In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage, against each, five words are suggested. One of the five words fits in the given blank perfectly. Mark the most appropriate word.
The Government of India is at the ______ (1) of pension reform in South Asia. The drive for pension reform ______ (2) from ballooning unfunded pension liabilities under the defined benefit system for civil servants, which was not fiscally ______ (3) for both central and state governments. The current occupational pension system for civil servants and salaried employees in the private sector ______ (4) covers 14% of India’s paid workforce. Most of India’s workforce is ______ (5) in the informal sector, and are ______ (6) from the benefits of a regulated retirement income system.
In 2004, the government took the first steps toward ______ (7) a self-sustaining and broad-based pension system for India when it ______ (8) away from unfunded defined benefit pensions for government employees in ______ (9) of a contributory system. This new system is a defined-contribution, individual accounts-based pension program mandatory for civil servants. In 2009, the NPS was made ______ (10) to all other Indian citizens, including informal sector workers, on a voluntary basis.
Source: Sri Wening Handayani; Michelle Domingo-Palacpac. 2015. Social Protection Brief: Supporting Pension Reforms in India. © Asian Development Bank. http://hdl.handle.net/11540/3306. License: CC BY 3.0 IGO.
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