In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.

Mankind has seen rapid (31) in the last 150 years because of the mass manufacturing techniques (32) in western nations and later taken to new levels of efficiency by Japan. Mass production and production for the masses became the bases of new business strategies. Large scale consumption by all with the social benefit of (33) poverty became the dominant economic strategy. The advent of electricity and its large-scale application to lighting, heating and operating machines added a fresh dimension to manufacturing. By the 1950s came (34) in electronics and transistor devices to be followed by innovations in microelectronics, computers and various forms of sensors all of which (35) altered the manufacturing scene. It is now no longer necessary to make prototypes in a factory or a laboratory to study a new product. Many new products can be (36) on computers and their behaviour simulated on them. By choosing an optimum design through such simulations, computer programmes can directly (37) the manufacturing processes. These processes are generally called Computer Aided Design (CAD) and Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAM). These capabilities are leading to newer forms of (38) by customers. Each customer can be offered several special options. Customised product design or (39) manufacturing are other popular techniques currently in (40) in many developed countries.

Question 35

Blank (35)


Precisely and measurably altered make no sense in context of the sentence. Indefinitely is also incorrect as it gives an idea that the changes are continuously happening which is not correct. Immediately is also not the right fit as we are talking about an era. Thus, the use of immediately makes the inference of the sentence slightly ambiguous. Irreversibly fits in the context perfectly and hence is the correct answer.

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