you can get, around the world, cultural packages—beliefs or behaviours or technology or other solutions—that are adapted to the local conditions. People have different psychologies, effectively. ___(4)___.

a) Option 1

b) Option 2

c) Option 3

d) Option 4

5) Answer (B)

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Solution:

The sentence would best fit Blank 2 because it ties together the
ideas presented in the paragraph. The paragraph describes the dual inheritance theory.  In the first two lines, the
author states the theory. The given sentence extends the idea and gives the implication of the theory. After blank 2, the author exemplifies the implication given in the sentence(problem sentence) in the following line.

Thus, the correct option is B.

Question 6: There is a sentence that is missing in the paragraph below. Look at the paragraph and decide in which blank (option 1, 2, 3, or 4) the following sentence would best fit.
Sentence: This has meant a lot of uncertainty around what a wide-scale return to office might look like in practice.
Paragraph: Bringing workers back to their desks has been a rocky road for employers and employees alike. The evolution of the pandemic has meant that best-laid plans have often not materialised. ___(1)___ The flow of workers back into offices has been more of a trickle than a steady stream. ___(2)___ Yet while plenty of companies are still working through their new policies, some employees across the globe are now back at their desks, whether on a full-time or hybrid basis. ___(3)___ That means we’re beginning to get some clarity on what return-to-office means – what’s working, as well as what has yet to be settled. ___(4)___

a) Option 1

b) Option 2

c) Option 3

d) Option 4

6) Answer (B)

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Solution:

The sentence would best fit in Blank 2 because it ties together the ideas presented in the paragraph. The paragraph describes the problems in getting back the employees in the office. In the first two lines, the author mentions this problem. The given sentence gives the effect of the problems and hence will occupy the blank 2. Also, after blank 2, the author changes the flow of the idea and starts describing the present scenario regarding the steps taken by the companies to face this issue.

Thus, the correct option is B.

Question 7: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out.

1. Neuroscientists have just begun studying exercise’s impact within brain cells — on the genes themselves.
2. Even there, in the roots of our biology, they’ ve found signs of the body’s influence on the mind.
3. It turns out that moving our muscles produces proteins that travel through the bloodstream and into the brain, where they play pivotal roles in the mechanisms of our highest thought processes.
4. In today’s technology-driven, plasma-screened-in world, it’s easy to forget that we are born movers-animals, in fact — because we’ ve engineered movement right out of our lives.
5. It’s only in the past few years that neuroscientists have begun to describe these factors and how they work, and each new discovery adds awe-inspiring depth to the picture.

7) Answer: 4

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Solution:

After reading all the sentences, we know that the passage is about the study of the effect of exercise on the mind by the neuroscientists. Statement 1 is the opening sentence as it introduces the main idea and suggests that neuroscientists have started studying the effect of exercise on the mind. Statement 2 discusses the findings of the study mentioned in statement 1. Statement 3 further elaborates the finding and explains the reasons behind the effect of exercise on brain cells. Statement 5 is a conclusion sentence based on the study mentioned in the three sentences mentioned earlier. Thus, 1235  forms a meaningful paragraph.
Statement 4 focuses on our ignorance of movements due to the widespread use of technology. Other four sentences are about the relationship between exercise and brain cells. However, statement 4 is about a different topic. Therefore, statement 4 is an odd sentence which does not fit in the paragraph.
Hence, 4 is the correct answer.

Question 8: The five sentences labelled (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a number. Decide on the proper order for the sentences and key in this sequence of FIVE NUMBERS as your answer.

1. Before plants can take life from atmosphere, nitrogen must undergo transformations similar to ones that food undergoes in our digestive machinery.
2. In its aerial form nitrogen is insoluble, unusable and is in need of transformation.
3. Lightning starts the series of chemical reactions that need to happen to nitrogen, ultimately helping it nourish our earth.
4. Nitrogen — an essential food for plants — is an abundant resource, with about 22 million tons of it floating over each square mile of earth.
5. One of the most dramatic examples in nature of ill wind that blows goodness is lightning.

8) Answer: 53421

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Solution:

On closely reading the sentences, we see that the topic of discussion is how chemical reactions started by lightning affects nitrogen in the air which ultimately help nourish the earth. Hence, sentence 5 which introduces lightning to us must be the starting sentence. Sentence 3 further elaborates on chemical reactions, started by lightning, which affects nitrogen. Hence, sentence 3 logically follows sentence 5. Sentence 4 states how nitrogen helps in nourishing the earth. Hence, sentence 4 must follow sentence 3. Sentence 2 states why in its natural form nitrogen is unusable and sentence 1 further elaborates on why nitrogen must undergo transformation for plants to use it. Hence sentences 2 and 1 form a pair which must follow sentence 4. Hence, the correct sequence 53421.

Question 9: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out.
1. Although we are born with the gift of language, research shows that we are surprisingly unskilled when it comes to communicating with others.
2. We must carefully orchestrate our speech if we want to achieve our goals and bring our dreams to fruition.
3. We often choose our words without thought, oblivious of the emotional effects they can have on others.
4. We talk more than we need to, ignoring the effect we are having on those listening to us.
5. We listen poorly, without realizing it, and we often fail to pay attention to the subtle meanings conveyed by facial expressions, body gestures, and the tone and cadence of our voice.

9) Answer: 2

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Solution:

The paragraph is about how inefficient we are when it comes to usage of language. Sentence 2 stands out as an imperative or instructive  statement whereas the other statements simply elaborate on the point that we are unskilled at language usage. Therefore, option 2 is the odd sentence.

Question 10: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out.
1: Over the past fortnight, one of its finest champions managed to pull off a similar impression.
2. Wimbledon’s greatest illusion is the sense of timelessness it evokes.
3. At 35 years and 342 days, Roger Federer became the oldest man to win the singles title in the Open Era — a full 14 years after he first claimed the title as a scruffy, pony-tailed upstart.
4. Once he had survived the opening week, the second week witnessed the range of a rested Federer’s genius.
5. Given that his method isn’t reliant on explosive athleticism or muscular ball-striking, both vulnerable to decay, there is cause to believe that Federer will continue to enchant for a while longer.

10) Answer: 4

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Solution:

The paragraph is about the timelessness of the Wimbledon and Roger Federer. Sentences 1, 2 and 3 are clearly the part of the paragraph.
Wimbledon – one of its finest champion – Roger Federer
Now, sentences 4 and 5 are close. Sentence 4 talks about a specific event. Whereas, sentence 5 is inline with the idea of timelessness and hence, can be used as the concluding sentence of the paragraph. Moreover, sentence 4 appears hanging (Missing some previous statement). Therefore, sentence 4 is the odd one out.

Question 11: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the ODD ONE out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.

1) Translators are like bumblebees.
2) Though long since scientifically disproved, this factoid is still routinely trotted out.
3) Similar pronouncements about the impossibility of translation have dogged practitioners since Leonardo Bruni’s De interpretatione recta, published in 1424.
4) Bees, unaware of these deliberations, have continued to flit from flower to flower, and translators continue to translate.
5) In 1934, the French entomologist August Magnan pronounced the flight of the bumblebee to be aerodynamically impossible.

11) Answer: 2

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Solution:

On reading the sentences, we can infer that the author draws an analogy between translators and bumblebees in the paragraph.

1 should be the opening sentence since it introduces the fact that the paragraph is going to be about the similarities of translators and bumblebees. After sentence 1, the author should have explained how they are analogous.

5 states that the French entomologist August Magnan pronounced the flight of bumblebees to be aerodynamically impossible. Sentence 3 talks about similar statements made about translations. Sentence 4 should be the last sentence since it concludes by saying that both translators and bees have continued their work unaware of these deliberations. Sentences 1534 can be put together into a coherent paragraph.

Sentence 2 does not add any valuable information to the topic of discussion. The author does not use the fact that the factoid (impossibility of the flight of the bumblebee) has been disproved to support his argument. Sentence 2 should be the one out of context and hence, 2 is the correct answer.

Question 12: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out.

1) Displacement in Bengal is thus not very significant in view of its magnitude.
2) A factor of displacement in Bengal is the shifting course of the Ganges leading to erosion of river banks.
3) The nature of displacement in Bengal makes it an interesting case study.
4) Since displacement due to erosion is well spread over a long period of time, it remains invisible.
5) Rapid displacement would have helped sensitize the public to its human costs.

12) Answer: 5

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Solution:

On reading the sentences, we can infer that the paragraph revolves around the displacement of people in Bengal due to erosion. 3 should be the opening sentence since it introduces the topic of discussion – displacement in Bengal. 3 should be followed by sentence 2 since it elaborates that the displacement is due to the shifting of the course of the Ganges and the erosion. We have to decide the pair between 5, 4, and 1.

Sentence 4 is definitely a part of the paragraph since it fits well with both the sentences. Also, it states an important detail – the displacement is spread out over a period of time and hence, remains invisible. Since the displacement is not rapid, its magnitude is not significant. Sentences 4 and 1 form a pair and hence, sentence 5 is the one out of context.

Question 13: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, and 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.
1.The eventual diagnosis was skin cancer and after treatment all seemed well.
2. The viola player didn’t know what it was; nor did her GP.
3. Then a routine scan showed it had come back and spread to her lungs.
4. It started with a lump on Cathy Perkins’ index finger.

13) Answer: 4213

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Solution:

Sentence 4 should be the opening sentence since it sets the scene and introduces the person suffering from cancer.
Sentence 2 states that the viola player and her physician did not know what it was. ‘It’ refers to the lump on the finger.
Sentence 1 should follow sentence 2 since it states what the eventual diagnosis was. The GP did not know what the lump was and later it was identified to be skin cancer. Sentence 1 states that all seemed well after the treatment, implying it was not.
Sentence 3 should be the last sentence since it states that the cancer had spread to her lungs.

Sentences 4213 form a coherent paragraph and hence, 4213 is the right answer.

Question 14: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, and 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.

1) The woodland’s canopy receives most of the sunlight that falls on the trees.
2) Swifts do not confine themselves to woodlands, but hunt wherever there are insects in the air.
3) With their streamlined bodies, swifts are agile flyers, ideally adapted to twisting and turning through the air as they chase flying insects – the creatures that form their staple diet.
4) Hundreds of thousands of insects fly in the sunshine up above the canopy, some falling prey to swifts and swallows

14) Answer: 1432

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Solution:

1 should be the opening sentence since it sets the context. Sentence 1 states that the woodland’s canopy receives most of the sunshine that falls on the trees. Sentence 4 continues sentence 1 by stating that thousands of insects fly above the canopy in the sunlight. The insects fall prey to the swifts and swallows.

We have to decide whether the order of the remaining 2 sentences is 32 or 23.
Sentence 3 states that swifts are agile flyers, adapted to chasing flying insects. Sentence 3 states that flying insects form the staple diet of the swifts. Sentence 2 states that swifts do not confine themselves to woodlands and hunt wherever they can find insects. Therefore, sentence 3 should precede sentence 2 (We cannot introduce that insects form the staple diet after stating that swifts hunt wherever they can find flying insects).

Sentences 1432 form a coherent paragraph.
Therefore, 1432 is the correct answer.

Question 15: The four sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a number. Decide on the proper sequence of order of the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer:

1. In the era of smart world, however, ‘Universal Basic Income’ is an
ineffective instrument which cannot address the potential breakdown of
the social contract when large swathes of the population would
effectively be unemployed.
2. In the era of industrial revolution, the abolition of child labour,
poor laws and the growth of trade unions helped families cope with the
pressures of mechanised work.
3. Growing inequality could be matched by a creeping authoritarianism
that is bolstered by technology that is increasingly able to peer into
the deepest vestiges of our lives.
4. New institutions emerge which recognise ways in which workers could
contribute to and benefit by economic growth when, rather than if, their
jobs are automated.

15) Answer: 4213

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Solution:

4 should be the opening sentence since it states that new institutions recognize ways in which workers can contribute to the economy. The other 3 sentences provide examples and elaborate on the same and hence, sentence 4, which introduces the topic of discussion, should be the opening sentence.

2 talks about the period of industrial revolution. 1 talks about the smart world. Chronologically, 1 should follow 2. Moreover, 2 talks about an example that conformed to the point mentioned in sentence 4. On the other hand, 1 talks about an inadequacy. Therefore, 2 should have preceded 1. 3 should be the last sentence of the paragraph.

Sentences 4213 form a coherent paragraph and hence, 4213 is the correct answer.

Question 16: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out.
1. Much has been recently discovered about the development of songs in birds.
2. Some species are restricted to a single song learned by all individuals, others have a range of songs.
3. The most important auditory stimuli for the birds are the sounds of other birds.
4. For all bird species there is a prescribed path to development of the final song,
5. A bird begins with the subsong, passes through plastic song, until it achieves the species song.

16) Answer: 3

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Solution:

On reading the sentences, we can infer that the paragraph talks about the development of songs in birds.

1 should be the opening sentence since it introduces the topic of discussion, the development of songs in birds. 1 provides a proper introduction to the paragraph by stating that much has been discovered about the development of songs in birds.

4 should be the sentence that follows 1 since it states that the development of songs in birds follow a template process.
5 explains the mechanism in which the song is developed. Therefore, sentence 5 should follow sentence 4.
2 should be the last sentence since it states that some species restrict themselves to one song while other species have more than one song.

Sentences 1452 form a coherent paragraph. Sentence 3 talks about the sounds of birds while the other sentences are about how a species develops a song. Therefore, sentence 3 is the one out of context and hence, 3 is the right answer.

Question 17: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, and 4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper order for the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer.
1. It was his taxpayers who had to shell out as much as $1.6bn over 10 years to employees of failed companies.
2. Companies in many countries routinely engage in such activities which means that the employees are left with unpaid entitlements
3. Deliberate and systematic liquidation of a company to avoid liabilities and then restarting the business is called phoenixing.
4. The Australian Minister for Revenue and Services discovered in an audit that phoenixing had cost the Australian economy between $2.9bn and $5.1bn last year.

17) Answer: 3241

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Solution:

3 should be the opening sentence since it introduces the concept of phoenixing. Sentence 2 logically continues sentence 1 by stating that companies in many countries engage in such activities (Phoenixing). Sentence 2 should be followed by sentence 4 since it moves to a specific instance (Australian minister’s discovery) from general statements. Sentence 1 should follow sentence 4 since it states that it was ‘his’ taxpayers (Australian Minister’s taxpayers or Australian citizens) who had to foot the bill.

Sentences 3241 form a coherent paragraph. Therefore, 3241 is the correct answer.

Question 18: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key the number in:
1. Our smartphones can now track our diets, our biological cycles, even our digestive systems and sleep-patterns.
2. Researchers have even coined a new term, “orthosomnia”, to describe the insomnia brought on by paying too much attention to smartphones and sleep-tracking apps.
3. Sleep, nature’s soft nurse, is a blissful, untroubled state all too easily disturbed by earthly worries or a guilty conscience.
4. The existence of a market for such apps is unsurprising: shift work, a long-hours culture and blue light from screens have conspired to rob many of us of sufficient rest.
5. A new threat to a good night’s rest has emerged – smart-phones, with sleep-tracking apps.

18) Answer: 3

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Solution:

The use of the word “such apps” in 4 indicates that 4 must be preceded by a line that mentions a type of app. We find this in 5 and 2. So the pairs could be 5-4 or 2-4. If we see the sentences 5 and 1 they introduce the topic under discussion and provide context for the details provided in 2 and 4. Hence, 1 and 5 should come at the start of the paragraph and 2-4 should be the end of the paragraph. Between 5 and 1, 5 provides a better opening line as it introduces the main topic of discussion. Hence, the order of the paragraph should be 5-1-2-4.

Sentence 3 which talks of “guilty conscience” is out of context with the rest of the paragraph.

Question 19: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out.

1. As India looks to increase the number of cities, our urban planning
must factor in potential natural disasters and work out contingencies in
advance.
2. Authorities must revise data and upgrade infrastructure and
mitigation plans even if their local area hasn’t been visited by a
natural calamity yet.
3. Extreme temperatures, droughts, and forest fires have more than doubled since 1980.
4. There is no denying the fact that our baseline normal weather is changing.
5. It is no longer a question of whether we will be hit by nature’s fury but rather when.

19) Answer: 3

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Solution:

If we read all the sentences together, we see that the author is arguing for India preparing itself in advance for future natural disasters. Sentence 4, which introduces the broader context makes for a good opening line. Sentences 1 and 2 together make the main point that the author is trying make through the paragraph – that India should prepare itself for future natural disasters. Sentence 5 emphasizes the main point by adding that natural disasters will occur in the future and thus makes for a good concluding line.

Sentence 3, that talks about extreme temperatures does not lead off to any of the other sentences nor does it add to any of the other sentences. Hence, it is the odd one.

Additional Explanation:

1-2 is a block, both are talking about things that authorities should do
45 are rhetorical opinions of the author on the weather.
3 is a fact. We use facts to draw reasonable conclusions.
This standalone fact cannot be used to draw any conclusion.
The style of the author’s writing in 4 and 5 are more opinionated than factual. So 3 is a misfit.
Moreover, we cannot make a connection between 1-4,
1 says we need contingencies for natural disaster(suggestive) whereas, 4 says whether is changing(rhetorical).

Question 20: The four sentences (labelled 1,2,3,4) given in this question, when properly sequenced, form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labelled with a number. Decide on the proper sequence of order of the sentences and key in this sequence of four numbers as your answer:

1. They would rather do virtuous side projects assiduously as long as
these would not compel them into doing their day jobs more honourably or
reduce the profit margins.
2. They would fund a million of the buzzwordy programs rather than
fundamentally question the rules of their game or alter their own
behavior to reduce the harm of the existing distorted, inefficient and
unfair rules.
3. Like the dieter who would rather do anything to lose weight than
actually eat less, the business elite would save the world through
social-impact-investing and philanthro-capitalism.
4. Doing the right thing — and moving away from their win-win mentality —
would involve real sacrifice; instead, it’s easier to focus on their
pet projects and initiatives.

20) Answer: 3241

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Solution:

After reading all the sentences, we know that the paragraph is about the businessmen who, instead of tackling the root causes, focus on superficial solutions. Statement 3 is the opening sentence as it introduces the topic by comparing businessmen with a dieter who is ready to do everything except eating less. Statement 2 mentions the examples of some of the specious solutions mentioned in statement 3. Statement 4 provides the reason why businessmen are hesitant to execute the genuine solutions which will bring real change. Statement 4 mentions the alternative taken by businessmen. The word ‘rather’ in statement 1 connects it with statement 4. Thus, the correct order is 3 – 2 – 4 – 1.
Hence, 3241 is the correct answer.

Instructions

The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.

Question 21: 1. To the uninitiated listener, atonal music can sound like chaotic, random noise.
2. Atonality is a condition of music in which the constructs of the music do not ‘live’ within the confines of a particular key signature, scale, or mode.
3. After you realize the amount of knowledge, skill, and technical expertise required to compose or perform it, your tune may change, so to speak.
4. However, atonality is one of the most important movements in 20th century music.

21) Answer: 2143

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Solution:

After reading all the sentences , it can be inferred that though atonal music can sometimes sound random and chaotic, there is a lot of knowledge and skill that is required to perform atonal music.

