One thing struck us as a major difference between the new National Education Policy (NEP) 2020 and its predecessor. The earlier national policies on education (NPE) from 1986 and 1992 presented themselves as attempts to consolidate and build on earlier efforts, particularly the NPE, 1968. The new NEP 2020 policy, on the other hand, is very keen to establish that it is different from everything in the past, including in its name. Nowhere does this attitude come across as starkly as it does in the section on higher education.

It comes across fairly clearly on how the higher education ecosystem will be by 2040. By this time — if the policy has its way — the Indian higher education ecosystem will be populated with higher education institutions (HEI). These will comprise Universities and Colleges and the public and private sectors, all of which will be 'multi-disciplinary‘, with each populated by more than 3,000 students, with at least one "in or near every district". Universities will conduct research and post-graduate and under-graduate teaching, some research-intensive and others teaching-intensive. Colleges will largely teach at the under-graduate level, with a number of them having their medium of instruction in either bilingual or local / Indian languages. The colleges can manifest in clusters around universities as constituent colleges or may be standalone autonomous ones. Ideally, all HEIs will eventually become "independent self-governing institutions" with considerable "faculty and institutional autonomy". They will have complied with a series of regulatory exercises that are "light-but-tight" and will be operated by a large number of private accreditors, overseen by a new set of regulatory institutions at the national level.
Source: Excerpt taken from, written by Nitin Mehta & Gagan Mehta. (Dated 14 th August, 2020)

Question 55

What is the proposed percentage of expenditure for education out of GDP under the NEP 2020?

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