Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases are printed in ‘’bold’’ to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions.

To open up a field of study, draw attention to its vital elements, the lecture is invaluable. To listen to a lecture can be thrilling experience from which the student may gain ideas obtainable in no other way. But possibly to a greater degree than other forms of instruction, lecturing presumes a high order of intellectual competence on the part of learners. The purposes of the lecture are to summarize, to clarify, to stimulate and to humanize the materials of the course. It should synthesize, evaluate, criticise and compare ideas and facts with which students have come in contact through out-of-class assignments.

The effectiveness of lectures could be enhanced by introducing the lecture with a brief review of the work preceding. It should also be indicated how the day’s lecture fits into the course pattern. A lecture should seldom be presented in one unbroken discourse. Unless exceptionally interesting, a long lecture ‘’strains’’ the capacity for concentrated listening, causing intermittent wandering of attention and loss of continuity in thought. The lecture should therefore be organized in a few block or units. As a rule, the exposition should be concluded before the end of the class period so as to allow some time for general discussion.

For students to obtain maximum benefit from a lecture, individual participation in study in both precede and follow it. On their own initiative, most students would not engage in preparatory study, hence formal assignments may be necessary. The lecture should be concluded on the assumption that the assignments has been fulfilled. It pays to explore the aids available for teaching a course particularly through lectures, since verbal exposition alone, however ‘’lucid’’ has its shortcomings.

Question 90

An uninterrupted discourse type method results into…...

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