Sentence 2 talks about what exactly atonal music is. Hence, this sentence must be the first sentence of the paragraph. Sentence 1 talks about the misconceptions of atonal music that the uninitiated make. This sentence must be the second sentence of the passage. Sentence 4, now clears the misconception about atonality and states that it is one of the most important movements in music. Sentence 3 gives the reason why atonality is music is so difficult to attain and says that the untrained listener would change his mind when he understands the amount of knowledge and skill required to produce atonality. Therefore, sentences 4 and 3 form a block.

Therefore the correct sequence of sentences is 2-1-4-3.

Question 22: 1. Living things—animals and plants—typically exhibit correlational structure.
2. Adaptive behaviour depends on cognitive economy, treating objects as equivalent.
3. The information we receive from our senses, from the world, typically has structure and order, and is not arbitrary.
4. To categorize an object means to consider it equivalent to other things in that category, and different—along some salient dimension—from things that are not.

22) Answer: 2431

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Solution:

After reading all the sentences, it can be inferred that the passage talks about how comparisons are made between objects in different aspects, and how such comparisons are important facets of cognitive ability and consequently our adaptive behaviour.

Sentence 2 introduces how adaptive behavior depends on cognitive economy. Hence, it is the first sentence of the paragraph.

Sentence 4 elaborates on how different objects are compared. This sentence logically follows sentence 2. Sentence 3 shows how such comparisons have structure and order, and how they are not arbitary. Hence, sentence 3 follows sentence 4. Sentence 1 is completes the passage in a way that elucidates how animals and plats are equivalent to each other by exhibiting correlatoinal structure.

The correct sequence is 2-4-3-1.

Question 23: 1. Conceptualisations of ‘women’s time’ as contrary to clock-time and clock-time as synonymous with economic rationalism are two of the deleterious results of this representation.
2. While dichotomies of ‘men’s time’, ‘women’s time’, clock-time, and caring time can be analytically useful, this article argues that everyday caring practices incorporate a multiplicity of times; and both men and women can engage in these multiple-times
3. When the everyday practices of working sole fathers and working sole mothers are carefully examined to explore conceptualisations of gendered time, it is found that caring time is often more focused on the clock than generally theorised.
4. Clock-time has been consistently represented in feminist literature as a masculine artefact representative of a ‘time is money’ perspective.

23) Answer: 4132

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Solution:

After reading all the lines it can be seen that the paragraph talks about the deleterious results of introducing the concept of women’s time, and how the everyday practices of both men and women incorporate a multiplicity of times.

Sentence 4 introduces the concept of clock time which has been represented in feminist literature and it is the introductory sentence of the paragraph. The passage goes on to say that the concept of ‘women’s time’ as is deleterious.Hence, sentence 1 follows sentence 4. Sentence 3 explains how the concept of clock time actually works out for working sole fathers and working sole mothers. It follows sentence 1. Sentence 2 gives a summary of the paragraph which states that the everyday caring practices involve a multiplicity of times hence it would be the last sentence of the paragraph.

The correct order of sequence is 4-1-3-2.

Question 24: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.
1. Ocean plastic is problematic for a number of reasons, but primarily because marine animals eat it.
2. The largest numerical proportion of ocean plastic falls in small size fractions.
3. Aside from clogging up the digestive tracts of marine life, plastic also tends to adsorb pollutants from the water column.
4. Plastic in the oceans is arguably one of the most important and pervasive environmental problems today.
5. Eating plastic has a number of negative consequences such as the retention of plastic particles in the gut for longer periods than normal food particles.

24) Answer: 2

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Solution:

After reading all the sentences it can be inferred that the passage talks about the impact of ocean plastic on marine organisms.

Sentence 4 introduces the important and pervasive environmental problem of having plastic in the oceans.Hence it is the first sentence of the passage. Sentence 1 gives the reason behind why ocean plastic is problematic, elucidating that marine animals eat it. Hence it should follow sentence 4.  Sentence 5 gives the consequences of marine animals eating ocean plastic. Sentence 3 further elaborates sentence 5 and follows it.

Hence the correct order of sentences is 4-1-5-3. Sentence 2 does not fit in with the rest of the passage and is the correct option.

Question 25: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.
1. Such a belief in the harmony of nature requires a purpose presumably imposed by the goodness and wisdom of a deity.
2. These parts, all fit together into an integrated, well-ordered system that was created by design.
3. Historically, the notion of a balance of nature is part observational, part metaphysical, and not scientific in any way.
4. It is an example of an ancient belief system called teleology, the notion that what we call nature has a predetermined destiny associated with its component parts.

25) Answer: 3421

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Solution:

After reading all the sentences it can be reasonably inferred that the passage talks about the ancient belief system called telelogy which describes how nature has a predetermined destiny associated with its component parts, and how these parts fit together into an ordered system.

Sentence 3 introduces the idea of the notion of balance of nature. Hence, this would serve as the introductory sentence. Sentence 4 gives an example of a system that tries to explain the balance in nature called telelogy. Hence, this sentence follows sentence 3. Sentence, 2 follows sentence 4 as it furthers the idea given in sentence 4. It explains about how the component parts explained in sentence 4 fit together. Sentence 1 would serve as the concluding sentence as it gives the necessary condition required to have a belief that has been explained in sentences 4 and 2.

Hence, the correct ordering of the sentences is 3-4-2-1.

Question 26: Five sentences related to a topic are given below in a jumbled order. Four of them form a coherent and unified paragraph. Identify the odd sentence that does not go with the four. Key in the number of the option that you choose.
1. Socrates told us that ‘the unexamined life is not worth living’ and that to ‘know thyself’ is the path to true wisdom
2. It suggests that you should adopt an ancient rhetorical method favored by the likes of Julius Caesar and known as ‘illeism’ – or speaking about yourself in the third person.
3. Research has shown that people who are prone to rumination also often suffer from impaired decision making under pressure and are at a substantially increased risk of depression.
4. Simple rumination – the process of churning your concerns around in your head – is not the way to achieve self-realization.
5. The idea is that this small change in perspective can clear your emotional fog, allowing you to see past your biases.

26) Answer: 1

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Solution:

After reading all the sentences, it can be reasonably inferred that the passage talks about how rumination is not the way to achieve-self realization, but another method favored by Caesar, ‘illeism’ would help a person see past his biases.

Sentence 4 introduces the idea of rumination. Hence this sentence would serve as the introductory sentence. Sentence 3 follows sentence 4 because it indicates the results of the research done on rumination. Sentence 2 would be the next logical progression, since it puts forth an alternative to rumination, known as illeism. Sentence 2 and sentence 5 would form a block as sentence 5 explains the consequences of adopting the ancient method of illeism, mentioned in sentence 2.

4-3-2-5 would be the correct ordering of the sentences. Sentence 1 does not fit in with the passage and hence, it is the correct answer.

Question 27: Five sentences related to a topic are given below in a jumbled order. Four of them form a coherent and unified paragraph. Identify the odd sentence that does not go with the four. Key in the number of the option that you choose.
1. ‘Stat’ signaled something measurable, while ‘matic’ advert ised free labour; but ‘tron’, above all, indicated control.
2. It was a totem of high modernism, the intellectual and cultural mode that decreed no process or phenomenon was too complex to be grasped, managed and optimized.
3. Like the heraldic shields of ancient knights, these morphemes were painted onto the names of scientific technologies to proclaim one’s history and achievements to friends and enemies alike.
4. The historian Robert Proctor at Stanford University calls the suffix ‘-tron’, along with ‘-matic’ and ‘-stat’, embodied symbols.
5. To gain the suffix was to acquire a proud and optimistic emblem of the electronic and atomic age.

27) Answer: 2

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Solution:

Option 4 and option 5 are related as both statement start with a suffix.
While option 3 is a continuation of the idea in option 3

Option 5 says that the suffix signifies pride, while option 3 elaborates on this and explains how it is displayed as pride to friends and families alike. Hence 53 is a logical block.

Among all the statements, 4 is the only one which doesn’t have a pronoun or a tone indicating the presence of a preceding statement.

While 4 opens the statement, it must be succeeded by 1 as the terms cannot be explained at the end.

The logical coherence of this para jumble is 4(Introduction of terms)-1(Explanation of terms)-5(Consequence of terms(Pride))-3(Elaboration of consequence)

Statement 2 speaks about modernism and that every phenomenon can be easily grasped. It is unrelated to the context of the passage and a misfit.

Hence, option 2 is the odd one out

Question 28: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.
1. People with dyslexia have difficulty with print-reading, and people with autism spectrum disorder have difficulty with mind-reading.
2. An example of a lost cognitive instinct is mind-reading: our capacity to think of ourselves and others as having beliefs, desires, thoughts and feelings.
3. Mind-reading looks increasingly like literacy, a skill we know for sure is not in our genes, since scripts have been around for only 5,000-6,000 years.
4. Print-reading, like mind-reading varies across cultures, depends heavily on certain parts of the brain, and is subject to developmental disorders.

28) Answer: 2341

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Solution:

Statement 1 displays a contrast of 2 kinds of reading. Logically these reading types must be defined before their negatives are discussed. This indicates that both statement 2 and 4 necessarily precede statement 1

Statement 4 and 1 form a logical block as statement 4 introduces the idea of developmental disorders while statement 1 cites example of such disorders.

Statement 4 cannot be opening as it has a phrase “like mind reading”. While, Statement 3 can neither be an opening nor closing statement.

Hence, statement 2 is a good introductory statement as it starts by describing mind reading and statement 3 extends the idea of mindreading. As 3 doesn’t fit anywhere else, it has to necessarily follow statement 2

Hence, the correct order is 2341

Question 29: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.
1. Metaphors may map to similar meanings across languages, but their subtle differences can have a profound effect on our understanding of the world.
2. Latin scholars point out carpe diem is a horticultural metaphor that, particularly seen in the context of its source, is more accurately translated as “plucking the day,” evoking the plucking and gathering of ripening fruits or flowers, enjoying a moment that is rooted in the sensory experience of nature, unrelated to the force implied in seizing.
3. The phrase carpe diem, which is often translated as “seize the day and its accompanying philosophy, has gone on to inspire countless people in how they live their lives and motivates us to see the world a little differently from the norm
4. It’s an example of one of the more telling ways that we mistranslate metaphors from one language to another, revealing in the process our hidden assumptions about what we really value.

29) Answer: 3241

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Solution:

Statement 3 and 2 form a natural block. While statement 3 describes “carpe diem”, statement 4 explains how every language has subtle differences in its essence and interpretation. Statement 4 says “its an example of” suggesting to the logical block 32 which shows misinterpretation of metaphor. Hence, 324 forms a block. While statement 1 can serve as both opening as concluding closing statement. Both the sequesnces 3241 and 1324 seem accurate. Although CAT 2019, considered 3241 as the final answer to this parajumble with statement 1 concluding the paragragh.

Question 30: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.
1. We’ll all live under mob rule until then, which doesn’t help anyone.
2. Perhaps we need to learn to condense the feedback we receive online so that 100 replies carry the same weight as just one.
3. As we grow more comfortable with social media conversations being part of the way we interact every day, we are going to have to learn how to deal with legitimate criticism.
4. A new norm will arise where it is considered unacceptable to reply with the same point that dozens of others have already.

30) Answer: 3241

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Solution:

Statement 1 suggests that we will live under mob-rule until a specific event occurs. Hence, it cannot be the opening statement.
Statement 2 is a suggestion to deal with criticism.
Statement 3 is a good opening statement as it sets the agenda for the passage.
Statement 4 says that in the upcoming future, repetitive criticism will not be permitted.

41 makes a logical block as statement 4 talks about a specific event, where mob frenzy attitude is curtailed by eliminating repetitive criticism. Until this occurs, we will live under mob-rule.

Statement 3 opens the passage that we need to learn to deal with criticism. While statement 2 extends the idea as to how one has to deal with criticism on a personal level. Then, the author speaks about curtailing mob culture by censoring repetitive criticism.

Hence, the correct logical order is 3241

Question 31: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) given below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequence of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer.
1. If you’ve seen a little line of text on websites that says something like “customers who bought this also enjoyed that” you have experienced this collaborative filtering firsthand.
2. The problem with these algorithms is that they don’t take into account a host of nuances and circumstances that might interfere with their accuracy.
3. If you just bought a gardening book for your cousin, you might get a flurry of links to books about gardening, recommended just for you! – the algorithm has no way of knowing you hate gardening and only bought the book as a gift.
4. Collaborative filtering is a mathematical algorithm by which correlations and cooccurrences of behaviors are tracked and then used to make recommendations.

31) Answer: 4123

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Solution:

Statement 1 says “this collaborative filtering”. Here “this” refers to a likely preceding statement which explains about collaborative filtering. While statement 1 is an example of collaborative filtering.
Statement 2 starts with “these algorithms”. This doesn’t look like an opening statement as it describes a certain algorithm (“these”).
Statement 3 is explaining about the flaw in the algorithm
Statement 4 makes for a good opening statement
Statement 41 makes a logical block as the example in 1 refers to collaborative filtering of statement 4
Statement 2 must appear soon after the logical block of 41 as it contains the phrase “these algorithms”. While statement 2 explains the problem in the algorithm, statement 3 extends the idea of the problem.

Statement 4 : Introduces collaborative filtering
Statement 1 : Given an example of collaborative filtering
Statement 2 : Speaks about the drawback in the algorithm
Statement 3 : Gives an example of the drawback

Hence the logically coherent order is 4123

Question 32: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out.
Choose its number as your answer and key it in.
1. His idea to use sign language was not a compl etely new idea as Native Americans used hand gestures to communicate with other tribes.
2. Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, for example, observed that men who are deaf are incapable of speech.
3. People who were born deaf were denied the right to sign a will as they were “presumed to understand nothing; because it is not possible that they have been able to learn to read or write.”
4. Pushback against this prejudice began in the 16th century when Pedro Ponce de León created a formal sign language for the hearing impaired.
5. For millennia, people with hearing impairments encountered marginalization because it was believed that language could only be learned by hearing the spoken word.

32) Answer: 2

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Solution:

Statement 34 makes a logical block as statement 4 speaks about “this prejudice” against deaf people. While statement 3 highlights the prejudice by saying that they were considered to be dumb and not allowed to sign a will.

The idea of sign language is continued in statement 1 where the pronoun “he” refers to pedro and the statement discusses about the origin of the sign language.

Statement 5 is a good opening statement as it introduces the idea of discrimination against deaf and this idea is continued by an example in statement 3. Hence these statements can be arranged in the order 5341.

Statement 2 is a good standalone opening statement. Yet, this statement cannot be succeeded by any of the other statements as it is a misfit in the paragraph.

Hence statement 2 is the odd one out

Question 33: Five sentences related to a topic are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a meaningful and coherent short paragraph. Identify the odd one out. Choose its number as your answer and key it in.1. One argument is that actors that do not fit within a single, well-defined category may suffer an “illegitimacy discount”.
2. Others believe that complex identities confuse audiences about an organization’s role or purpose.
3. Some organizations have complex and multidimensional identities that span or combine categories, while other organizations possess narrow identities.
4. Identity is one of the most important features of organizations, but there exist opposing views among sociologists about how identity affects organizational performance.
5. Those who think that complex identities are beneficial point to the strategic advantages of ambiguity, and organizations’ potential to differentiate themselves from competitors.

33) Answer: 1

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Solution:

Statement 1 says that actors who do not fit within a certain category such as “humour”, “action” etc will face certain difficulty

Statement 2 has a negative tone. It starts with “others”  indicating that the preceding statement is likely to have a positive tone.

Statement 4 is a good opening statement as it sets the agenda for the passage by saying that there are opposing views with regard to effects of identities in organisations.

Statement 5 is a favourable view to complex identities, a positive tone. Hence 52 is a logical block.

Statement 3 cannot open the paragraph as the succeeding statement 4 will be disconnected to the central idea of statement 1. Statement 3 can neither be a conclusion as it is too generic. Hence, statement 3 can logically occur only after statement 4 and before the logical block 52.

4 – Idea of organisational identity introduced
3 – One of the features of organisational identities explained
52 – Two opposing views expressed

Statement 1 is unrelated to organisational identity as it speaks about stereotyping the actors.
Hence statement 1 is odd one out

Question 34: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:

1. For feminists, the question of how we read is inextricably linked with the question of what we read.
2. Elaine Showalter’s critique of the literary curriculum is exemplary of this work.
3. Androcentric literature structures the reading experience differently depending on the gender of the reader.
4. The documentation of this realization was one of the earliest tasks undertaken by feminist critics.
5. More specifically, the feminist inquiry into the activity of reading begins with the realization that the literary canon is androcentric, and that this has a profoundly damaging effect on women readers.

34) Answer: 3

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Solution:

The passage is focused on delineating the mechanism of reading as perceived by feminists (and the criticism associated with it). The arrangement (1)-(5)-(4)-(2) forms a coherent paragraph and Statement (3) stands out like a sore thumb. While the passage describes the elements associated with a feminist perspective, (3) brings in a description of androcentric literature that does not align with the context.

Question 35: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

1. Relying on narrative structure alone, indigenous significances of nineteenth-century San folktales are hard to determine.
2. Using their supernatural potency, benign shamans transcend the levels of the San cosmos in order to deal with social conflict and to protect material resources and enjoy a measure of respect that sets them apart from ordinary people.
3. Selected tales reveal that they deal with a form of spiritual conflict that has social implications and concern conflict between people and living or dead malevolent shamans.
4. Meaning can be elicited, and the tales contextualized, by probing beneath the narrative of verbatim, original-language records and exploring the connotations of highly significant words and phrases.

35) Answer: 1432

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Solution:

Statement (1) introduces the predicament we face: the difficulty in understanding the indigenous significance of the nineteenth century San folktales by simply probing the narrative structure. The author indicates that there are additional variables that need to be considered. The aspect of evaluating elements beyond the “the narrative of verbatim” as highlighted in Statement (4). The outcome of such a methodology of exploring these narratives is then presented in the Statements (3) followed by (2). Statement (3) highlights dead-malevolent shamans while (2) talks about benign shamans. Hence, we obtain (1)-(4)-(3)-(2) as a coherent paragraph.

Question 36: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

1. Tensions and sometimes conflict remain an issue in and between the 11 states in South East Asia (Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Timor-Leste and Vietnam).
2. China’s rise as a regional military power and its claims in the South China Sea have become an increasingly pressing security concern for many South East Asian states.
3. Since the 1990s, the security environment of South East Asia has seen both continuity and profound changes.
4. These concerns cause states from outside the region to take an active interest in South East Asian security.

36) Answer: 3124

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Solution:

Statement (3) introduces the core message: the continuing concerns in the region of South-East Asia. It highlights that since the 1990s there have been dynamic changes in the security environment of this region. Statment (1) adds details by listing the countries present in this region and the existing environment rife with tension/conflict {a transition from the 1990s into the present world}. Statement (2) continues on this line and cites an event in this regard: China becoming a pressing security concern for the regional countries. Statement (4) puts a cap on this discussion by indicating that the persisting regional instability attracts entities from outside the region. Hence, (3)-(1)-(2)-(4) forms a coherent arrangement.

Question 37: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:

1. Talk was the most common way for enslaved men and women to subvert the rules of their bondage, to gain more agency than they were supposed to have.
2. Even in conditions of extreme violence and unfreedom, their words remained ubiquitous, ephemeral, irrepressible, and potentially transgressive.
3. Slaves came from societies in which oaths, orations, and invocations carried great potency, both between people and as a connection to the all-powerful spirit world.
4. Freedom of speech and the power to silence may have been preeminent markers of white liberty in Colonies, but at the same time, slavery depended on dialogue: slaves could never be completely muted.
5. Slave-owners obsessed over slave talk, though they could never control it, yet feared its power to bind and inspire—for, as everyone knew, oaths, whispers, and secret conversations bred conspiracy and revolt.

