Read the following passage carefully and answer these question. Certain words/phrase have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the question.

Over the last three centuries, the world economy has evolved from a predominantly agriculture-based system to a digital economic system. The earlier economies were mainly agrarian. In this era, capital did play a role, as did technological innovations such as the plough, the steamboat or the train. But land and labour were more critical.

With the industrial revolution, the global economy was primarily driven by the ability to produce goods for the mass market. This led to the industrial economy where capital and labour were the most important drivers. In the service economy, the wealth created by services exceeded the wealth created through manufacturing. Here, the ability of the service provider to establish a sound business gave him access to additional capital. This evolved into a global economy where goods and services were traded across international borders, with little restriction. ln this period, capital started flowing across border on all large scale for the first time.

The last five years have seen the advent of the digital economy where technology is becoming the driving force. With information being the driver of value and wealth creation, information logy is becoming the key to success in a growing number of industries. In the digital economy, the power of innovation and ideas gained the upper hand over direct access to capital.

The Indian economy is in a unique in terms of its economic evaluation. While manufacturing and service industries in India cannot freely access capital, the new breed of IT:- based industries have access to venture capital and private equity. The country's potential in this emerging sector has opened the doors to capital inflows that are still not available to traditional industries.

There are two key trends which will boost the democratization of capital, either directly as funding sources or indirectly.

More effective capital market routes---especially for information - based and software companies.

This is already happening rapidly. A market that was supposed to be stagnating with no public offering from the manufacturing sector in the first quarter of the fiscal year may see as many see as many as 20-25 new software issues this year. Numerous internet and e-commerce companies are tapping funds through the capital market. For the financial intermediaries as well as for the investing public, dot com or 'info' initial offerings are fast becoming attractive to investment alternatives to traditional manufacturing or financial sector offers.

With more effective capital markets, for high potential IT stocks, 'critical mass', which in the industrial economy' was primary in ensuring a company's ability to raise capital, will cases to matter. This underlines the manner in which a burgeoning digital economy has led to a redeployment of capital from a concentrated segment to the smaller knowledge entrepreneur.

A greater number of venture capitalists actively seeking to fund budding knowledge entrepreneurs. Along with the rise in Net entrepreneurs one has seen the emergence of a new breed of venture capitalists who recognize the potential that resides in these ideas. The emergence and strengthening of the virtual economy necessitates sources of funds at the' ideation' stage where business plans may still be at the in fancy stage and potential not clearly identified.

This need is being fulfilled by the incubator funds or the angle investors who hand-hold internet startups and other info tech ventures till the stage at which they can attract bigger investors. Instead of looking at high risk but big ventures, this genre of venture capitalists are looking at investments in companies which have the potential of excellent valuations in the future on the strength of their ideas.

Question 178

  • Which of the following best describes the phrase critical mass as used in the passage ?


Refer to last line of 5th para.It states that There is a shift from Concentrated segment to small knowledge entreprenuer.Hence,Ais correct

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