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# XAT Critical Reasoning Questions PDF

Download Critical Reasoning Questions for XAT PDF – XAT Critical Reasoning questions pdf by Cracku. Practice XAT solved Critical Reasoning Questions paper tests, and these are the practice question to have a firm grasp on the Critical Reasoning topic in the XAT exam. Top 20 very Important Critical Reasoning Questions for XAT based on asked questions in previous exam papers.  The XAT question papers contain actual questions asked with answers and solutions.

Question 1: The following question has a set of three statements. Each statement can be classified as one of the following.
(i) Facts, which deal with pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read, and which are open to discovery or verification (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘F’).
(ii) Inferences, which are conclusions drawn about the unknown, on the basis of the known (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘I’).
(iii) Judgements, which are opinions th at imply approval or disapproval of persons, objects, situations and occurrences in the past, the present or the future (the answer option indicates such a statement with a ‘J’).
Identify the Fact(F), Judgement(J) and Inference(I) from the given sentences
1) “I don’t see Ritu. She said she was tired, so she must have gone home to bed.”
2) “Ram’s been at the gym a lot; he must be trying to lose weight.”
3) “Shera is a dog, and all dogs love belly rubs. So Shera must love belly rubs.”

a) 1I, 2I, 3J

b) 1I, 2I, 3I

c) 1F, 2F, 3J

d) 1J, 2J, 3F

Solution:

The three statements given are inferences since we are drawing conclusions based on known facts.

Statement 1: The speaker does not see Ritu. Ritu had told the speaker that she was tired. From this known information, the speaker is concluding that Ritu must have gone home to bed.

Statement 2: The speaker knows that Ram is going to the gym a lot. From this information, the speaker is inferring that Ram must have been trying to lose weight.

Statement 3: It is known that Shera is a dog and all dogs love belly rubs. The speaker thus, infers from this that Shera must love belly rubs, too.

Hence, the answer is option B.

Question 2: The following question has a set of three statements. Each statement can be classified as one of the following:
(i) Facts, which deal with pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read, and which are open to discovery or verification (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘F’).
(ii) Inferences, which are conclusions drawn about the unknown, on the basis of the known (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘I’).
(iii) Judgements, which are opinions that imply approval or disapproval of persons, objects, situations and occurrences in the past, the present or the future (the answer option indicates such a statement with a ‘J’).
Identify the Fact(F), Judgement(J) and Inference(I) from the given sentences.
1. Weather forecast says 80% chance of thunderstorms, It’s a good idea to bring an umbrella.
2. My throat is sore and my nose is running, I have probably caught a cold.
3. There are over 40 million volumes in the university library, they probably have a copy of the famous book ‘Savitri’.

a) 1I,2I,3J

b) 1I,2I,3I

c) 1F,2F,3J

d) 1J,2J,3F

Solution:

All three sentences are inferences as they draw conclusions based on available information.

Statement 1: It is given that the weather forecast has given an 80% chance of thunderstorms. Based on this information, it is concluded to be a good idea to carry an umbrella.

Statement 2: The throat of the person is sore and their nose is running. Based on these symptoms, they are inferring that they might have a cold.

Statement 3: It is known that there are over 40million volumes in the university library. Based on this it is inferred that the library may also have a copy of the book “Savitri”.

Hence, the answer is option B.

Question 3: The following question has a set of three statements. Each statement can be classified as one of the following:-

(i) Facts, which deal with pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read, and which are open to discovery or verification (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘F’).
(ii) Inferences, which are conclusions drawn about the unknown, on the basis of the known (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘I’).
(iii) Judgements, which are opinions th at imply approval or disapproval of persons, objects, situations and occurrences in the past, the present or the future (the answer option indicates such a statement with a ‘J’).
Identify the Fact(F), Judgement(J) and Inference(I) from the given sentences.
1. God created the earth
2. God exists
3. Wine tastes better than beer

a) 1F,2J,3J

b) 1J,2J,3J

c) 1I,2F,3J

d) 1J,2J,3I

Solution:

All three statements are judgements, as they are personal opinions and not facts or conclusions based on some data.

Statement 1: Whether God created the Earth or not is not a fact as it cannot be verified. It is also not an inference as it is not based on some given data. It is an opinion and hence can be classified as a judgement.

Statement 2: This again is not a verifiable fact or an inference. It is an opinion which may vary from person to person and thus, classified as judgement.