37) Answer: 3

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Solution:

Statements (1), (2), (4) and (5) discuss the aspect of how talking/freedom of speech was a significant facet associated with the slaves. They emphasise how this element was central to slavery  { “slaves could never be completely muted”}. Contrarily, Statment (3) goes on a tangential route that associates the potency of “oaths, orations, and invocations” based on the origin of the slaves {discusses “…a connection to the all-powerful spirit world...” which is clearly out of place}. Thus, Statement (3) is the odd-one-out here.

Question 38: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

1. Man has used poisons for assassination purposes ever since the dawn of civilization, against individual enemies but also occasionally against armies.
2. These dangers were soon recognized, and resulted in two international declarations—in 1874 in Brussels and in 1899 in The Hague—that prohibited the use of poisoned weapons.
3. The foundation of microbiology by Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch offered new prospects for those interested in biological weapons because it allowed agents to be chosen and designed on a rational basis.
4. Though treaties were all made in good faith, they contained no means of control, and so fail

38) Answer: 1324

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Solution:

Statement (1) serves as a general introduction to the topic: an inclination towards using poison {or associated agents}. The author mentions that the utility of this element has existed since the dawn of civilization. Statment (3) supplements this idea by mentioning that certain advancements served as a new avenue for the zealots of this subject. Statement (2) delineates on the safeguard that was put into place once the threat posed by this domain was realized. Statement (4) pinpoints the flaw in this safeguard. Hence, we notice that (1)-(3)-(2)-(4) forms a logical arrangement.

Question 39: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. Complex computational elements of the CNS are organized according to a “nested” hierarchic criterion; the organization is not permanent and can change dynamically from moment to moment as they carry out a computational task.
2. Echolocation in bats exemplifies adaptation produced by natural selection; a function not produced by natural selection for its current use is exaptation — feathers might have originally arisen in the context of selection for insulation.
3. From a structural standpoint, consistent with exaptation, the living organism is organized as a complex of “Russian Matryoshka Dolls” — smaller structures are contained within larger ones in multiple layers.
4. The exaptation concept, and the Russian-doll organization concept of living beings deduced from studies on evolution of the various apparatuses in mammals, can be applied for the most complex human organ: the central nervous system (CNS).

39) Answer: 2431

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Solution:

Statement (2) introduces us to certain evolutionary influences in the bodily mechanisms of animals, especially mammals (bats). Statement (4) continues on the observed influence on the various apparatuses in mammals, specifically in the case of the most complex human organ: the central nervous system (CNS). The author mentions that the example of exaptation and Russian dolls serve to assist in our understanding of this complex organ (CNS). The significance of the Russian dolls is elaborated in Statement (3), specifically with regard to its structural implications: ” smaller structures are contained within larger ones in multiple layers“—this portryas the presence of some structural hierarchy that can be observed in such complex apparatuses. Statement (1) highlights how the complex elements in the CNS are organised in a “nested hierarchic criterion”, thereby, serving as a continuation to (3). Therefore, (2)-(4)-(3)-(1) forms a coherent paragraph.

Question 40: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. It advocated a conservative approach to antitrust enforcement that espouses faith in efficient markets and voiced suspicion regarding the merits of judicial intervention to correct anticompetitive practices.
2. Many industries have consistently gained market share, the lion’s share – without any official concern; the most successful technology companies have grown into veritable titans, on the premise that they advance ‘public interest’.
3. That the new anticompetitive risks posed by tech giants like Google, Facebook, and Amazon, necessitate new legal solutions could be attributed to the dearth of enforcement actions against monopolies and the few cases challenging mergers in the USA.
4. The criterion of ‘consumer welfare standard’ and the principle that antitrust law should serve consumer interests and that it should protect competition rather than individual competitors was an antitrust law introduced by, and named after, the ‘Chicago school’.

40) Answer: 4123

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Solution:

Statement (4) opens the discussion by mentioning an “antitrust law” and a few essential features attached to it. Statement (1) further describes this provision {“...It advocated...” }: the move to support an efficient market and curb anti-competitive practises. Statement (2) then elaborates on the latter point of anticompetitive practices and subsequently, highlights the relevance of this provision. Statement (3) further emphasises the  necessity of  “new legal solutions” to deal with the elements discussed earlier {in (2) and (3)}. Hence, (4)-(1)-(2)-(3) forms a logical arrangement.

Question 41: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:
1. Machine learning models are prone to learning human-like biases from the training data that feeds these algorithms.
2. Hate speech detection is part of the on-going effort against oppressive and abusive language on social media.
3. The current automatic detection models miss out on something vital: context.
4. It uses complex algorithms to flag racist or violent speech faster and better than human beings alone.
5. For instance, algorithms struggle to determine if group identifiers like “gay” or “black” are used in offensive or prejudiced ways because they’re trained on imbalanced datasets with unusually high rates of hate speech.

41) Answer: 3

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Solution:

On reading the statements, the arrangement (2)-(4)-(1)-(5) can be linked to form a paragraph, while Statement (3) stands out. Statements (2) and (4) talk about hate speech detection and the algorithms involved, while Statements (1) and (5) indicate the issue associated with the aforementioned algorithms. Hence, (3) is the odd one out.

Question 42: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:
1. The logic of displaying one’s inner qualities through outward appearance was based on a distinction between being a woman and being feminine.
2. ‘Appearance’ became a signifier of conduct – to look was to be and conformity to the feminine ideal was measured by how well women could use the tools of the fashion and beauty industries.
3. The makeover-centric media sets out subtly and not-so-subtly, ‘good’ and ‘bad’ ways to be a woman, layering these over inequalities of race and class.
4. The denigration of working-class women and women of colour often centres on their perceived failure to embody feminine beauty.
5. ‘Woman’ was considered a biological category, but femininity was a ‘process’ by which women became specific kinds of women.

42) Answer: 3

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Solution:

Statement (1) talks about how the “logic” of determining a woman’s inner quality boiled down to the distinction between the perception of “being a woman and being feminine”. Statement (5) highlights the difference in this understanding: the former being a ‘biological category’ and latter being a ‘process’. Statement (2) continues on the manner in which the measure of “feminine ideal” was dependent on a woman’s appearance. Statement (4) continues on this line by presenting how the incapacity to meet up to this ideal led to the denigration of working-class women and women of colour. We notice that Statement (3) is the odd one out here.

Question 43: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. Each one personified a different aspect of good fortune.
2. The others were versions of popular Buddhist gods, Hindu gods and Daoist gods.
3. Seven popular Japanese deities, the Shichi Fukujin, were considered to bring good luck and happiness.
4. Although they were included in the Shinto pantheon, only two of them, Daikoku and Ebisu, were indigenous Japanese gods.

43) Answer: 3142

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Solution:

Statement (3) opens the paragraph by introducing the subject: seven popular Japanese deities who bring good luck. Statement (1) then comments on the aspect of good fortune followed by statements (4) and (2). Statement (4) clarifies how only two of these seven entities qualify as indigenous Japanese gods while Statement (2) comments on the origin/background of the rest. Hence, (3)-(1)-(4)-(2) forms a coherent arrangement.

Question 44: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:

1. You can observe the truth of this in every e-business model ever constructed: monopolise and protect data.
2. Economists and technologists believe that a new kind of capitalism is being created – different from industrial capitalism as was merchant capitalism.
3. In 1962, Kenneth Arrow, the guru of mainstream economics, said that in a free  market economy the purpose of inventing things is to create intellectual property rights.
4. There is, alongside the world of monopolised information and surveillance, a different dynamic growing up: information as a social good, incapable of being owned or exploited or priced.
5. Yet information is abundant. Information goods are freely replicable. Once a thing is made, it can be copied and pasted infinitely.

44) Answer: 2

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Solution:

We notice that Statement  (3) serves as an introduction by touching upon the topic of intellectual property rights. Statement (2) continues along this line and mentions how ‘monopolizing and protecting data’ {an idea perhaps associated with the aforementioned intellectual property rights} can be observed in certain business models. Thus, the discussion revolves around data/information and its place in the market system. Statement (5) mentions that despite the monopolization, “information is abundant”. And this brings us to the description in Statement (4) which portrays information differently – as a social good. Hence, although a bit discontiguous, 3-1-5-4 seems to talk about the same subject while Statement (2) {on “Merchant Capitalism”} diverges from it. Therefore, (2) is the odd-one-out.

Question 45: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. But the attention of the layman, not surprisingly, has been captured by the atom bomb, although there is at least a chance that it may never be used again.
2. Of all the changes introduced by man into the household of nature, [controlled] large-scale nuclear fission is undoubtedly the most dangerous and most profound.
3. The danger to humanity created by the so-called peaceful uses of atomic energy may, however, be much greater.
4. The resultant ionizing radiation has become the most serious agent of pollution of the environment and the greatest threat to man’s survival on earth.

45) Answer: 2413

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Solution:

Of all the sentences, sentence 2 will be the starting point because it introduces the concept of nuclear fission. Sentence 4 continues this concept by talking about the “resulting ionizing radiation”. Out of sentence 1 and 3, 1 will come first because it introduces the concept of atom bomb and sentence 3 further explores it by talking about how the impact of atomic energy could be much greater. Hence the correct order is 2413.

Question 46: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:

1. The victim’s trauma after assault rarely gets the attention that we lavish on the moment of damage that divided the survivor from a less encumbered past.
2. One thing we often do with narratives of sexual assault is sort their respective parties into different temporalities: it seems we are interested in perpetrators’ futures and victims’ pasts.
3. One result is that we don’t have much of a vocabulary for what happens in a victim’s life after the painful past has been excavated, even when our shared language gestures toward the future, as the term “survivor” does.
4. Even the most charitable questions asked about the victims seem to focus on the past, in pursuit of understanding or of corroboration of painful details.
5. As more and more stories of sexual assault have been made public in the last two years, the genre of their telling has exploded — crimes have a tendency to become not just stories but genres.

46) Answer: 4

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Solution:

The subject here is about the narratives of sexual assault and the subsequent treatment of the victims. The paragraph begins with Statement (5) which talks about sexual assault narratives turning into a genre. Statement (2) comments on a stark element within these narratives: the general interest in perpetrators’ futures and victims’ pasts. Statement (3) delineates on the outcome of the latter: the focus on a victim’s past’ and Statement (1) further adds to this point. Although Statement (4) appears on a similar topic, we cannot place it in the above arrangement since it diverges into the subject of asking questions to the survivors {an element that is yet to be discussed}. Thus, (4) is the odd-one-out.

Question 47: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

1. It also has four movable auxiliary telescopes 1.8 m in diameter.
2. Completed in 2006, the Very Large Telescope (VLT) has four reflecting telescopes, 8.2 m in diameter that can observe objects 4 billion times weaker than can normally be seen with the naked eye.
3. This configuration enables one to distinguish an astronaut on the Moon.
4. When these are combined with the large telescopes, they produce what is called interferometry: a simulation of the power of a mirror 16 m in diameter and the resolution of a telescope of 200 m.

47) Answer: 2143

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Solution:

This is a very easy parajumble question. Sentence 2 introduces the topic, VLT. Option 4 further explores it by discussing about the telescopes. 43 forms a natural block as one provides the use and other the application.  Hence 2143 is the correct order

Question 48: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. While you might think that you see or are aware of all the changes that happen in your immediate environment, there is simply too much information for your brain to fully process everything.
2. Psychologists use the term ‘change blindness’ to describe this tendency of people to be blind to changes though they are in the immediate environment.
3. It cannot be aware of every single thing that happens in the world around you.
4. Sometimes big shifts happen in front of your eyes and you are not at all aware of these changes.

48) Answer: 1342

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Solution:

1 and 3 forms a natural block , as the “It” in sentence 3 refers to the “brain” discussed in statement 1. Again 4 and 2 forms a natural block, as the “this tendency” in statement 2 , refers to the tendency of the people ignoring things happening in front of their eyes as discussed in statement 4. Hence the correct order is 1342

Question 49: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:
1. There is a dark side to academic research, especially in India, and at its centre is the phenomenon of predatory journals.
2. But in truth, as long as you pay, you can get anything published.
3. In look and feel thus, they are exactly like any reputed journal.
4. They claim to be indexed in the most influential databases, say they possess editorial boards that comprise top scientists and researchers, and claim to have a rigorous peer-review structure.
5. But a large section of researchers and scientists across the world are at the receiving end of nothing short of an academic publishing scam.

49) Answer: 5

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Solution:

The given collection of statements focuses on predatory journals. The author begins by mentioning the subject {Statement 1} in a grim tone. He highlights the kind of claims that these journals state: presence in ‘influential databases’, quality ‘editorial boards’ and a ‘rigorous peer-review structure’ {Statement 4}. On the surface, ‘they are exactly like any reputed journal’ {Statement 3}. However, the ground reality is starkly different: paying money allows you to publish anything in such predatory journal {Statement 2}. Hence, arrangement 1432 forms a coherent paragraph with predatory journals as the centre of attention.

Statement 5 deviates from this subject. Although the topic seems to be about academic publishing, the focus is no longer on predatory journals, but instead, it becomes a bit broader. Since there is a mismatch in scope, we discern Statement 5 as the odd one out.

Question 50: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. The work is more than the text, for the text only takes on life, when it is realized and furthermore the realization is by no means independent of the individual disposition of the reader.
2. The convergence of text and reader brings the literary work into existence and this convergence is not to be identified either with the reality of the text or with the individual disposition of the reader.
3. From this polarity it follows that the literary work cannot be completely identical with the text, or with the realization of the text, but in fact must lie halfway between the two.
4. The literary work has two poles, which we might call the artistic and the aesthetic; the artistic refers to the text created by the author, and the aesthetic to the realization accomplished by the reader.

50) Answer: 4312

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Solution:

A quick scan of the statements tells us that the statements discuss the nature of literary work – how it originates from the convergence of the text and the disposition of the readers. Note the phrase “From this polarity” in statement 3 – this must refer to the distinction presented in statement 4 [“literary work has two poles“] Statement 4 shows how the literary work comprises of two ends – (1) the artistic tied to the text, and (2) the aesthetic tied to the reader’s realisation of the text. Statement 3 then underlines how the literary work cannot be equated to either of these and must lie somewhere midway netween the two. This idea is carried forward in Statement 1, which elaborates how the literary work is more than the text and becomes alive only when realised by the reader – in a way, this highlights how the literary work takes form due to the interplay between the artistic and the aesthetic. Statement 2 then extends on this idea of “convergence” [shown in 1] and reiterates the idea in 3 that the literary work, despite being an amalgamation of the two components, must not be mistaken with “the text or with the individual disposition of the reader.” Hence, we obtain a coherent paragraph from the arrangement 4-3-1-2.

Question 51: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:
1. The legal status of resources mined in space remains ambiguous; and while the market for asteroid minerals is currently nonexistent, this is likely to change as technical hurdles diminish.
2. Outer space is a commons, and all of it is open for exploration, however, space law developed in the 1950s and 60s is state-centric and arguably ill-suited to a commercial future.
3. Laws adopted by the US and Luxembourg are first steps, but they only protect firms from competing claims by their compatriots; a Chinese company will not be bound by US law.
4. Critics say the US is conferring rights that it has no authority to confer; Russia in particular has condemned this, citing the US’ disrespect for international law.
5. At issue now is commercial activity, as private firms—rather than nation states — look to space for profit.

51) Answer: 4

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph is about the inadequacy of laws about commercial activities in space in the wake of rapid technological developments in the same field. All sentences, other than 4, talk about this inadequacy or highlight why the laws are inadequate. Option 4 is out of context here, as it talks about the US disrespecting international law. It does not relate to the inadequacy of space law for commercial activities, and hence, is the answer.

Question 52: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. In the central nervous systems of other animal species, such a comprehensive regeneration of neurons has not yet been proven beyond doubt.
2. Biologists from the University of Bayreuth have discovered a uniquely rapid form of regeneration in injured neurons and their function in the central nervous system of zebrafish.
3. They studied the Mauthner cells, which are solely responsible for the escape behaviour of the fish, and previously regarded as incapable of regeneration.
4. However, their ability to regenerate crucially depends on the location of the injury.

52) Answer: 2341

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Solution:

A preliminary read gives us a crude idea about the subject: regeneration of neurons in zebrafish. The discovery is introduced in Statement 2 {‘a uniquely rapid form of regeneration in injured neurons and their function in the central nervous system of zebrafish.’} Additional information is presented in statement 3 {what kind of cells were studied? how has the status quo changed?}. Statement 4 presents further clarification concerning the zebrafish {location of the injury is an essential variable} and Statement 1 transitions into an opinion about the regeneration phenomena in other animal species. Hence, arrangement 2341 forms a coherent paragraph.

Question 53: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. A popular response is the exhortation to plant more trees.
2. It seems all but certain that global warming will go well above two degrees—quite how high no one knows yet.
3. Burning them releases it, which is why the scale of forest fires in the Amazon basin last year garnered headlines.
4. This is because trees sequester carbon by absorbing carbon dioxide.

53) Answer: 2143

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Solution:

The given collection of statements appears to correlate trees and global warming. Statements 4 and 3 form a logical block since they emphasise the significance of trees. The author states that trees help in reducing carbon dioxide while burning trees leads to the release of carbon dioxide {‘it’ in statement 3 refers to carbon dioxide}. Statements 2 and 1 form a pair since 2 introduces a general belief and 1 mentions a ‘popular response’ to the same. People respond to the news about the increase in temperatures (due to global warming) by suggesting that we should plant more trees. The statement pair 4-3 then justifies this familiar exhortation. Hence, the correct arrangement is 2143.

Question 54: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. But today there is an epochal challenge to rethink and reconstitute the vision and practice of development as a shared responsibility – a sharing which binds both the agent and the audience, the developed world and the developing, in a bond of shared destiny.
2. We are at a crossroads now in our vision and practice of development.
3. This calls for the cultivation of an appropriate ethical mode of being in our lives which enables us to realize this global and planetary situation of shared living and responsibility.
4. Half a century ago, development began as a hope for a better human possibility, but in the last fifty years, this hope has lost itself in the dreary desert of various kinds of hegemonic applications.

54) Answer: 2413

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph is about the change needed in the way we go about development. 2 introduces the topic at hand, that this is a watershed moment when it comes to the subject of development. 41 make a mandatory pair, which talks about what the purpose of development was at the beginning and how it needs to be altered to suit the needs of today. 3 then aptly ends the paragraph, suggesting the measures that could be taken to counter the same. Hence, he proper sequence would be 2413.

Question 55: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:
1. The care with which philosophers examine arguments for and against forms of biotechnology makes this an excellent primer on formulating and assessing moral arguments.
2. Although most people find at least some forms of genetic engineering disquieting, it is not easy to articulate why: what is wrong with re-engineering our nature?
3. Breakthroughs in genetics present us with the promise that we will soon be able to prevent a host of debilitating diseases, and the predicament that our newfound genetic knowledge may enable us to enhance our genetic traits.
4. To grapple with the ethics of enhancement, we need to confront questions that verge on theology, which is why modern philosophers and political theorists tend to shrink from them.
5. One argument is that the drive for human perfection through genetics is objectionable as it represents a bid for mastery that fails to appreciate the gifts of human powers and achievements.

