In the given passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. Against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. We all have a …(1)... in the infrastructure surrounding us-the roads, buildings, power lines and telephone networks that we …(2)... on daily. How well they are built and operated is …(3)... to economic growth and is a key arbiter of an economy's competitiveness- and yet, virtually every economy faces an array of infrastructure challenges. Just a few examples illustrate some of the pressing issues. South Africa's power distribution network has an estimated maintenance backlog of $4 billion- equivalent to half of the country's total investment in electronic power generation and distribution in 2011. The U.S. Department of Transportation estimates that 15% of the country's roads are in an unacceptable condition and Just to keep …(4)... with anticipated global GDP growth, the world needs to spend $57 trillion, or on average $3.2 trillion a year, on infrastructure over the next 18 years. That is more than the entire worldwide stock of infrastructure on the ground today-and nearly 60% more than the world has invested over the past 18 years. Tackling maintenance backlogs, future-proofing infrastructure to cope with climate change and ..(5)... development goals such as access to clean water and all-weather roads to transport goods to markets would cost a great deal. The bill for all of that looks prohibitive at a time when many governments are highly indebted and capital is tight. A focus on both, the huge need for additional investment and potential difficulties in financing it, …(6)... the debate Pessimism rules, but it needn't be that way. There are ways of cutting the bill down to size and dealing with the challenge. The answer …(7)... in improving the way we plan, build and operate infrastructure- in other words, we need to boost its productivity.

Question 109


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