Read the passage below and choose the correct answer for questions.

The Hyperloop is a proposed mode of passenger and freight transportation, first used to describe an open source vactrain design released by a joint team from Tesla and SpaceX. Hyperloop is described as a sealed tube or system of tubes with low air pressure through which a pod may travel substantially free of air resistance or friction. The Hyperloop could potentially convey people or objects at airline or hypersonic speeds while being energy efficient compared with existing high-speed rail systems. This, if implemented, may reduce travel times compared to train and airplane travel over distances of under approximately 1,500 kilometers (930 miles).

Elon Musk first publicly mentioned the Hyperloop in 2012, His initial concept incorporated reduced-pressure tubes in which pressurized capsules ride on air bearings driven by linear induction motors and axial compressors. The Hyperloop Alpha concept was first published in August 2013, proposing, and examining a route running from the Los Angeles region to the San Francisco Bay Area, roughly following the Interstate 5 corridor. The Hyperloop Genesis paper conceived of a hyperloop system that would propel passengers along the 350-mile (560 km) route at a speed of 760 mph (1,200 km/h), allowing for a travel time of 35 minutes, which is considerably faster than current rail or air travel times. Preliminary cost estimates for this LA-SF suggested route were included in the white paper - US$6 billion for a passenger-only version, and US$7.5 billion for a somewhat larger-diameter version transporting passengers and vehicles. However, transportation analysts expressed doubts that the system could be constructed on that budget, including some predictions that the Hyperloop would be several billion dollars over budget once construction, development and operation costs are taken into consideration.

The Hyperloop concept has been explicitly "open-sourced" by Musk and SpaceX, and others have been encouraged to take the ideas and further develop them. To that end, a few companies have been formed, and several interdisciplinary student-led teams are working to advance the technology. SpaceX built an approximately 1-kilometer-long (0.62 mi) subscale track for its pod design competition at its headquarters in Hawthorne, California. TUM Hyperloop set the world record of 463 km/h (288 mph) in July 2019 during the Hyperloop pod competition at SpaceX. Virgin Hyperloop conducted the first human trial in November 2020 at its test site in Ls Vegas.

Question 144

''open-soured" implies that

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