55) Answer: 1

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Solution:

The sentences have been taken from Harvard’s Justice, and have been modified considerably. Since a paragraph has not been directly taken here, the better way of elimination here would be to evaluate the major points of each sentence and see which one runs tangent to the discussion at hand. (During the examination, one must try both ways to solve: arranging and eliminating.)

1. Using the debate on biotechnology to evaluate moral arguments.

2. Why is bioengineering disputed?

3. The promise of bioengineering.

4. Ethics of bioengineering based on theology.

5. The theological argument.

We can see here that the last four sentences try to examine why bioengineering is disputed in spite of its huge potential. Then reasons are given about the question on its ethicality, and how it is closely associated with theology on the matter.

1 however runs tangential to the discussion. The main focus is bioengineering while 1 aims to shift the focus and use the debate on the matter as a stepping stone to reach another goal: evaluating/formulating moral arguments. Hence, 1 is the odd one out here.

Question 56: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:
1. It has taken on a warm, fuzzy glow in the advertising world, where its potential is being widely discussed, and it is being claimed as the undeniable wave of the future.
2. There is little enthusiasm for this in the scientific arena; for them marketing is not a science, and only a handful of studies have been published in scientific journals.
3. The new, growing field of neuromarketing attempts to reveal the inner workings of consumer behaviour and is an extension of the study of how choices and decisions are made.
4. Some see neuromarketing as an attempt to make the “art” of advertising into a science, being used by marketing experts to back up their proposals with some form of real data.
5. The marketing gurus have already started drawing on psychology in developing tests and theories, and advertising people have borrowed the idea of the focus group from social scientists.

56) Answer: 5

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences tells us that the paragraph must be about the industry of neuromarketing, which is still in its embryonic phase. 3 can be the opening sentence to the paragraph, as it introduces the topic at hand. All the other sentences need a sentence before them that introduces what is being talked about.

1,4, and 2 then go on to talk about the opinion of differernt associated parties on the matter. It has taken the advertising industry by storm. Others feel that this ‘art’ is being masked as a science, and many lack enthusiasm on the matter.

5 however, does not fit in here. The reason is that it talks about ‘psychology’, which is different from the use of neural science. Even if one is not familiar with the difference, we can see that it goes a step forward to talk about the application of a science, whereas the paragraph is mostly concerned with a growing science and how it is shaping public opinion. Hence, 5 is the odd one out.

Question 57: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. Look forward a few decades to an invention which can end the energy crisis, change the global economy and curb climate change at a stroke: commercial fusion power.
2. To gain meaningful insights, logic has to be accompanied by asking probing questions of nature through controlled tests, precise observations and clever analysis.
3. The greatest of all inventions is the über-invention that has provided the insights on which others depend: the modern scientific method.
4. This invention is inconceivable without the scientific method; it will rest on the application of a diverse range of scientific insights, such as the process transforming hydrogen into helium to release huge amounts of energy.

57) Answer: 3214

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph is about great inventions, focusing on the importance of scientific method and how it forms the foundation for other great inventions. 32 forms an introductory pair that claims that the modern scientific method must be the greatest of all inventions and then talks about its mode of inquiry.

1 then presents an invention that could solve many problems in the future. 4 then claims that the invention would have been impossible if the scientific method did not precede it. Hence, the coherent arrangement is 3214.

Question 58: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. The US has long maintained that the Northwest Passage is an international strait through which its commercial and military vessels have the right to pass without seeking Canada’s permission.
2. Canada, which officially acquired the group of islands forming the Northwest Passage in 1880, claims sovereignty over all the shipping routes through the Passage.
3. The dispute could be transitory, however, as scientists speculate that the entire Arctic Ocean will soon be ice-free in summer, so ship owners will not have to ask for permission to sail through any of the Northwest Passage routes.
4. The US and Canada have never legally settled the question of access through the Passage, but have an agreement whereby the US needs to seek Canada’s consent for any transit.

58) Answer: 2143

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph is about the dispute between the US and Canada over the Northwest passage.

2 is a better opening sentence than 1 as 21 forms a good introduction into the dispute. 2 mentions that Canada claims ownership over the passage, and 1 then mentions the counterclaim the US offers: the passage is an international route.

43 becomes a mandatory pair which follows 21. 4 mentions the historical development in the dispute: it has not been legally settled yet. 3 then hints about the future of this dispute: the dispute itself would vanish once the entire Arctic begins to stay ice-free in summer.

Hence, the coherent arrangement is 2143.

Question 59: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. Businesses find automation, such as robotic employees, a big asset in terms of productivity and efficiency.
2. But in recent years, robotics has had increasing impacts on unemployment, not just of manual labour, as computers are rapidly handling some white-collar and service-sector work.
3. For years politicians have promised workers that they would bring back their jobs by clamping down on trade, offshoring and immigration.
4. Economists, based on their research, say that the bigger threat to jobs now is not globalisation but automation.

59) Answer: 3412

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Solution:

A quick read of the sentences tells us that the paragraph is about the unemployment caused by automation. The passage is best opened by 3, which provides the current state of unemployment. The politicians view globalisation as the factor exacerbating unemployment. 4 contrasts this by saying that expert analysis tells a different story. It is automation that could prove to be a crucial factor. 12 forms a pair, that further elucidate the kind and scope of impact that automation has on jobs. Hence, the correct sequence would be 3412.

Question 60: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. It is regimes of truth that make certain relationships speakable – relationships, like subjectivities, are constituted through discursive formations, which sustain regimes of truth.
2. Relationships are nothing without the communication that brings them into being; interpersonal communication is connected to knowledge shared by interlocutors, and scholars should attend to relational histories in their analyses.
3. A Foucauldian approach to relationships goes beyond these conceptions of discourse and history to macrolevel regimes of truth as constituting relationships.
4. Reconsidering micropractices within relationships that are constituted within and simultaneously contributors to regimes of truth acknowledges the central position of power/knowledge in the constitution of what has come to be considered true and real.

60) Answer: 2314

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences tells us that the paragraph is about the different conceptions of relationships. 2 explains that communication is an important aspect here, and should be studied properly. 3 mentions a Foucauldian approach, that goes beyond this, and includes macrolevel regimes of truth. 1 then explains why the concept of regimes of truth is relevant here. 4 then aptly concludes the paragraph, implying how the micropractices within the relationships allude the importance of knowledge/power. Thus, the correct sequence would be 2314.

Question 61: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:
1. A typical example is Wikipedia, where the overwhelming majority of contributors are male and so the available content is skewed to reflect their interests.
2. Without diversity of thought and representation, society is left with a distorted picture of future options, which are likely to result in augmenting existing inequalities.
3. Gross gender inequality in the technology sector is problematic, not only for the industry-wide marginalisation of women, but because technology designs embody the values of their makers.
4. While redressing unequal representation in the workplace is a step in the right direction, broader social change is needed to address the structural inequalities embedded within the current organisation of work and employment.
5. If technology merely reflects the perspectives of the male stereotype, then new technologies are unlikely to accommodate the diverse social contexts within which they operate.

61) Answer: 4

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph must be about the disparity in the representation of different genders. Sentences 1,2,3, and 5 are concerned with the problems that arise when the representation of females is less.

4, however, runs tangent to the discussion at hand. It talks about ‘structural inequalities’. This sentence, if included in the paragraph, would render it incomplete as all the other sentences talk about gender inequality and not structural inequality. Thus, 4 is out of context here.

Question 62: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:
1. They often include a foundation course on navigating capitalism with Chinese characteristics and have replaced typical cases from US corporates with a focus on how Western theories apply to China’s buzzing local firms.
2. The best Chinese business schools look like their Western rivals but are now growing distinct in terms of what they teach and the career boost they offer.
3. Western schools have enhanced their offerings with double degrees, popular with domestic and overseas students alike—and boosted the prestige of their Chinese partners.
4. For students, a big draw is the chance to rub shoulders with captains of China’s private sector.
5. Their business courses now largely cater to the growing demand from China Inc which has become more global, richer and ready to recruit from this sinocentric student body.

62) Answer: 3

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences tells us that the paragraph is about Chinese business schools and how they stand in comparison to their western counterparts. 2 mentions that thought they have a similar outlook, Chinese business schools have a different curriculum and are also different in what they have to offer. 1, 4, and 5 further talk about the peculiarity of the Chinese schools.

3, however, runs tangent to the discussion. It shifts the focus from Chinese schools and describes western schools. Hence, 3 is out of the context here.

Question 63: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. Restitution of artefacts to original cultures could face legal obstacles, as many Western museums are legally prohibited from disposing off their collections.
2. This is in response to countries like Nigeria, which are pressurising European museums to return their precious artefacts looted by colonisers in the past.
3. Museums in Europe today are struggling to come to terms with their colonial legacy, some taking steps to return artefacts but not wanting to lose their prized collections.
4. Legal hurdles notwithstanding, politicians and institutions in France and Germany would now like to defuse the colonial time bombs, and are now backing the return of part of their holdings.

63) Answer: 3214

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph is about restitution of articles that were taken from colonies. 3 introduces the topic at hand: European museums are trying to come to terms with their colonial legacy by returning artefacts. 2 follows 3, providing the reason why this development has taken place. 1 then further describes the current situation: the legal obstacles this action could face. 4 concludes the paragraph by saying that other than these legal obstacles, institutions in France and Germany are seriously backing the move. Hence, the correct arrangement is 3214.

Question 64: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. Some company leaders are basing their decisions on locating offices to foster innovation and growth, as their best-performing inventors suffered the greatest productivity losses when their commutes grew longer.
2. Shorter commutes support innovation by giving employees more time in the office and greater opportunities for in-person collaboration, while removing the physical strain of a long commute.
3. This is not always the case: remote work does not automatically lead to greater creativity and productivity as office water-cooler conversations are also very important for innovation.
4. Some see the link between long commutes and productivity as support for work-from-home scenarios, as many workers have grown accustomed to their commute-free arrangements during the pandemic.

64) Answer: 2143

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Solution:

The given set of sentences underlines the relationship between commuting and productivity and how it can impact innovation. The idea is that shorter commutes can support innovation by giving employees more time in the office and opportunities for in-person collaboration, while longer commutes can be physically draining and can lead to decreased productivity. This correlation is first highlighted in statement 2, which sets the context for subsequent discussion. We note that statements 4 and 3 form a logical block since 4 presents an idea [work-from-home scenarios to improve productivity] and 3 extends on it [why the idea in 4 might not be effective]. The marker word ‘some’ in 4 helps us link it with statement 1, which discusses the opinions of “some company leaders.” So 1 puts forth the belief of one group of company leaders, and 4 presents us with the opinion held by a few other company leaders. This allows us to form the logical block: [1-4-3]. We can place 2 at the beginning of this structure to obtain a coherent paragraph. Hence, the correct answer is 2143.

Question 65: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. The creative element in product design has become of paramount importance as it is one of the few ways a firm or industry can sustain a competitive advantage over its rivals.
2. In fact, the creative element in the value of world industry would be larger still, if we added the contribution of the creative element in other industries, such as the design of tech accessories.
3. The creative industry is receiving a lot of attention today as its growth rate is faster than that of the world economy as a whole.
4. It is for this reason that today’s trade issues are increasingly involving intellectual property, as Western countries have an interest in protecting their revenues along with freeing trade in non-tangibles.

65) Answer: 3214

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph is about the applications of the creative element in the world economy. Sentence 3 gives the introduction by contrasting the growth rate of the world economy and the creative industry. Statement 2 follows 3 by stating that the difference will be more if we consider the contribution of the creative element in other industries. Sentence 1 extends this idea by explaining how the creative element in product design can help sustain a competitive advantage. Sentence 4 concludes the paragraph by stating the implications of the application of the creative element mentioned in sentence 1.

Thus, the correct order will be 3-2-1-4.

Question 66: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. Fish skin collagen has excellent thermo-stability and tensile strength making it ideal for use as bandage that adheres to the skin and adjusts to body movements.
2. Collagen, one of the main structural proteins in connective tissues in the human body, is well known for promoting skin regeneration.
3. Fish skin swims in here as diseases and bacteria that affect fish are different from most human pathogens.
4. The risk of introducing disease agents into other species through the use of pig and cow collagen proteins for wound healing has inhibited its broader applications in the medical field.

66) Answer: 2431

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph is about the applications of a structural protein called Collagen. Sentence 2 introduces the paragraph by defining Collagen. 2-4 is an obvious link, as sentence 2 ends by stating that Collagen promotes skin regeneration,  and sentence 4 explains why it is not widely used in the medical field despite this. Sentence 3 extends the idea given in sentence 4 by contrasting the bacteria affecting fish skins with human pathogens. Sentence 1 follows sentence 3 by providing the applications of fish skin collagen.

Thus, the correct order will be 2-4-3-1.

Question 67: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. The trajectory of cheerfulness through the self is linked to the history of the word ‘cheer’ which comes from an Old French meaning ‘face’.
2. Translations of the Bible into vernacular languages, expanded the noun ‘cheer’ into the more abstract ‘cheerful-ness’, something that circulates as an emotional and social quality defining the self and a moral community.
3. When you take on a cheerful expression, no matter what the state of your soul, your cheerfulness moves into the self: the interior of the self is changed by the power of cheer.
4. People in the medieval ‘Canterbury Tales’ have a ‘piteous’ or a ‘sober’ cheer; ‘cheer’ is an expression and a body part, lying at the intersection of emotions and physiognomy.

67) Answer: 3142

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Solution:

The given set of sentences talks about the concept of cheerfulness and how it can affect a person’s internal state. It discusses the history of the word “cheer,” which originally referred to a person’s facial expression, and how it came to be associated with an abstract concept of positive emotion. The passage also notes that translations of the Bible into vernacular languages helped to expand the meaning of “cheer” to include a sense of cheerfulness or positivity as a quality of the self and a moral community. We note that sentences 1, 2 and 4 are part of the timeline the author traces, while statement 3 is a broad claim that would serve as an apt introduction. The idea of cheerfulness and self that is mentioned in 3 is linked to the ” trajectory of cheerfulness through the self” highlighted in statement 1, allowing us to form the pair [3-1]. Note that 4 discusses how cheer came to be perceived as a trait at the intersection of emotion and a physical feature [as highlighted in 1 – where it has been categorised as a facial feature]. Sentence 2 then extends on this idea by how cheerfulness, over time, came to be considered as “an emotional and social quality.” Hence, the correct arrangement is 3142.

Question 68: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. Women may prioritize cooking because they feel they alone are responsible for mediating a toxic and unhealthy food system.
2. Food is commonly framed through the lens of individual choice: you can choose to eat healthily.
3. This is particularly so in a neoliberal context where the state has transferred the responsibility for food onto individual consumers.
4. The individualized framing of choice appeals to a popular desire to experience agency, but draws away from the structural obstacles that stratify individual food choices.

68) Answer: 2431

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Solution:

The statements here discuss how the way we think about food often centres around individual choice, rather than acknowledging the larger societal and structural factors that influence food choices. It also mentions the role of neoliberalism in shifting the responsibility for food onto individual consumers and how this may disproportionately impact women, who may feel a sense of responsibility to navigate and “mediate” an unhealthy food system. Sentences 2 and 4 create a logical block since 2 highlights the framing of food through the “lens of individual choice”, and 4 extends on the impact of such a framing [“appeals to a popular desire to experience agency, but draws away from the structural obstacles that stratify individual food choices”]. “This” in statement 3 refers to the particular outcome of framing underlined in 4, allowing us to create a logical block: [2-4-3]. Statement 1 can be placed at the end of this arrangement to emphasise how women are perhaps disproportionately impacted by the elements discussed in 2-4-3. Hence, the correct answer is 2431.

Question 69: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. From chemical pollutants in the environment to the damming of rivers to invasive species transported through global trade and travel, every environmental issue is different and there is no single tech solution that can solve this crisis.
2. Discourse on the threat of environmental collapse revolves around cutting down emissions, but biodiversity loss and ecosystem collapse are caused by myriad and diverse reasons.
3. This would require legislation that recognises the rights of future generations and other species that allows the judiciary to uphold a much higher standard of environmental protection than currently possible.
4. Clearly, our environmental crisis requires large political solutions, not minor technological ones, so, instead of focusing on infinite growth, we could consider a path of stable-state economies, while preserving markets and healthy competition.

69) Answer: 2143

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Solution:

The statements discuss the complexity of environmental issues and the need for political solutions rather than technological ones to address the threat of environmental collapse. The discussion focuses on the various causes of biodiversity loss and ecosystem collapse, such as chemical pollutants, damming of rivers, and invasive species, and highlights that there is no single technological solution to address these issues. The suggestion is that we should consider moving towards stable-state economies, which preserve markets and competition while also recognizing the rights of future generations and other species and allowing for stronger environmental protections. Statements 1 and 2 both address the complexity and diverse nature of environmental issues. Statement 2 notes that while discourse often focuses on emissions, there are many other factors contributing to environmental collapse, including biodiversity loss and ecosystem collapse. Statement 1 then adds to this by outlining specific examples of diverse causes of environmental problems, including chemical pollutants, damming of rivers, and invasive species. Statements 4 and 3 offer suggestions to combat the issues highlighted in 2 and 1. Hence, the correct arrangement is 2143.

Question 70: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. If I wanted to sit indoors and read, or play Sonic the Hedgehog on a red-hot SegaMega Drive, I would often be made to feel guilty about not going outside to “enjoy it while it lasts”.
2. My mum, quite reasonably, wanted me and my sister out of the house, in the sun.
3. Tales of my mum’s idyllic-sounding childhood in the Sussex countryside, where trees were climbed by 8 am and streams navigated by lunchtime, were passed down to us like folklore.
4. To an introverted kid, that felt like a threat – and the feeling has stayed with me.

70) Answer: 2314

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Solution:

A brief reading of sentences 1 and 4 tells us that they form a pair. In sentence 1, the author described how he/she was made to feel guilty about not going outside while staying Indoors. Statement 4 describes how it felt like a threat for an introverted kid. Thus, 1-4 is a  pair.
Now, out of sentences 2 and 3, 2 initiates the topic of discussion[how the author was impelled by her mother to go in the sun]. Statement 3 gives the information about the tales and folklore given to the author to impel. Thus, 2-3 is a pair.
1 is a direct follow-up to 3; hence, the correct order is 2-3-1-4.

Question 71: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. The more we are able to accept that our achievements are largely out of our control, the easier it becomes to understand that our failures, and those of others, are too.
2. But the raft of recent books about the limits of merit is an important correction to the arrogance of contemporary entitlement and an opportunity to reassert the importance of luck, or grace, in our thinking.
3. Meritocracy as an organising principle is an inevitable function of a free society, as we are designed to see our achievements as worthy of reward.
4. And that in turn should increase our humility and the respect with which we treat our fellow citizens, helping ultimately to build a more compassionate society.

71) Answer: 3214

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph is about the limits to considering meritocracy as an organising principle in a free society. Statement 3 introduces the topic at hand by stating the inevitability of meritocracy. Statement 2 initiates the main idea by citing the general idea given in recent books about the limits of merit and its applicability. Thus, 3-2 will form a pair.
Statement 1 extends this idea by giving the benefits of understanding the limits, and statement 4 follows this by applying this to build a more compassionate society.

Thus, the correct sequence will be 3-2-1-4.