Statement 3: This statement is clearly a personal opinion as the relative tastes of things are very subjective and depend on the person. Hence, this sentence is also classified as a judgement.

Hence, the answer is option B.

Question 4: Read the following paragraph and answer the question that follows:
Worldwide, tomato is one of the most important crops. Because this crop can be adapted for cultivation in various environments ranging from tropical to alpine regions, its cultivation area is now expanding worldwide into not so productive regions. On the other hand, traditional cultivation areas, the most favourable for tomato cultivation with warm and dry climate, are contracting. Every year, traditional cultivation areas lose 2 million hectares (ha) of land to environmental factors such as salinity, drought, and soil erosion.
Which of the following is the correct inference based on the above passage?

a) In recent years, per hectare production of tomato has increased worldwide.

b) In recent years, per hectare wastage of tomato has increased worldwide.

c) In recent years, per hectare production of tomato has decreased worldwide.

d) In recent years, per hectare wastage of tomato has decreased worldwide.

e) In recent years, per hectare production of tomato has remained the same worldwide.

Solution:

Tomato cultivation area is expanding worldwide into average productive lands. On the other hand, it is losing the most productive areas at a rate of almost 2 million hectors per year.

Thus, it can be inferred that the net production of tomatoes per hectare is decreasing( average productive land will produce fewer tomatoes per hectare as compared to the traditional lands).

Thus, the correct option is C.

Question 5: Most of the Asian countries have trade-deficit with China. Bangladesh’s trade deficit with China this year has increased by 35%. Despite large increases in exports to China, Indonesia’s trade deficit with China continues to increase. So does that of South Korea, home of Samsung Electronics, one of the world’s largest manufacturers of electronic gadgets.
Which of the following, if true, would be most inconsistent with the above passage?

a) China is the largest manufacturer of parts of electronic gadgets and Samsung Electronics imports parts for their gadgets from China.

b) Exports to Bangladesh are insignificant in proportion of China’s total exports.

c) Exports to Indonesia from China decreased.

d) Indonesia’s chief exports are natural resources.

e) China has trade deficit with Iran.

Solution:

In the given paragraph, it has been mentioned that exports to China from Indonesia has increased significantly. At the same time the trade deficit of Indonesia with China has widened. Trade deficit is exports minus imports. If the trade deficit has widened then the imports should have increased at a higher rate as compared to the exports.

So, option C which mentions the decrease in exports to Indonesia from china is inconsistent with the information given in the passage.
Hence, option C is the correct answer.

Question 6: The following question has a set of three statements. Each statement can be classified as one of the following.
(i) Facts, which deal with pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read, and which are open to discovery or verification (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘F’).
(ii) Inferences, which are conclusions drawn about the unknown, on the basis of the known (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘I’).
(iii) Judgements, which are opinions th at imply approval or disapproval of persons, objects, situations and occurrences in the past, the present or the future (the answer option indicates such a statement with a ‘J’).
Identify the Fact(F), Judgement(J) and Inference(I) from the given sentences
1) “I don’t see Ritu. She said she was tired, so she must have gone home to bed.”
2) “Ram’s been at the gym a lot; he must be trying to lose weight.”
3) “Shera is a dog, and all dogs love belly rubs. So Shera must love belly rubs.”

a) 1I, 2I, 3J

b) 1I, 2I, 3I

c) 1F, 2F, 3J

d) 1J, 2J, 3F

Solution:

The three statements given are inferences since we are drawing conclusions based on known facts.

Statement 1: The speaker does not see Ritu. Ritu had told the speaker that she was tired. From this known information, the speaker is concluding that Ritu must have gone home to bed.

Statement 2: The speaker knows that Ram is going to the gym a lot. From this information, the speaker is inferring that Ram must have been trying to lose weight.

Statement 3: It is known that Shera is a dog and all dogs love belly rubs. The speaker thus, infers from this that Shera must love belly rubs, too.

Hence, the answer is option B.

Question 7: The following question has a set of three statements. Each statement can be classified as one of the following:
(i) Facts, which deal with pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read, and which are open to discovery or verification (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘F’).
(ii) Inferences, which are conclusions drawn about the unknown, on the basis of the known (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘I’).
(iii) Judgements, which are opinions that imply approval or disapproval of persons, objects, situations and occurrences in the past, the present or the future (the answer option indicates such a statement with a ‘J’).
Identify the Fact(F), Judgement(J) and Inference(I) from the given sentences.
1. Weather forecast says 80% chance of thunderstorms, It’s a good idea to bring an umbrella.
2. My throat is sore and my nose is running, I have probably caught a cold.
3. There are over 40 million volumes in the university library, they probably have a copy of the famous book ‘Savitri’.

a) 1I,2I,3J

b) 1I,2I,3I

c) 1F,2F,3J

d) 1J,2J,3F

Solution:

All three sentences are inferences as they draw conclusions based on available information.