Question 72: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced, would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. Various industrial sectors including retail, transit systems, enterprises, educational institutions, event organizing, finance, travel etc. have now started leveraging these beacons solutions to track and communicate with their customers.
2. A beacon fixed on to a shop wall enables the retailer to assess the proximity of the customer, and come up with a much targeted or personalized communication like offers, discounts and combos on products in each shelf.
3. Smartphones or other mobile devices can capture the beacon signals, and distance can be estimated by measuring received signal strength.
4. Beacons are tiny and inexpensive, micro-location-based technology devices that can send radio frequency signals and notify nearby Bluetooth devices of their presence and transmit information.

72) Answer: 4312

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph is about beacons and their applications.  Statement 4 introduces the topic by giving the definition and its utility. Statement 3 sheds light on the working of beacons. Thus, statement 3 will follow statement 4.

Sentences 1 and 2 discuss the utility of these beacons in different industrial sectors, with statement 2 explaining how the beacon would help retailers.

Thus, the correct order will be 4-3-1-2.

Question 73: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’ s position.
To me, a “classic” means precisely the opposite of what my predecessors understood: a work is classical by reason of its resistance to contemporaneity and supposed universality, by reason of its capacity to indicate human particularity and difference in that past epoch. The classic is not what tells me about shared humanity — or, more truthfully put, what lets me recognize myself as already present in the past, what nourishes in me the illusion that everything has been like me and has existed only to prepare the way for me. Instead, the classic is what gives access to radically different forms of human consciousness for any given generation of readers, and thereby expands for them the range of possibilities of what it means to be a human being.

a) A classic is able to focus on the contemporary human condition and a unified experience of human consciousness.

b) A classical work seeks to resist particularity and temporal difference even as it focuses on a common humanity.

c) A classic is a work exploring the new, going beyond the universal, the contemporary, and the notion of a unified human consciousness.

d) A classic is a work that provides access to a universal experience of the human race as opposed to radically different forms of human consciousness.

73) Answer (C)

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Solution:

The author states that a classic is not which puts him at the centre of the universe but one which gives access to radically different forms of human consciousness.

Let us evaluate the options.

Option A states that a classic should focus on unified human experience. The author mentions the exact opposite in the paragraph. Therefore, we can eliminate option A. We can eliminate option D too since it mentions the polar opposite of what that is mentioned in the paragraph. The author is of the view that a classic should go beyond providing a unified human experience and expose one to radically different forms of human consciousness.

We can eliminate option B since it states that a classic focuses on common humanity. Only option C captures the essence of the given paragraph and hence, option C is the right answer.

Question 74: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’ s position.

A translator of literary works needs a secure hold upon the two languages involved, supported by a good measure of familiarity with the two cultures. For an Indian translating works in an Indian language into English, finding satisfactory equivalents in a generalized western culture of practices and symbols in the original would be less difficult than gaining fluent control of contemporary English. When a westerner works on texts in Indian languages the interpretation of cultural elements will be the major challenge, rather than control over the grammar and essential vocabulary of the language concerned. It is much easier to remedy lapses in language in a text translated into English, than flaws of content. Since it is easier for an Indian to learn the English language than it is for a Briton or American to comprehend Indian culture, translations of Indian texts is better left to Indians.

a) While translating, the Indian and the westerner face the same challenges but they have different skill profiles and the former has the advantage.

b) As preserving cultural meanings is the essence of literary translation Indians’ knowledge of the local culture outweighs the initial disadvantage of lower fluency in English.

c) Indian translators should translate Indian texts into English as their work is less likely to pose cultural problems which are harder to address than the quality of language.

d) Westerners might be good at gaining reasonable fluency in new languages, but as understanding the culture reflected in literature is crucial, Indians remain better placed.

74) Answer (C)

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Solution:

Let us note down the important points put down by the author.

Indians have better knowledge of their culture. A westerner might be fluent in the language but will find it hard to relate to the culture. Indians, on the other hand, might be less fluent in the language but will be able to preserve the culture when a text is translated. Therefore, Indians should translate Indian texts.

Let us evaluate the options now.

Option A states that Indians and Westerners face the same challenges but they have different skill sets. Indians and Westerners face different challenges while translating the text. Indians face difficulty in the language and westerners face difficulty in relating to the culture. Therefore, we can eliminate option A.

Option D fails to capture the fact that the primary intention of the paragraph is not to pit Indians against westerners but to suggest that Indians should translate Indian texts. Also, it does not capture the fact that Indians will retain the advantage only when translating the Indian texts. Therefore, we can eliminate option D.

Option B, though true, fails to capture the India-centric angle that the paragraph adopts. The paragraph places huge emphasis on the term ‘Indian texts’ and only option C manages to capture this fact. Also, only option C captures the fact that it is easier to remedy errors in the language than to fix errors in the interpretation of culture. Therefore, option C is the right answer.

Question 75: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’ s position.

For each of the past three years, temperatures have hit peaks not seen since the birth of meteorology, and probably not for more than 110,000 years. The amount of carbon dioxide in the air is at its highest level in 4 million years. This does not cause storms like Harvey — there have always been storms and hurricanes along the Gulf of Mexico — but it makes them wetter and more powerful. As the seas warm, they evaporate more easily and provide energy to storm fronts. As the air above them warms, it holds more water vapour. For every half a degree Celsius in warming, there is about a 3% increase in atmospheric moisture content. Scientists call this the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. This means the skies fill more quickly and have more to dump. The storm surge was greater because sea levels have risen 20 cm as a result of more than 100 years of human- related global warming which has melted glaciers and thermally expanded the volume of seawater.

a) The storm Harvey is one of the regular, annual ones from the Gulf of Mexico; global warming and Harvey are unrelated phenomena.

b) Global warming does not breed storms but makes them more destructive; the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, though it predicts potential increase in atmospheric moisture content, cannot predict the scale of damage storms might wreck.

c) Global warming melts glaciers, resulting in seawater volume expansion; this enables more water vapour to fill the air above faster. Thus, modern storms contain more destructive energy.

d) It is naive to think that rising sea levels and the force of tropical storms are unrelated; Harvey was destructive as global warming has armed it with more moisture content, but this may not be true of all storms.

75) Answer (C)

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Solution:

Let us note down the important points in the given paragraph.

Global warming does not cause storms but make them more powerful. Due to the increase in the temperature, the air can absorb more moisture. This relationship (the change in the ability to absorb water with the increase in the temperature) is given by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.

Let us evaluate the options.

The author provides storm Harvey as an example to illustrate how increased temperatures can arm the storms with more power. Harvey is not the central theme of the given paragraph. We can eliminate options A and D since option D places much emphasis on storm Harvey and option A states that there is no relationship between the increase in temperature and the power of storms.

Option B states that the Clausius-Clapeyron equation cannot predict the quantum of destruction that a storm might cause. This point is totally out of context with respect to what that is being discussed in the paragraph. Therefore, we can eliminate option B as well.

Option C precisely explains the mechanism through which global warming makes the modern storms more destructive. Therefore, option C is the right answer.

Question 76: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’ s position.
North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars (Amorpha juglandis) look like easy meals for birds, but they have a trick up their sleeves — they produce whistles that sound like bird alarm calls, scaring potential predators away. At first, scientists suspected birds were simply startled by the loud noise. But a new study suggests a more sophisticated mechanism: the caterpillar’s whistle appears to mimic a bird alarm call, sending avian predators scrambling for cover. When pecked by a bird, the caterpillars whistle by compressing their bodies like an accordion and forcing air out through specialized holes in their sides. The whistles are impressively loud — they have been measured at over 80 dB from 5 cm away from the caterpillar — considering they are made by a two-inch long insect.

a) North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars will whistle periodically to ward off predator birds – they have a specialized vocal tract that helps them whistle.

b) North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars can whistle very loudly; the loudness of their whistles is shocking as they are very small insects.

c) The North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars, in a case of acoustic deception, produce whistles that mimic bird alarm calls to defend themselves.

d) North American. walnut sphinx moth caterpillars, in. a case of deception and camouflage, produce whistles that mimic bird alarm calls to defend themselves.

76) Answer (C)

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Solution:

According to the paragraph, the North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars produce whistles which are extremely loud considering their size. These whistles appear to mimic bird(predator) alarm calls which scares them to look for cover. Thus, these sounds act as acoustic deception and help the insect to defend themselves against predators.

Option A mentions about vocal tracts which is out of scope. Hence, it can be eliminated.

Option B though correct, fails to mention the use of sound to defend against the predators. Hence, it can be eliminated.

Option C captures all the main points and hence is right choice.

Option D mentions ‘camouflage’ which is also out of context. Hence, it can be eliminated.

Hence, option C is the right answer.

Question 77: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.

Both Socrates and Bacon were very good at asking useful questions. In fact, Socrates is largely credited with coming up with a way of asking questions, ‘the Socratic method,’ which itself is at the core of the ‘scientific method,’ popularised by Bacon. The Socratic method disproves arguments by finding exceptions to them, and can therefore lead your opponent to a point where they admit something that contradicts their original position. In common with Socrates, Bacon stressed it was as important to disprove a theory as it was to prove one — and real-world observation and experimentation were key to achieving both aims. Bacon also saw science as a collaborative affair, with scientists working together, challenging each other.

a) Both Socrates and Bacon advocated clever questioning of the opponents to disprove their arguments and theories.

b) Both Socrates and Bacon advocated challenging arguments and theories by observation and experimentation.

c) Both Socrates and Bacon advocated confirming arguments and theories by finding exceptions.

d) Both Socrates and Bacon advocated examining arguments and theories from both sides to prove them.

77) Answer (D)

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Solution:

According to the paragraph, Socrates and Bacon were good at asking questions. The Socratic method works in a way by finding exceptions to the arguments of the opponent, which makes the opponent to agree on something that contradicts their original position. In a similar way, Bacon stressed that it was important to disprove theory as it is to prove it. Thus both Socrates and Bacon stressed on examining arguments from both ends – to prove as well as disprove.

Option A, which speaks only about disproving of arguments, can be eliminated.

Option B talks only about examining and observation. Hence, it can be eliminated.

Option C talks only about confirming of arguments and not the other way. Hence, it can be eliminated.

Option D captures the main points which we discussed earlier.

Hence, option D is the right answer.

Question 78: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’ s position.
A fundamental property of language is that it is slippery and messy and more liquid than solid, a gelatinous mass that changes shape to fit. As Wittgenstein would remind us, “usage has no sharp boundary.” Oftentimes, the only way to determine the meaning of a word is to examine how it is used. This insight is often described as the “meaning is use” doctrine. There are differences between the “meaning is use” doctrine and a dictionary-first theory of meaning. “The dictionary’s careful fixing of words to definitions, like butterflies pinned under glass, can suggest that this is how language works. The definitions can seem to ensure and fix the meaning of words, just as the gold standard can back a country’s currency.” What Wittgenstein found in the circulation of ordinary language, however, was a free-floating currency of meaning. The value of each word arises out of the exchange. The lexicographer abstracts a meaning from that exchange, which is then set within the conventions of the dictionary definition.

a) Dictionary definitions are like ‘gold standards’ — artificial, theoretical and dogmatic. Actual meaning of words is their free-exchange value.

b) Language is already slippery; given this, accounting for ‘meaning in use’ will only exasperate the problem. That is why lexicographers ‘fix’ meanings.

c) Meaning is dynamic; definitions are static. The ‘meaning in use’ theory helps us understand that definitions of words are culled from their meaning in exchange and use and not vice versa.

d) The meaning of words in dictionaries is clear, fixed and less dangerous and ambiguous than the meaning that arises when words are exchanged between people.

78) Answer (C)

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Solution:

According to the paragraph, language is like a gelatinous mass that changes shape to fit. Also, many times the only way to find meaning of word is to examine how it is used. It is stated that definitions are fixed for the word by dictionary.Wittgenstein found that circulation of ordinary language was a free-floating currency of meaning. So the meanings are dynamic. Thus, the value of word arises from the exchange and then the lexicographer abstracts meaning from that exchange. Thus, definitions are picked up from the meaning in use.

Option A, which states that definitions are like dogmatic, cannot be found in the paragraph. Hence, it can be eliminated.

The paragraph doesn’t talk about why lexicographers fix meanings. Hence, option B can be eliminated.

Option C covers all the main points. Hence, it is the right choice.

The purpose of the passage is not to compare meaning of words in dictionaries with meaning which arises from exchange. Hence, option D can be eliminated.

Hence, option C is the right choice.

Question 79: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.
Production and legitimation of scientific knowledge can be approached from a number of perspectives. To study knowledge production from the sociology of professions perspective would mean a focus on the institutionalization of a body of knowledge. The professions-approach informed earlier research on managerial occupation, business schools and management knowledge. It however tends to reify institutional power structures in its understanding of the links between knowledge and authority. Knowledge production is restricted in the perspective to the selected members of the professional community, most notably to the university faculties and professional colleges. Power is understood as a negative mechanism, which prevents the non-professional actors from offering their ideas and information as legitimate knowledge.

a) Professions-approach focuses on the creation of institutions of higher education and disciplines to promote knowledge production

b) The study of knowledge production can be done through many perspectives.

c) The professions-approach has been one of the most relied upon perspective in the study of management knowledge production.

d) Professions-approach aims at the institutionalization of knowledge but restricts knowledge production as a function of a select few.

79) Answer (D)

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Solution:

Let us note down the important points.

Professions-approach structures and institutionalizes knowledge but knowledge production is restricted to the select members of the community. It prevents the non-professional actors from offering their ideas.

Options A, B, and C do not capture the negative aspects of the professions-approach at all. They just focus on the advantages offered by the approach but the given paragraph places a huge emphasis on the limitations of the approach as well. Only option D captures both the advantage offered by the approach and its limitations. Therefore, option D is the right answer.

Question 80: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.
The conceptualization of landscape as a geometric object first occurred in Europe and is historically related to the European conceptualization of the organism, particularly the human body, as a geometric object with parts having a rational, three-dimensional organization and integration. The European idea of landscape appeared before the science of landscape emerged, and it is no coincidence that Renaissance artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, who studied the structure of the human body, also facilitated an understanding of the structure of landscape. Landscape which had been a subordinate background to religious or historical narratives, became an independent genre or subject of art by the end of sixteenth century or the beginning of the seventeenth century.

a) The three-dimensional understanding of the organism in Europe led to a similar approach towards the understanding of landscape.

b) Landscape became a major subject of art at the turn of the sixteenth century.

c) The study of landscape as an independent genre was aided by the Renaissance artists.

d) The Renaissance artists were responsible for the study of landscape as a subject of art.

80) Answer (C)

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Solution:

Let us note down the main points of the given paragraph:

The given paragraph describes how the study of landscape gained prominence and became an independent genre. Renaissance artists facilitated the development of the field as an independent genre.

Let us evaluate the options one by one.

Option A states that understanding of the organism in Europe led to a similar approach towards the understanding of landscape. Though this option is true, it fails to capture the fact that the field evolved as an independent genre with the help of Renaissance artists.

Option B states that Landscape became a major subject of art at the turn of the sixteenth century. Again, option B fails to capture the role played by the Renaissance artists.

Option D states that Renaissance artists were responsible for the study of landscape as a subject of art. The paragraph mentions that the artists facilitated in the transformation of the field into an independent genre. Option D establishes a strong relationship and holds Renaissance artists ‘responsible’ for the study of landscape ‘as a subject of art’. The parts within the quotes disregard the fact that the artists just aided the process. They were not solely responsible for the development. Therefore, we can eliminate option D.

Only option C captures the fact that the renaissance artists ‘aided’ in the development of the study of landscape as an independent genre and hence, option C is the right answer.

Question 81: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.

Artificial embryo twinning is a relatively low-tech way to make clones. As the name suggests, this technique mimics the natural process that creates identical twins. In nature, twins form very early in development when the embryo splits in two. Twinning happens in the first days after egg and sperm join, while the embryo is made of just a small number of unspecialized cells. Each half of the embryo continues dividing on its own, ultimately developing into separate, complete individuals. Since they developed from the same fertilized egg, the resulting individuals are genetically identical.

a) Artificial embryo twinning is low-tech and mimetic of the natural development of genetically identical twins from the embryo after fertilization.

b) Artificial embryo twinning is low-tech and is close to the natural development of twins where the embryo splits into two identical twins.

c) Artificial embryo twinning is low-tech unlike the natural development of identical twins from the embryo after fertilization.

d) Artificial embryo twinning is just like the natural development of twins, where during fertilization twins are formed.

81) Answer (A)

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Solution:

The author mentions that artificial embryo twinning is ‘low tech’ to introduce the topic. Then, he explains how the process is exactly similar to the process of development of twins. He states that the process mimics the natural development of twins. He has not highlighted any of the differences between the 2 processes.

Let us evaluate the options.
Option C states that artificial embryo twinning is ‘low tech’ unlike the natural development of twins. The author makes no such comparison in the paragraph and hence, option C can be eliminated.

Option D states that the twins are formed during fertilization but the paragraph mentions that the twins are formed after the process of fertilization (i.e, after the sperm and the egg join).

Option B fails to capture the fact that the twins are ‘genetically’ identical. Also, it states that the artificial twinning process is ‘close to’ the natural development of twins. Though this option is not incorrect, option A is worded in a better way. Option A states that the process is mimetic of the natural development of the twins (emphasizing that no difference has been highlighted), the twins are genetically identical and the process is similar to the process of development of twins after fertilization. Therefore, option A is the right answer.

Question 82: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.
The early optimism about sport’s deterrent effects on delinquency was premature as researchers failed to find any consistent relationships between sports participation and deviance. As the initial studies were based upon cross-sectional data and the effects captured were short-term, it was problematic to test and verify the temporal sequencing of events suggested by the deterrence theory. The correlation between sport and delinquency could not be disentangled from class and cultural variables known. Choosing individuals to play sports in the first place was problematic, which became more acute in the subsequent decades as researchers began to document just how closely sports participation was linked to social class indicators.

a) There is a direct relationship between sport participation and delinquency but it needs more empirical evidence.

b) Statistical and empirical weaknesses stand in the way of inferring any relationship between sports participation and deviance.

c) Sports participation is linked to class and cultural variables such as education, income, and social capital.

d) Contradicting the previous optimism, latter researchers have proved that there is no consistent relationship between sports participation and deviance.

82) Answer (B)

View Video Solution

Solution:

The main points of the passage are that the relation between sports participation and deviation have not been established and that there is not sufficient evidence to prove the relationship.
Option A is distorted because it states that the relationship is already established.
Option B mentions all the relevant points.
Option C does not talk about the relationship and hence, ruled out.
Option D distorts what is given in the paragraph by saying that latter researchers have “proved” there is no consistent relationship. Thus, it is can be eliminated.
Hence, option B is the correct answer.

Question 83: A Japanese government panel announced that it recommends regulating only genetically modified organisms that have had foreign genes permanently introduced into their genomes and not those whose endogenous genes have been edited. The only stipulation is that researchers and businesses will have to register their modifications to plants or animals with the government, with the exception of microbes cultured in contained environments. Reactions to the decision are mixed. While lauding the potential benefits of genome editing, an editorial opposes across-the-board permission. Unforeseen risks in gene editing cannot be ruled out. All genetically modified products must go through the same safety and labeling processes regardless of method.

a) Excepting microbes cultured in contained environments from the regulations of genome editing is premature.

b) Creating categories within genetically modified products in terms of transgenic modification and genome editing advances science but defies laws.

c) Exempting from regulations the editing of endogenous genes is not desirable as this procedure might be risk-prone.

d) A government panel in Japan says transgenic modification and genome editing are not the same.

83) Answer (C)

View Video Solution

Solution:

Let us note down the important points:

The Japanese government recommends regulating GM organisms in which foreign genes are introduced, not those in which the endogenous genes have been edited. The step has drawn mixed reactions since there are some risks involved in gene editing.

Option A shifts the focus on exempting microbes. The central theme of the passage is that endogenous gene editing is not totally risk free. Therefore, we can eliminate option A.

Option B states that categorizing GM products advances science but defies laws. No such comparison has been made in the paragraph. The legality of the issue has not been discussed and hence, we can eliminate option B.

Option D fails to capture the fact that endogenous gene editing is not devoid of risks.
Only option C captures the fact that  exempting endogenous gene editing is not desirable due to the risks involved. Therefore, option C is the right answer.

Instructions

The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

Question 84: Language is an autapomorphy found only in our lineage, and not shared with other branches of our group such as primates. We also have no definitive evidence that any species other than Homo sapiens ever had language. However, it must be noted straightaway that ‘language’ is not a monolithic entity, but rather a complex bundle of traits that must have evolved over a significant time frame…. Moreover, language crucially draws on aspects of cognition that are long established in the primate lineage, such as memory: the language faculty as a whole comprises more than just the uniquely linguistic features.

a) Language evolved with linguistic features building on features of cognition such as memory.

b) Language, a derived trait found only in humans, has evolved over time and involves memory.

c) Language is not a single, uniform entity but the end result of a long and complex process of linguistic evolution.

d) Language is a distinctively human feature as there is no evidence of the existence of language in any other species.

84) Answer (A)

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Solution:

The main points of the passage can be summarized as follows:

  • Language is a complex bundle of traits that has evolved over a significant time frame.
  • Language is not a monolithic entity but rather the end result of a long and complex process of linguistic evolution.
  • Language draws on cognitive features that are established in the primate lineage, such as memory.
  • While language is a distinctive feature found only in humans, there is no definitive evidence of its existence in any other species.
  • The language faculty encompasses more than just the uniquely linguistic features and incorporates various aspects of cognition.

In summary, the passage emphasizes the multifaceted nature of language, its evolutionary development, and its reliance on cognitive abilities such as memory. It also underscores that while language is unique to humans, it is not a standalone trait and incorporates elements beyond language-specific features.

The passage mentions that language is a complex bundle of traits that must have evolved over a significant time frame. It also states that language draws on aspects of cognition that are long established in the primate lineage, such as memory. This suggests that language did not emerge in isolation but rather built upon preexisting cognitive capacities.

Memory plays a crucial role in language, as language involves storing, retrieving, and processing linguistic information. Through the use of memory, individuals can learn and recall words, phrases, grammar rules, and other linguistic elements. Memory also allows for the retention and transmission of cultural knowledge and language acquisition in individuals and across generations.

Therefore, Option A accurately captures the notion that language evolved by incorporating linguistic features onto existing cognitive abilities, notably memory.

Option B is partially correct as it acknowledges the evolution of language and its connection to memory. However, it does not capture the idea that language is a complex bundle of traits or the absence of definitive evidence for language in other species.

While Option C captures the idea that language is not a single, uniform entity, it fails to encompass the complete message of the passage. The passage emphasizes that language is more than just the end result of linguistic evolution. It highlights that language also relies on cognitive features that are established in the primate lineage, such as memory. Additionally, the passage mentions that there is no definitive evidence of language in other species. These aspects are not adequately represented in option C.

Option D is partially correct in stating that language is distinctively human. However, it fails to capture the complexity of language and the fact that it is a bundle of traits. It also overlooks the possibility that evidence for language in other species may be inconclusive rather than entirely nonexistent.

In comparison to these options, Option A  stands out as the best summary because it specifically addresses the evolution of language and highlights the role of cognition, particularly memory, in its development.

Question 85: Privacy-challenged office workers may find it hard to believe, but open-plan offices and cubicles were invented by architects and designers who thought that to break down the social walls that divide people, you had to break down the real walls, too. Modernist architects saw walls and rooms as downright fascist. The spaciousness and flexibility of an open plan would liberate homeowners and office dwellers from the confines of boxes. But companies took up their idea less out of a democratic ideology than a desire to pack in as many workers as they could. The typical open-plan office of the first half of the 20th century was a white-collar assembly line. Cubicles were interior designers’ attempt to put some soul back in.

a) Wall-free office spaces could have worked out the way their utopian inventors intended had companies cared for workers’ satisfaction.

b) Wall-free office spaces did not quite work out as desired and therefore cubicles came into being.

c) Wall-free office spaces did not quite work out the way their utopian inventors intended, as they became tools for exploitation of labor.

d) Wall-free office spaces did not quite work out as companies don’t believe in democratic ideology.

85) Answer (C)

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Solution:

After reading the entire paragraph, it can be inferred that the main idea of the passage is that while the inventors of the open-plan offices had the liberation of office dwellers from boxes in mind, the companies used it to pack as much people as possible inside.

Option A is incorrect as the passage makes no mentions about workers satisfaction.

Option B is incorrect as it misrepresents the timeline given in the passage. Cubicles existed earlier and only later were wall free office spaces invented.

Option D is incorrect as it could not be inferred from the passage that the companies that did not believe in democratic ideology

Option C correctly encapsulates the main idea of the passage and hence it is the correct answer.

Question 86: Social movement organizations often struggle to mobilize supporters from allied movements in their efforts to achieve critical mass. Organizations with hybrid identities—those whose organizational identities span the boundaries of two or more social movements, issues, or identities—are vital to mobilizing these constituencies. Studies of the post-9/11 U.S. antiwar movement show that individuals with past involvement in non-anti-war movements are more likely to join hybrid organizations than are individuals without involvement in non-anti-war movements. In addition, they show that organizations with hybrid identities occupy relatively more central positions in inter-organizational contact networks within the antiwar movement and thus recruit significantly more participants in demonstrations than do non hybrid organizations.

a) Movements that work towards social change often find it difficult to mobilize a critical mass of supporters.

b) Organizations with hybrid identities are able to mobilize individuals with different points of view.

c) Post 9/11 studies show that people who are involved in non anti-war movements are likely to join hybrid organizations.

d) Hybrid organizations attract individuals that are deeply involved in anti-war movements.

86) Answer (B)

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Solution:

After reading all the lines of the paragraph, it is evident that social movement organisations depend on organisations with hybrid identities because , within them they contain individuals with multiple points of views on different movements and issues. The example gives shows how people who are campaigning for non-anti-war movements are more likely to join hybrid organisations. It also says that organisations with hybrid identities occupy more central positions within organisations that are involved in anti-war movements.

Option A is incorrect. The passage talks more about why hybrid organisations are vital to providing participants in social movements.

Option C is just an illustration of the idea that the paragraph is trying to make. Hence, it would not be the most appropriate summary of the paragraph.

Option D is incorrect. From the paragraph we can infer that hybrid organisations attract individuals that are deeply involved in non-anti-war movements.

Option B is an appropriate summary of the passage and hence it is the correct answer.

Question 87: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Vance Packard’s The Hidden Persuaders alerted the public to the psychoanalytical techniques used by the advertising industry. Its premise was that advertising agencies were using depth interviews to identify hidden consumer motivations, which were then used to entice consumers to buy goods. Critics and reporters often wrongly assumed that Packard was writing mainly about subliminal advertising. Packard never mentioned the word subliminal, however, and devoted very little space to discussions of “subthreshold” effects. Instead, his views largely aligned with the notion that individuals do not always have access to their conscious thoughts and can be persuaded by supraliminal messages without their knowledge.

a) Packard held that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ understands the hidden motivations of consumers and works at the supraliminal level, though the people targeted have no awareness of being persuaded.

b) Packard held that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ builds on peoples’ conscious thoughts and awareness, by understanding the hidden motivations of consumers and works at the subliminal level.

c) Packard argued that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ works at the supraliminal level, wherein the people targeted are aware of being persuaded, after understanding the hidden motivations of consumers and works.

d) Packard argued that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ understands the hidden motivations of consumers and works at the subliminal level, on the subconscious level of the awareness of the people targeted.

87) Answer (A)

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Solution:

In this context, “Psychoanalytical analytical technique” implies that the advertising agencies are adapting methods to tap into the unconscious mind of the consumers. They are conducting detailed interviews to identify hidden motivations.

Here, subliminal advertising represents some portion of the ad being difficult to comprehend or simply put, when one of the motives of the ad is so subtle that it is difficult to be understood by a layman.

While supraliminal advertising can be clearly conceived by most people.

Packard claims that the ‘Hidden persuaders’ use supraliminal advertising to entice customers by tapping into consumers without their knowledge.  (….can be persuaded by supraliminal messages without their knowledge.)

Option B and D say that the method is subliminal, hence, it is incorrect
Option C says that people are well aware about being persuaded, hence incorrect.
Option A is a wholesome summary of the method of persuation.

Question 88: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
A distinguishing feature of language is our ability to refer to absent things, known as displaced reference. A speaker can bring distant referents to mind in the absence of any obvious stimuli. Thoughts, not limited to the here and now, can pop into our heads for unfathomable reasons. This ability to think about distant things necessarily precedes the ability to talk about them. Thought precedes meaningful referential communication. A prerequisite for the emergence of human-like meaningful symbols is that the mental categories they relate to can be invoked even in the absence of immediate stimuli.

a) Displaced reference is particular to humans and thoughts pop into our heads for no real reason.

b) Thoughts precede all speech acts and these thoughts pop up in our heads even in the absence of any stimulus.

c) Thoughts are essential to communication and only humans have the ability to think about objects not present in their surroundings.

d) The ability to think about objects not present in our environment precedes the development of human communication.

88) Answer (D)

View Video Solution

Solution:

The paragraph says that humans think about past occurrences suddenly without any immediate stimuli.
The author also says that thinking/thoughts about a certain distant past is a necessity before one can speak about it.
He says that thoughts are a pre-requisite before one talks about it. He also gives an example that various human-like symbols might have emerged without any immediate stimuli.

Option A and C: There is no mention of specificity to humans in the passage
Option B : “All speech acts” is a false generalisation. The passage says that speaking about distant past requires thinking about it first
Option D : It clearly captures the essence of the passage and says that one needs to think about distant past events before talking about them
Hence option D is correct.

Question 89: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Physics is a pure science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter without regard to whether it will afford any practical benefit. Engineering is the correlative applied science in which physical theories are put to some specific use, such as building a bridge or a nuclear reactor. Engineers obviously rely heavily on the discoveries of physicists, but an engineer’s knowledge of the world is not the same as
the physicist’s knowledge. In fact, an engineer’s know-how will often depend on physical theories that, from the point of view of pure physics, are false. There are some reasons for this. First, theories that are false in the purest and strictest sense are still sometimes very good approximations to the true ones, and often have the added virtue of being much easier to work with. Second, sometimes the true theories
apply only under highly idealized conditions which can only be created under controlled experimental situations. The engineer finds that in the real world, theories rejected by physicists yield more accurate predictions than the ones that they accept.

a) Though engineering draws heavily from pure science, it contributes to knowledge, by incorporating the constraints and conditions in the real world.

b) Engineering and physics fundamentally differ on matters like building a bridge or a nuclear reactor.

c) The relationship between pure and applied science is strictly linear, with the pure science directing applied science, and never the other way round.

d) The unique task of the engineer is to identify, understand, and interpret the design constraints to produce a successful result.

89) Answer (A)

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Solution:

The passage says that pure science intends to discover without any end-goal in mind. While engineers use these benefits for practical applications. The author says that the science behind these practical applications are often considered false by pure science since they are approximated or not applied as per ideal conditions. In any case, even though they are rejected, these approximated science theories find lot of practical applications in everyday life.

Option A is correct. By diluting science, these theories are put into practical benefits. Hence, option A is correct

Option B is incorrect as no such implication can be drawn from the passage

Option C is incorrect. Linear relationship indicates that, if a certain theory is rejected by pure science, it is bound to be rejected by applied science too. This is clearly not the case as engineers use rejected theories for practical benefits.

Option D speaks only about engineers and has no reference to sciences or the main point of the paragraph. The paragraph intends to compare the functionalities of scientists and engineers while option D is specific to engineers and does not encapsulate the essence of the paragraph.

Hence, by way of elimination Option A is the most suitable summary

Question 90: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

For nearly a century most psychologists have embraced one view of intelligence. Individuals are born with more or less intelligence potential (I.Q.); this potential is heavily influenced by heredity and difficult to alter; experts in measurement can determine a person’s intelligence early in life, currently from paper-and-pencil measures, perhaps eventually from examining the brain in action or even scrutinizing his/her genome. Recently, criticism of this conventional wisdom has mounted. Biologists ask if speaking of a single entity called “intelligence” is coherent and question the validity of measures used to estimate heritability of a trait in humans, who, unlike plants or animals, are not conceived and bred under controlled conditions.

a) Biologists have questioned the long-standing view that ‘intelligence’ is a single entity and the attempts to estimate it’s heritability.

b) Biologists have criticised that conventional wisdom that individuals are born with more or less intelligence potential.

c) Biologists have started questioning psychologists’ view of ‘intelligence’ as a measurable immutable characteristic of an individual.

d) Biologists have questioned the view that ‘intelligence’ is a single entity and the ways in which what is inherited

90) Answer (A)

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Solution:

The paragraph highlights the following:

1. The validity of the ubiquitous perspective held by psychologists {of intelligence being a measurable, unalterable entity that is greatly influenced by heredity} is now being questioned by biologists.

2. The dubiety concerning the aspect of intelligence being hereditary {given the fact that “humans, who, unlike plants or animals, are not conceived and bred under controlled conditions.“}

Thus, a statement capturing these elements is bound to be the answer. Option A aptly encompasses these two key points.

Option B: Calling the widely -held perspective as conventional wisdom would be inappropriate. Additionally, the statement here fails to capture point (2).

Option C: Although close, it misses out on the second half of the discussion.

Option D: This option might appear confusing, given that it touches upon both the key elements. However, it is unspecific and comes across as a bit odd {“ways in which what is inherited” doesn’t make sense}. Between Options A and D, A is definitely the better choice.

Question 91: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

As Soviet power declined, the world became to some extent multipolar, and Europe strove to define an independent identity. What a journey Europe has undertaken to reach this point. It had in every century changed its internal structure and invented new ways of thinking about the nature of international order. Now at the culmination of an era, Europe, in order to participate in it, felt obliged to set aside the political mechanisms through which it had conducted its affairs for three and a half centuries. Impelled also by the desire to cushion the emergent unification of Germany, the new European Union established a common currency in 2002 and a formal political structure in 2004. It proclaimed a Europe united, whole, and free, adjusting its differences by peaceful mechanisms.

a) Europe has consistently changed in keeping with the changing world order and that has culminated in a united Europe.

b) The establishment of a formal political structure in Europe was hastened by the unification of Germany and the emergence of a multipolar world.

c) Europe has consistently changed its internal structure to successfully adapt to the changing world order.

d) Europe has chosen to lower political and economic heterogeneity, in order to adapt itself to an emerging multi-polar world.

91) Answer (D)

View Video Solution

Solution:

The passage begins by highlighting Europe’s continual attempt to adapt itself in a multipolar world by striving to be a dynamic entity- nationally and internationally{“changed its internal structure and invented new ways of thinking about the nature of international order“}.  Post this, the author portrays how certain stimuli in the modern world has lead Europe to review its political components {“set aside the political mechanisms through which it had conducted its affairs for three and a half centuries“} and to make changes in its economic structure {“established a common currency “}. Thus, the passage presents two key elements: (1) the fact that Europe has consistently tried to adapt to a changing world and (2) the manner in which Europe has attempted to achieve that in the existing multi-polar setup. Option D correctly highlights these points.

Option A: This misses out on the point (2). Furthermore, directly ascribing the unification of Europe to its attempt to rapidly change would be incorrect.

Option B: This does not fully capture the essence of the passage and misses out on point 1.

Option C: Although the statement in this option captures point 1, it misses out on point 2.

Hence, Option D is the correct answer.

Question 92: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

For years, movies and television series like Crime Scene Investigation (CSI) paint an unrealistic picture of the “science of voices.” In the 1994 movie Clear and Present Danger an expert listens to a brief recorded utterance and declares that the speaker is “Cuban, aged 35 to 45, educated in the […] eastern United States.” The recording is then fed to a supercomputer that matches the voice to that of a suspect, concluding that the probability of correct identification is 90%. This sequence sums up a good number of misimpressions about forensic phonetics, which have led to errors in real- life justice. Indeed, that movie scene exemplifies the so-called “CSI effect”—the phenomenon in which judges hold unrealistic expectations of the capabilities of forensic science.

a) Although voice recognition is often presented as evidence in legal cases, its scientific basis can be shaky.

b) Voice recognition as used in many movies to identify criminals has been used to identify criminals in real life also.

c) Movies and televisions have led to the belief that the use of forensic phonetics in legal investigations is robust and fool proof.

d) Voice recognition has started to feature prominently in crime-scene intelligence investigations because of movies and television series.

92) Answer (C)

View Video Solution

Solution:

The passage is primarily about the misconception regarding the capacity of forensic phonetics stemming from its portrayal in movies and television. This aspect is correctly captured by the point stated in C. The author does not question the “scientific basis” of the evidence (based on voice recognition) that is presented in legal cases. Hence, Option A can be eliminated. The claim made in Option B cannot be understood from the passage. Same can be said about Option D. Hence, Option C is the correct answer.

Question 93: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
The dominant hypotheses in modern science believe that language evolved to allow humans to exchange factual information about the physical world. But an alternative view is that language evolved, in modern humans at least, to facilitate social bonding. It increased our ancestors’ chances of survival by enabling them to hunt more successfully or to cooperate more extensively. Language meant that things could be explained and that plans and past experiences could be shared efficiently.

a) Since its origin, language has been continuously evolving to higher forms, from being used to identify objects to ensuring human survival by enabling our ancestors to bond and cooperate.

b) From the belief that humans invented language to process factual information, scholars now think that language was the outcome of the need to ensure social cohesion and thus human survival.

c) Most believe that language originated from a need to articulate facts, but others think it emerged from the need to promote social cohesion and cooperation, thus enabling human survival.

d) Experts are challenging the narrow view of the origin of language, as being merely used to describe facts and label objects, to being necessary to promote more complex interactions among humans

93) Answer (C)

View Video Solution

Solution:

One predominant viewpoint: language originated to exchange factual information

An alternative viewpoint: language originated to facilitate social bonding and consequently, to ensure human survival.

The summary needs to highlight these two core viewpoints. Option C does this without deviating from the discussion.

Option A: The evolution of language is not the focal point here; the views held in this regard are. {“language has been continuously evolving to higher forms”} Thus, we can eliminate this option since it comes across as a misrepresentation.

Option B: This is a trap wherein the statement captures both the core viewpoints but there is a distortion involved: “…From the belief …”  to “…scholars now…” indicates a shift in the viewpoint. However, this is not the case – the author simply states two prevalent perspectives on the subject.

Option D: is again a distortion since experts are not “challenging any views; the author simply highlights the presence of two viewpoints {no conflict presented}

Hence, Option C is the correct answer.

Question 94: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Aesthetic political representation urges us to realize that ‘the representative has autonomy with regard to the people represented’ but autonomy then is not an excuse to abandon one’s responsibility. Aesthetic autonomy requires cultivation of ‘disinterestedness’ on the part of actors which is not indifference. To have disinterestedness, that is, to have comportment towards the beautiful that is devoid of all ulterior references to use – requires a kind of aesthetic commitment; it is the liberation of ourselves for the release of what has proper worth only in itself.

a) Aesthetic political representation advocates autonomy for the representatives manifested through disinterestedness which itself is different from indifference.

b) Aesthetic political representation advocates autonomy for the representatives drawing from disinterestedness, which itself is different from indifference.

c) Disinterestedness is different from indifference as the former means a non-subjective evaluation of things which is what constitutes aesthetic political representation

d) Disinterestedness, as distinct from indifference, is the basis of political representation.

94) Answer (B)

View Video Solution

Solution:

The paragraph discusses two essential elements: it begins by presenting the facet of autonomy enjoyed by the representative in Aesthetic political representation and then highlights the cultivation of “disinterestedness” in this regard. Additionally, the author distinctly identifies the aforementioned concept as being not the same as that of “indifference”. Post this, towards the end. The author presents the reason behind this assertion. Option B correctly captures these two aspects without distorting the overall meaning.

Option A: The author does not claim that the autonomy “manifested” through disinterestedness.

Option C: The statement here contains added elements which cannot be inferred from the passage.

Option D: This alternative fails to capture the essence of the discussion and describes a single component. {‘political representation’ might again be incorrect}

Hence, of the given summaries, Option B aptly captures the substance of the passage.

Question 95: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Brown et al. (2001) suggest that ‘metabolic theory may provide a conceptual foundation for much of ecology just as genetic theory provides a foundation for much of evolutionary biology’. One of the successes of genetic theory is the diversity of theoretical approaches and models that have been developed and applied. A Web of Science (v. 5.9. Thomson Reuters) search on genetic* + theor* + evol* identifies more than 12000 publications between 2005 and 2012. Considering only the 10 most-cited papers within this 12000 publication set, genetic theory can be seen to focus on genome dynamics, phylogenetic inference, game theory and the regulation of gene expression. There is no one fundamental genetic equation, but rather a wide array of genetic models, ranging from simple to complex, with differing inputs and outputs, and divergent areas of application, loosely connected to each other through the shared conceptual foundation of heritable variation.

a) Genetic theory has evolved to spawn a wide range of theoretical models and applications but Metabolic theory need not evolve in a similar manner in the field of ecology

b) Genetic theory has a wide range of theoretical approaches and application and is foundational to evolutionary biology and Metabolic theory has the potential to do the same for ecology

c) Genetic theory has a wide range of theoretical approaches and applications and Metabolic theory must have the same in the field of ecology

d) Genetic theory provides an example of how a range of theoretical approaches and applications can make a theory successful.

95) Answer (B)

View Video Solution

Solution:

There are two key points discussed in the passage:

1. The prospect of “metabolic theory” being foundational to the field of ecology; the same as is the case in (2)

2. Genetic theory being the conceptual basis of evolutionary biology {given the diverse and extensive theoretical approaches and models available}.

Thus, the summary needs to capture both these points. Option B fulfils this requirement.

Option A: is a distorted claim since it is not implied in the passage; the author does not assert that “metabolic theory need not evolve in a similar manner”.

Option C: is again a misinterpretation because the author does not claim that metabolic theory “must” contribute in a similar fashion. Instead, the focus is on the “potential” of this theory.

Option D: is divergent since the author does not discuss the “success” of a theory.

Hence, Option B is the correct answer.

Question 96: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
All humans make decisions based on one or a combination of two factors. This is either intuition or information. Decisions made through intuition are usually fast, people don’t even think about the problem. It is quite philosophical, meaning that someone who made a decision based on intuition will have difficulty explaining the reasoning behind it. The decision-maker would often utilize her senses in drawing conclusions, which again is based on some experience in the field of study. On the other side of the spectrum, we have decisions made based on information. These decisions are rational — it is based on facts and figures, which unfortunately also means that it can be quite slow. The decision-maker would frequently use reports, analyses, and indicators to form her conclusion. This methodology results in accurate, quantifiable decisions, meaning that a person can clearly explain the rationale behind it.

a) It is better to make decisions based on information because it is more accurate, and the rationale behind it can be explained.

b) Decisions based on intuition and information result in differential speed and ability to provide a rationale.

c) While decisions based on intuition can be made fast, the reasons that led to these cannot be spelt out.

d) We make decisions based on intuition or information on the basis of the time available.

96) Answer (B)

View Video Solution

Solution:

Let’s look at the options one by one.

The author has not made any comparisons between the two methodologies, about which method is better. Hence optionA is incorrect.

Option 3 is incorrect too because it doesnot summarise the para accurately. Nothing is mentioned about decisions based on information.

Although time is a factor, nowhere it is mentioned that time is the factor in determining the method of our decision making. Hence Option4 is incorrect too.

Option 2 correctly summarises the passage by differentiating between the two methods. Hence it is correct.

Question 97: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
The rural-urban continuum and the heterogeneity of urban settings pose an obvious challenge to identifying urban areas and measuring urbanization rates in a consistent way within and across countries. An objective methodology for distinguishing between urban and rural areas that is based on one or two metrics with fixed thresholds may not adequately capture the wide diversity of places. A richer combination of criteria would better describe the multifaceted nature of a city’s function and its environment, but the joint interpretation of these criteria may require an element of human judgment.

a) With the diversity of urban landscapes, measurable criteria for defining urban areas may need to be supplemented with human judgement.

b) Current methodologies used to define urban and rural areas are no longer relevant to our being able to study trends in urbanisation.

c) The difficulty of accurately identifying urban areas means that we need to create a rich combination of criteria that can be applied to all urban areas.

d) Distinguishing between urban and rural areas might call for some judgement on the objective methodology being used to define a city’s functions.

97) Answer (A)

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Solution:

Option B is incorrect, as it mentions “is no longer relevant” whereas the author says may no longer be relevant.

Option C is incorrect too, as the passage talks about distinguishing between urban/rural, not about accurately identifying rural areas.

Option D is distorted. Judgement would be required on the richer criteria , not on the objective methodology, as mentioned in this option.

Option A is correct as it correctly captures the essence of the passage.

Question 98: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

With the Treaty of Westphalia, the papacy had been confined to ecclesiastical functions, and the doctrine of sovereign equality reigned. What political theory could then explain the origin and justify the functions of secular political order? In his Leviathan, published in 1651, three years after the Peace of Westphalia, Thomas Hobbes provided such a theory. He imagined a “state of nature” in the past when the absence of authority produced a “war of all against all.” To escape such intolerable insecurity, he theorized, people delivered their rights to a sovereign power in return for the sovereign’s provision of security for all within the state’s border. The sovereign state’s monopoly on power was established as the only way to overcome the perpetual fear of violent death and war.

a) Thomas Hobbes theorized the voluntary surrender of rights by people as essential for emergence of sovereign states.

b) Thomas Hobbes theorized the emergence of sovereign states as a form of transactional governance to limit the power of the papacy.

c) Thomas Hobbes theorized that sovereign states emerged out of people’s voluntary desire to overcome the sense of insecurity and establish the doctrine of sovereign equality.

d) Thomas Hobbes theorized the emergence of sovereign states based on a transactional relationship between people and sovereign state that was necessitated by a sense of insecurity of the people.

98) Answer (D)

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Solution:

Let’s look at the options one by one. Option 1 talks about voluntary surrender of rights. But the passage talks about “transfer” of rights, not “surrender” of rights.

The main point is not about “powers of papacy”, option 2 is inconsequential.

Option 3 does not cover one of the main points of the passage, the transfer of rights, between people and the sovereign power. It’s an incomplete option.

Option 4 is the correct summary, it talks about the transactional relationship i.e give and take or transfer of rights between people and sovereign government.

Question 99: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
McGurk and MacDonald (1976) reported a powerful multisensory illusion occurring with audio-visual speech. They recorded a voice articulating a consonant ‘ba-ba-ba’ and dubbed it with a face articulating another consonant ‘ga-ga-ga’. Even though the acoustic speech signal was well recognized alone, it was heard as another consonant after dubbing with incongruent visual speech i.e., ‘da-da-da’. The illusion, termed as the McGurk effect, has been replicated many times, and it has sparked an abundance of research. The reason for the great impact is that this is a striking demonstration of multisensory integration, where that auditory and visual information is merged into a unified, integrated percept.

a) Visual speech mismatched with auditory speech can result in the perception of an entirely different message: this illusion is known as the McGurk effect.

b) When the quality of auditory information is poor, the visual information wins over the auditory information.

c) The McGurk effect which is a demonstration of multisensory integration has been replicated many times.

d) When the auditory speech signal does not match the visual speech movements, the acoustic speech signal is confusing and integration of the two is imperfect.

99) Answer (A)

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Solution:

The main points of the paragraph are:

1. A multisensory illusion, dubbing a different visual cue to audio, makes the subject perceive a different sound. (Important point)

2. This illusion is called McGurk effect. (Important point. Related to 1)

3. An impactful subject of research as it demonstrates multisensory integration. (Secondary point. 1 and 2 can stand without this point)

Option A: Covers 1 and 2. Hence, a plausible option.

Option B: It distorts what the author is trying to say. It draws a conclusion out of the results of the study instead of paraphrasing the passage.

Option C: Option C covers only 3. It does not mention 1 and hence is not a good summary.

Option D: Mentions only 1. Not an apt summary.

Hence, the answer is Option A.

Question 100: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Foreign peacekeepers often exist in a bubble in the poor countries in which they are deployed; they live in posh compounds, drive fancy vehicles, and distance themselves from locals. This may be partially justified as they are outsiders, living in constant fear, performing a job that is emotionally draining. But they are often despised by the locals, and many would like them to leave. A better solution would be bottom-up peacebuilding, which would involve their spending more time working with communities, understanding their grievances and earning their trust, rather than only meeting government officials.

a) Peacekeeping duties would be more effectively performed by local residents given their better understanding, knowledge and rapport with their own communities.

b) The environment in poor countries has tended to make foreign peacekeeping forces live in enclaves, but it is time to change this scenario.

c) Extravagant lifestyles and an aloof attitude among the foreigners working as peacekeepers in poor countries have justifiably made them the target of local anger.

d) Peacekeeping forces in foreign countries have tended to be aloof for valid reasons but would be more effective if they worked more closely with local communities.

100) Answer (D)

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Solution:

The main points of the paragraph are:

1. The peacekeeping forces often exist in a bubble. Though there are valid reasons behind this, this also results in the locals feeling antipathy towards them.

2. The solution to this problem is to build rapport with the locals too instead of focusing only on the government officials.

Option A: Not implied in the paragraph. The paragraph suggests building relationships with the locals. Appointing only locals as peacekeepers has not been implied.

Option B: This option distorts what is being presented in the paragraph. The paragraph suggests that the bubble is justified sometimes and also suggest measures to counter that. The option implicates the country’s environment as being responsible for that bubble, hence the blame is shifted completely. Also, the option fails to mention the antipathy and the measures suggested to counter the bubble.

Option C: This option is distorted. Where the paragraph says that the aloof attitude is justified sometimes, the option blames the peacekeeping forces and their ‘extravagant lifestyles’ for the antipathy they face. Hence, can be eliminated.

Option D: Option D correctly captures the main points and is the answer.

Question 101: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Developing countries are becoming hotbeds of business innovation in much the same way as Japan did from the 1950s onwards. They are reinventing systems of production and distribution, and experimenting with entirely new business models. Why are countries that were until recently associated with cheap hands now becoming leaders in innovation? Driven by a mixture of ambition and fear they are relentlessly climbing up the value chain. Emerging-market champions have not only proved highly competitive in their own backyards, they are also going global themselves.

a) Competition has driven emerging economies, once suppliers of cheap labour, to become innovators of business models that have enabled them to move up the value chain and go global.

b) Innovations in production and distribution are helping emerging economies compete with countries to which they once supplied cheap labour.

c) Developing countries are being forced to invent new business models which challenge the old business models, so they can remain competitive domestically.

d) Production and distribution models are going through rapid innovations worldwide as developed countries are being challenged by their earlier suppliers from the developing world.

101) Answer (A)

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Solution:

The main points of the paragraph are:

1. Developing economies are becoming hotbeds of economic innovation.

2. Earlier they used to be associated with cheap labour, but now ambition and fear have made them competitive globally.

Option A: It correctly captures the two main points and hence is the answer.

Option B: This option is distorted. Business innovations have not been mentioned as the reason why emerging economies have become competitive globally. It has only been mentioned as a factor in close association.

Option C: Again, the paragraph does not mention that the developing economies are being forced to do this in order to stay competitive. This option suggests an element of necessity for the survival of the economies, which is not implied.

Option D: This option is distorted. The passage only mentions innovations in developing economies and not worldwide.

Question 102: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Biologists who publish their research directly to the Web have been labelled as “rogue”, but physicists have been routinely publishing research digitally (“preprints”), prior to submitting in a peer-reviewed journal. Advocates of preprints argue that quick and open dissemination of research speeds up scientific progress and allows for wider access to knowledge. But some journals still don’t accept research previously published as a preprint. Even if the idea of preprints is gaining ground, one of the biggest barriers for biologists is how they would be viewed by members of their conservative research community.

a) One of the advantages of digital preprints of research is they hasten the dissemination process, but these are not accepted by most scientific communities.

b) Compared to biologists, physicists are less conservative in their acceptance of digital pre-publication of research papers, which allows for faster dissemination of knowledge.

c) While digital publication of research is gaining popularity in many scientific disciplines, almost all peer-reviewed journals are reluctant to accept papers that have been published before.

d) Preprints of research are frowned on by some scientific fields as they do not undergo a rigourous reviewing process but are accepted among biologists as a quick way to disseminate information.

102) Answer (B)

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Solution:

The main points of the paragraph are:
1. As compared to physicists, biologists are more conservative when it comes to the subject of preprints.
2. Preprints allow faster dissemination of knowledge.

A: Misses out the comparison between biologists and physicists.

B: Captures both the points appropriately and is the answer.

C: Also misses out the comparison between biologists and physicists.

D: Factually incorrect, physicists and not biologists are open to the idea of preprints.

Question 103: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Creativity is now viewed as the engine of economic progress. Various organizations are devoted to its study and promotion; there are encyclopedias and handbooks surveying creativity research. But this proliferating success has tended to erode creativity’s stable identity: it has become so invested with value that it has become impossible to police its meaning and the practices that supposedly identify and encourage it. Many people and organizations committed to producing original thoughts now feel that undue obsession with the idea of creativity gets in the way of real creativity.

a) The obsession with original thought, how it can be promoted and researched, has made it impossible for people and organizations to define the concept anymore.

b) The industry that has built up around researching what comprises and encourages creativity has destroyed the creative process itself.

c) Creativity has proliferated to the extent that is no longer a stable process, and its mutating identity has stifled the creative process.

d) The value assigned to creativity today has assumed such proportions that the concept itself has lost its real meaning and this is hampering the engendering of real creativity.

103) Answer (D)

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Solution:

The main points of the paragraph are:

1. The value of creativity to economic progress has been realised, with serious investment being done to study/promote it.

2. But this success fires back. Policing its meaning can lead to obsession, hampering creativity itself.

A: It is extreme in approach. The paragraph does not imply that it has become impossible to define the concept, but it becomes difficult to practice creativity when it is being forced on oneself.

B: It is also extreme. The obsession hampers, not completely destroys the creative process.

C: This option is a distortion and fails to capture the above points.

D: Comes the closest to capturing the above two points, and hence, is the answer.

Question 104: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
The unlikely alliance of the incumbent industrialist and the distressed unemployed worker is especially powerful amid the debris of corporate bankruptcies and layoffs. In an economic downturn, the capitalist is more likely to focus on costs of the competition emanating from free markets than on the opportunities they create. And the unemployed worker will find many others in a similar condition and with anxieties similar to his, which will make it easier for them to organize together. Using the cover and the political organization provided by the distressed, the capitalist captures the political agenda.

a) In an economic downturn, the capitalists use the anxieties of the unemployed and their political organisation to set the political agenda to suit their economic interests.

b) The purpose of an unlikely alliance between the industrialist and the unemployed during an economic downturn is to stifle competition in free markets.

c) An economic downturn creates competition because of which the capitalists capture the political agenda created by the political organisation provided by the unemployed.

d) An unlikely alliance of the industrialist and the unemployed happens during an economic downturn in which they come together to unite politically and capture the political agenda.

104) Answer (A)

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Solution:

The main points of the paragraph are:

1. In an economic disaster, the atypical alliance of established industrialist and unemployed workers proves powerful.

2. Anxieties and anticipation lead them to look after their interests.

3. It is the industrialist that benefits the most as he is able to use the latter to achieve his vested political interests.

A: Comes the closest in capturing all three points, and hence, is the answer.

B: Distortion. This purpose has not been mentioned in the passage.

C: Distortion. It has not been mentioned that an economic downturn creates competition. It has been mentioned that during such a disaster, the industrialist is more likely to focus on the downsides emerging from free-market (competition) than the upsides.

D: Distortion. It has been implied that the industrialist manipulates the situation to fulfill his own political agenda, and not that the two parties come together to achieve a single goal.

Question 105: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
People view idleness as a sin and industriousness as a virtue, and in the process have developed an unsatisfactory relationship with their jobs. Work has become a way for them to keep busy, even though many find their work meaningless. In their need for activity people undertake what was once considered work (fishing, gardening) as hobbies. The opposing view is that hard work has made us prosperous and improved our levels of health and education. It has also brought innovation and labour and time-saving devices, which have lessened life’s drudgery.

a) Despite some detractors, hard work is essential in today’s world to enable economic progress, for education and health and to propel innovations that make life easier.

b) Hard work has overtaken all aspects of our lives and has enabled economic prosperity, but it is important that people reserve their leisure time for some idleness.

c) Some believe that hard work has been glorified to the extent that it has become meaningless, and led to greater idleness, but it has also had enormous positive impacts on everyday life.

d) While the idealisation of hard work has propelled people into meaningless jobs and endless activity, it has also led to tremendous social benefits from prosperity and innovation.

105) Answer (D)

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Solution:

The main points of the passage are:

1. People increasingly view idleness as sin and industriousness as a virtue, pushing them into meaningless jobs.

2. On the other hand, this has also saved us from many of life’s drudgeries.

A: Misses out on point 1.

B: A distortion. The author does not advocate idleness. Also, 1 is not covered properly.

C: Incorrect. ‘led to greater idleness’ is not implied anywhere in the passage.

D: Covers both the points aptly and is the answer.

Question 106: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
The human mind is wired to see patterns. Not only does the brain process information as it comes in, it also stores insights from all our past experiences. Every interaction, happy or sad, is catalogued in our memory. Intuition draws from that deep memory well to inform our decisions going forward. In other words, intuitive decisions are based on data, and not contrary to data as many would like to assume. When we subconsciously spot patterns, the body starts firing neurochemicals in both the brain and gut. These “somatic markers” are what give us that instant sense that something is right … or that it’s off. Not only are these automatic processes faster than rational thought, but our intuition draws from decades of diverse qualitative experience (sights, sounds, interactions, etc.) – a wholly human feature that big data alone could never accomplish.

a) Intuition is infinitely richer than big data which is based on rational thought and accomplishes more than what big data can.

b) Intuitions are automatic processes and are therefore faster than rational thought, and so decisions based on them are better.

c) Intuition draws from deep memory, and may not be related to data, but to decades of diverse qualitative experience.

d) Intuitions are neuro-chemical firings based on pattern recognition and draw upon a rich and vast database of experiences.

106) Answer (D)

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Solution:

The main points of the paragraph are as follows:

1. Intuition draws from a vast array of memories that our brain keeps in store.

2. When our brain recognises a pattern from past memories, neuron firing starts, which gives us the gut feeling of intuition.

A: Distortion: The passage does not give any detail about big data being based on rational thought.

B: Out of scope. The paragraph does not allude to whether the decisions based on intuition are better or worse.

C: Incorrect: The passage says that intuitive decisions are based on data.

D: Correctly covers the mentioned points and hence, is the answer.

Question 107: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Brazil’s growth rate has been low, yet most Brazilians say their financial situation has improved, and they expect it to get even better. This is because most incomes are rising fast, with higher minimum wages and very low unemployment. The result is falling inequality and a growing middle class — the result of economic stabilization, improved social security and universal primary education. But despite recent improvements the Brazilian economy is still painfully unequal, with poor Brazilians paying the biggest share of their income in taxes and getting the least back in government services.

a) Economic reforms have benefitted many Brazilians, but they are unaware of the impending problems from rising inequalities in their society.

b) Good economic indicators have masked the unfair taxation of the poor that is likely to destabilise the Brazilian economy in the next few years.

c) Most Brazilians feel they have benefitted from recent economic events, but the poor continue to be dealt unfairly by the state.

d) With rising incomes and falling unemployment, most Brazilians are being misled into thinking that their economy is doing well.

107) Answer (C)

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Solution:

The main points of the paragraph are:

1. The Brazilian economy has been stagnant, but the popular perception is that the times have improved.

2. The reasons are falling inequality and other important services.

3. Despite this, the economy is brutally unequal.

A: Ignorance on the part of Brazilians is not implied. What the author is saying that though things have improved for the ones who say so, others are still being dealt a rough hand.

B: The paragraph does not imply that the good economic indicators are being used as subterfuge to cover up the prevailing inequality.

C: Comes the closest in capturing the three points. Hence, is the answer.

D: It has a problem similar to Option A. Things have improved for that section of people. They are not ignorant, nor are they being misled into believing something.

Question 108: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Petitioning is an expeditious democratic tradition, used frequently in prior centuries, by which citizens can bring issues directly to governments. As expressions of collective voice, they support procedural democracy by shaping agendas. They can also recruit citizens to causes, give voice to the voteless, and apply the discipline of rhetorical argument that clarifies a point of view. By contrast, elections are limited in several respects: they involve only a few candidates, and thus fall far short of a representative democracy. Further, voters’ choices are not specific to particular policies or laws, and elections are episodic, whereas the voice of the people needs to be heard and integrated constantly into democratic government.

a) By giving citizens greater control over shaping political and democratic agendas, political petitions are invaluable as they represent an ideal form of a representative democracy.

b) Citizens become less inclined to petitioning as it enables vocal citizens to shape political agendas, but this needs to change to strengthen democracies today.

c) Petitioning has been important to democratic functioning, as it supplements the electoral process by enabling ongoing engagement with the government.

d) Petitioning is definitely more representative of the collective voice, and the functioning of democratic government could improve if we relied more on petitioning rather than holding periodic elections.

108) Answer (C)

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Solution:

The given passage discusses the role of petitioning in democratic governance; it highlights how petitioning can shape political agendas, recruit citizens to causes, give voice to the voteless, and apply the discipline of rhetorical argument to clarify points of view. The passage also compares petitioning to elections, stating that petitioning supplements the electoral process and enables ongoing engagement with the government. The author does not make a judgment about the relative superiority of petitioning or elections, but rather focuses on the specific ways in which petitioning can contribute to democratic functioning. Option C accurately summarizes the points discussed above.

Option A is incorrect because the passage does not state that petitioning is “an ideal form of representative democracy.” It only mentions that petitioning can give voice to the voteless and apply the discipline of rhetorical argument, but it does not make a broader claim about the superiority of petitioning over other forms of democracy.

Option B is incorrect because the passage does not suggest that citizens are becoming less inclined to petitioning. In fact, the passage does not address the prevalence of petitioning in contemporary times at all.

Option D is incorrect because the passage does not state that petitioning is more representative of the collective voice than elections. It only mentions that petitioning can give voice to the voteless, but it does not make a comparison to elections in this regard. The passage also does not suggest that the functioning of democratic government would necessarily improve if we relied more on petitioning instead of holding periodic elections; it simply states that petitioning has been important to democratic functioning in the past, and that it supplements the electoral process by enabling ongoing engagement with the government.

Question 109: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
It’s not that modern historians of medieval Africa have been ignorant about contacts between Ethiopia and Europe; they just had the power dynamic reversed. The traditional narrative stressed Ethiopia as weak and in trouble in the face of aggression from external forces, so Ethiopia sought military assistance from their fellow Christians to the north. But the real story, buried in plain sight in medieval diplomatic texts, simply had not yet been put together by modern scholars. Recent research pushes scholars of medieval Europe to imagine a much more richly connected medieval world: at the beginning of the so-called Age of Exploration, there is evidence that the kings of Ethiopia were sponsoring their own missions of diplomacy, faith and commerce.

a) Medieval texts have documented how strong connections between the Christian communities of Ethiopia and Europe were invaluable in establishing military and trade links between the two civilisations.

b) Historians were under the illusion that Ethiopia needed military protection from their neighbours, but in fact the country had close commercial and religious connections with them.

c) Medieval texts have been ‘cherry-picked’ to promote a view of Ethiopia as weak and in need of Europe’s military help with aggressive neighbours, but recent studies reveal it was a well-connected and outward-looking culture.

d) Medieval historical sources selectively promoted the narrative that powerful European forces were called on to protect weak African civilisations such as Ethiopia, but this is far from reality.

109) Answer (C)

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Solution:

The passage touches upon the historical relationship between Ethiopia and Europe during the medieval period. The traditional narrative of this relationship has portrayed Ethiopia as weak and in need of military assistance from Europe, but recent research has revealed that this narrative is not accurate and that Ethiopia was actually a well-connected and outward-looking culture that engaged in missions of diplomacy, faith, and commerce with Europe. The passage also notes that these new findings challenge historians to re-imagine the connections between Ethiopia and Europe during this period and to consider the role of Ethiopia as a more active participant in these relationships. Option C accurately reflects the main points made in the passage [that the traditional narrative of Ethiopia’s relationship with Europe is inaccurate]

Option A is incorrect because it suggests that the connections between Ethiopia and Europe were primarily military and commercial in nature, which is not stated in the passage. Similarly, Option B implies that historians had a mistaken view of Ethiopia’s relationship with Europe, which is not stated in the passage. The idea in Option D – which suggests that medieval texts were biased in favour of Europe and against Africa – cannot be understood from the discussion.

Hence, Option C is the correct choice.

Question 110: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
All that we think we know about how life hangs together is really some kind of illusion that we have perpetrated on ourselves because of our limited vision. What appear to be inanimate objects such as stones turn out not only to be alive in the same way that we are, but also in many infinitesimal ways to be affected by stimuli just as humans are. The distinction between animate and inanimate simply cannot be made when you enter the world of quantum mechanics and try to determine how those apparent subatomic particles, of which you and everything else in our universe is composed, are all tied together. The point is that physics and metaphysics show there is a pattern to the universe that goes beyond our capacity to grasp it with our brains.

a) The effect of stimuli is similar in inanimate objects when compared to animate objects or living beings.

b) Quantum physics indicates that an astigmatic view of reality results in erroneous assumptions about the universe.

c) The inanimate world is both sentient and cognizant like its animate counterpart.

d) Arbitrary distinctions between inanimate and animate objects disappear at the scale at which quantum mechanics works.

110) Answer (D)

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Solution:

The passage is about the limitations of our understanding of the universe and how it is connected. It suggests that our understanding of the distinction between animate and inanimate objects may be flawed because of our limited perspective, and that quantum mechanics reveals a different understanding of this distinction; it also suggests that there may be a pattern to the universe that we cannot fully grasp with our brains. Option D correctly captures these points.

Options A and B are incorrect because the passage does not state that the effect of stimuli is similar in inanimate objects compared to living beings or mention astigmatism or an erroneous view of reality. Option C is not understood since the passage does not suggest that inanimate objects are sentient or cognizant; it only highlights that the distinction between animate and inanimate objects disappears at the quantum scale.

Hence, Option D is the correct choice.

Question 111: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
There’s a common idea that museum artworks are somehow timeless objects available to admire for generations to come. But many are objects of decay. Even the most venerable Old Master paintings don’t escape: pigments discolour, varnishes crack, canvases warp. This challenging fact of art-world life is down to something that sounds more like a thread from a morality tale: inherent vice. Damien Hirst’s iconic shark floating in a tank – entitled The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living – is a work that put a spotlight on inherent vice. When he made it in 1991, Hirst got himself in a pickle by not using the right kind of pickle to preserve the giant fish. The result was that the shark began to decompose quite quickly – its preserving liquid clouding, the skin wrinkling, and an unpleasant smell wafting from the tank.

a) Museums are left with the moral responsibility of restoring and preserving the artworks since artists cannot preserve their works beyond their life.

b) Museums have to guard timeless art treasures from intrinsic defects such as the deterioration of paint, polish and canvas.

c) The role of museums has evolved to ensure that the artworks are preserved forever in addition to guarding and displaying them.

d) Artworks may not last forever; they may deteriorate with time, and the challenge is to slow down their degeneration.

111) Answer (D)

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Solution:

The passage is about the ‘inherent vice’ or the natural tendency of certain artworks to deteriorate over time due to various factors such as discolouration of pigments, cracking of varnishes, and warping of canvases. The passage also mentions an example of Damien Hirst’s artwork, The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living, which began to decompose quickly due to the use of the wrong preserving liquid. In this regard, Option D offers an apt summary of the passage because it accurately captures the main idea of the passage, which is that artworks may not last forever and may deteriorate with time. Option A is incorrect because the passage does not mention any moral responsibility of museums to restore and preserve artworks. Similarly, Option B can be eliminated since the passage does not specifically mention museums guarding art treasures from intrinsic defects. Option C is also inaccurate because the discussion does not present the evolution of the role of museums in preserving artworks forever.

Hence, Option D is the correct choice.

Question 112: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Today, many of the debates about behavioural control in the age of big data echo Cold War-era anxieties about brainwashing, insidious manipulation and repression in the ‘technological society’. In his book Psychopolitics, Han warns of the sophisticated use of targeted online content, enabling ‘influence to take place on a pre-reflexive level’. On our current trajectory, “freedom will prove to have been merely an interlude.” The fear is that the digital age has not liberated us but exposed us, by offering up our private lives to machine-learning algorithms that can process masses of personal and behavioural data. In a world of influencers and digital entrepreneurs, it’s not easy to imagine the resurgence of a culture engendered through disconnect and disaffiliation, but concerns over the threat of online targeting, polarisation and big data have inspired recent polemics about the need to rediscover solitude and disconnect.

a) Rather than freeing us, digital technology is enslaving us by collecting personal information and influencing our online behaviour.

b) With big data making personal information freely available, the debate on the nature of freedom and the need for privacy has resurfaced.

c) The role of technology in influencing public behaviour is reminiscent of the manner in which behaviour was manipulated during the Cold War.

d) The notion of freedom and privacy is at stake in a world where artificial intelligence is capable of influencing behaviour through data gathered online.

112) Answer (B)

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Solution:

The passage discusses the ways in which big data and targeted online content can potentially influence and manipulate behaviour, leading to concerns over freedom and privacy in the digital age. This is reflected in the statements that “behavioural control” in the age of big data echoes Cold War-era anxieties about “brainwashing” and “repression,” and that the use of targeted online content can enable “influence to take place on a pre-reflexive level.” The passage also mentions the fear that the digital age has not liberated us, but rather exposed us by making personal and behavioural data available to machine-learning algorithms. Option B accurately reflects this central theme of the passage by stating that the debate on the nature of freedom and privacy has resurfaced due to the availability of personal information through big data. Option A is incorrect because it goes beyond the scope of the passage by stating that digital technology is “enslaving” us, which is not explicitly stated in the text. Similarly, Option C is inaccurate since the author only mentions the Cold War as a reference point for similar debates on behavioural control, but does not focus on the Cold War itself. Option D is wrong because the passage does not mention artificial intelligence specifically, but rather machine-learning algorithms.

Hence, Option B is the correct choice.

Question 113: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Several of the world’s earliest cities were organised along egalitarian lines. In some regions, urban populations governed themselves for centuries without any indication of the temples and palaces that would later emerge; in others, temples and palaces never emerged at all, and there is simply no evidence of a class of administrators or any other sort of ruling stratum. It would seem that the mere fact of urban life does not, necessarily, imply any particular form of political organization, and never did. Far from resigning us to inequality, the picture that is now emerging of humanity’s past may open our eyes to egalitarian possibilities we otherwise would have never considered.

a) The lack of hierarchical administration in ancient cities can be deduced by the absence of religious and regal structures such as temples and palaces.

b) Contrary to our assumption that urban settlements have always involved hierarchical political and administrative structures, ancient cities were not organised in this way.

c) The emergence of a class of administrators and ruling stratum transformed the egalitarian urban life of ancient cities to the hierarchical civic organisations of today.

d) We now have the evidence in support of the existence of an egalitarian urban life in some ancient cities, where political and civic organisation was far less hierarchical.

113) Answer (D)

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Solution:

The passage is about the political and civic organization of ancient cities. It states that some ancient cities were organized along egalitarian lines, without any indication of temples or palaces (which suggests a lack of a ruling class or administrators), and that in other cities, temples and palaces never emerged at all. Option D correctly summarizes this information by stating that there was evidence of an egalitarian urban life in some ancient cities, where the political and civic organization was less hierarchical. Option A is incorrect because it only mentions the absence of temples and palaces, but does not mention the fact that some ancient cities were organized along egalitarian lines. On a similar note, Option B presents an exaggeration by suggesting that ‘all’ ancient cities were organized along egalitarian lines, which is not stated in the passage. Option C is also inaccurate since it asserts that ancient cities were transformed from egalitarian to hierarchical, but the passage only states that some ancient cities were egalitarian and does not mention any transformation.

Hence, Option D is the correct choice.

Question 114: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Tamsin Blanchard, curator of Fashion Open Studio, an initiative by a campaign group showcasing the work of ethical designers says, “We’re all drawn to an exquisite piece of embroidery, a colourful textile or even a style of dressing that might have originated from another heritage. [But] this magpie mentality, where all of culture and history is up for grabs as ‘inspiration’, has accelerated since the proliferation of social media…Where once a fashion student might research the history and traditions of a particular item of clothing with care and respect, we now have a world where images are lifted from image libraries without a care for their cultural significance. It’s easier than ever to steal a motif or a craft technique and transfer it on to a piece of clothing that is either mass produced or appears on a runway without credit or compensation to their original communities.”

a) Copying an embroidery design or pattern of textile from native communities who own them is tantamount to stealing, and they need to be compensated.

b) Media has encouraged mass production; images are copied effortlessly without care or concern for the interests of ethnic communities.

c) Taking fashion ideas from any cultural group without their consent is a form of appropriation without giving due credit, compensation, and respect.

d) Cultural collaboration is the need of the hour. Beautiful design ideas of indigenous people need to be showcased and shared worldwide.

114) Answer (C)

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Solution:

The main points of the paragraph are:

i) The copying of fashion ideas unique to particular cultures or heritages is rising in this age of social media.

ii) The original communities are not credited and compensated when their unique ideas are used.

Option A: This is a distorted option. It is generalizing that copying a fashion idea is tantamount to stealing(not specifying whether it is done with or without the consent of the original communities.).Thus, this is not the correct option.

Option B: Again, this is a very general and extreme option. Also, it is a distorted inference that the media has encouraged mass production. Thus, this is also not the correct option.

Option C: Since this includes both the main points, this is the correct option.

Option D: This is a distorted option and does not include the main ideas of the paragraph.

Thus, the correct option is C.

Question 115: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.To defend the sequence of alphabetisation may seem bizarre, so obvious is its application that it is hard to imagine a reference, catalogue or listing without it. But alphabetical order was not an immediate consequence of the alphabet itself. In the Middle Ages, deference for ecclesiastical tradition left scholars reluctant to categorise things according to the alphabet — to do so would be a rejection of the divine order. The rediscovery of the ancient Greek and Roman classics necessitated more efficient ways of ordering, searching and referencing texts. Government bureaucracy in the 16th and 17th centuries quickened the advance of alphabetical order, bringing with it pigeonholes, notebooks and card indexes.

a) Unlike the alphabet, once the efficacy of the alphabetic sequence became apparent to scholars and administrators, its use became widespread.

b) The alphabetic order took several centuries to gain common currency because of religious beliefs and a lack of appreciation of its efficacy in the ordering of things.

c) The ban on the use by scholars of any form of categorisation – but the divinely ordained one – delayed the adoption of the alphabetic sequence by several centuries.

d) While adoption of the written alphabet was easily accomplished, it took scholars several centuries to accept the alphabetic sequence as a useful tool in their work.

115) Answer (B)

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Solution:

The main ideas of the paragraph are:

i) The alphabetical order did not directly follow the discovery of alphabets.

ii) Scholars were reluctant to categorize the alphabet in the middle ages because of the fear of rejection of the divine order.

iii) Only after the rediscovery of Greek and Roman classics and the Government bureaucracy in later centuries did the categorization happen.

Option A misses capturing the point of why scholars were reluctant to categorize things according to the alphabet.
Option C is factually incorrect in mentioning the ban on the use. Option D can be eliminated on the same grounds as option A.

Option B captures the essence of the main points most aptly and hence, is the best answer.

Thus, the correct option is B.

Question 116: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
“It does seem to me that the job of comedy is to offend, or have the potential to offend, and it cannot be drained of that potential,” Rowan Atkinson said of cancel culture.“Every joke has a victim. That’s the definition of a joke. Someone or something or an idea is made to look ridiculous.” The Netflix star continued, “I think you’ve got to be very, very careful about saying what you’re allowed to make jokes about. You’ve always got to kick up? Really?” He added, “There are lots of extremely smug and self-satisfied people in what would be deemed lower down in society, who also deserve to be pulled up. In a proper free society, you should be allowed to make jokes about absolutely anything.”

a) All jokes target someone and one should be able to joke about anyone in the society, which is inconsistent with cancel culture.

b) Every joke needs a victim and one needs to include people from lower down the society and not just the upper class.

c) Victims of jokes must not only be politicians and royalty, but also arrogant people from lower classes should be mentioned by comedians.

d) Cancel culture does not understand the role and duty of comedians, which is to deride and mock everyone.

116) Answer (A)

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Solution:

The main ideas of the passage are:

i) The job of a joke is to offend its target(victim) irrespective of its status.

ii) The cancel culture deems it inappropriate to joke about people deemed lower in society.

Option A: This option includes both the main points and hence is the correct answer.

Option B: This is a distorted option. The ideas in the paragraph are not intended to persuade to include people from the lower class in the joke. Thus, this is not the correct answer.

Option C: Again, this is a distorted option and can be eliminated based on the explanation given in option B.

Option D: This is also a distorted option, as nowhere in the passage the duties of a comedian are mentioned. Thus, this is not the correct option.

Thus, the correct option is A.

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