Statement 1: It is given that the weather forecast has given an 80% chance of thunderstorms. Based on this information, it is concluded to be a good idea to carry an umbrella.

Statement 2: The throat of the person is sore and their nose is running. Based on these symptoms, they are inferring that they might have a cold.

Statement 3: It is known that there are over 40million volumes in the university library. Based on this it is inferred that the library may also have a copy of the book “Savitri”.

Hence, the answer is option B.

Question 8: The following question has a set of three statements. Each statement can be classified as one of the following:-

(i) Facts, which deal with pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read, and which are open to discovery or verification (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘F’).
(ii) Inferences, which are conclusions drawn about the unknown, on the basis of the known (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘I’).
(iii) Judgements, which are opinions th at imply approval or disapproval of persons, objects, situations and occurrences in the past, the present or the future (the answer option indicates such a statement with a ‘J’).
Identify the Fact(F), Judgement(J) and Inference(I) from the given sentences.
1. God created the earth
2. God exists
3. Wine tastes better than beer

a) 1F,2J,3J

b) 1J,2J,3J

c) 1I,2F,3J

d) 1J,2J,3I

Solution:

All three statements are judgements, as they are personal opinions and not facts or conclusions based on some data.

Statement 1: Whether God created the Earth or not is not a fact as it cannot be verified. It is also not an inference as it is not based on some given data. It is an opinion and hence can be classified as a judgement.

Statement 2: This again is not a verifiable fact or an inference. It is an opinion which may vary from person to person and thus, classified as judgement.

Statement 3: This statement is clearly a personal opinion as the relative tastes of things are very subjective and depend on the person. Hence, this sentence is also classified as a judgement.

Hence, the answer is option B.

Question 9: Read the following paragraph and answer the question that follows:
Worldwide, tomato is one of the most important crops. Because this crop can be adapted for cultivation in various environments ranging from tropical to alpine regions, its cultivation area is now expanding worldwide into not so productive regions. On the other hand, traditional cultivation areas, the most favourable for tomato cultivation with warm and dry climate, are contracting. Every year, traditional cultivation areas lose 2 million hectares (ha) of land to environmental factors such as salinity, drought, and soil erosion.
Which of the following is the correct inference based on the above passage?

a) In recent years, per hectare production of tomato has increased worldwide.

b) In recent years, per hectare wastage of tomato has increased worldwide.

c) In recent years, per hectare production of tomato has decreased worldwide.

d) In recent years, per hectare wastage of tomato has decreased worldwide.

e) In recent years, per hectare production of tomato has remained the same worldwide.

Solution:

Tomato cultivation area is expanding worldwide into average productive lands. On the other hand, it is losing the most productive areas at a rate of almost 2 million hectors per year.

Thus, it can be inferred that the net production of tomatoes per hectare is decreasing( average productive land will produce fewer tomatoes per hectare as compared to the traditional lands).

Thus, the correct option is C.

Question 10: Classify following sentences into Fact (F), Judgment (J) and Inference (I) based on the definitions provided below, and choose the most suitable sequence among the given options.
Fact (F): If it is to a known matter of direct observation, or an existing reality or something known to be true.
Judgment (J): If it is an opinion or estimate or anticipation of common sense or intention.
Inference (I): If it is logical conclusion or deduction about something based on the knowledge of facts.
i) Proper allocation of resources is required for the overall development of our economy.
ii) Government has decided to allocate the gas from KG basin to power fertiliser sector.
iii) A court decision against the declared policy guidelines can result in government intervention in the form of an appeal.
iv) Some section of the society may consider this decision as a deliberate attempt to protect some private interest.

a) IFIJ

b) FFJJ

c) JFJI

d) JFFI

e) FFII

Solution:

Statement I and III are inferences because they are logical conclusions based on facts.
Statements II is a fact as it is verifiable.
Statement IV is judgement because the phrase “may consider this decision as a deliberate attempt” is highly opinionated.
Hence, option A is the correct answer.

Question 11: The following question has a set of three statements. Each statement can be classified as one of the following.
(i) Facts, which deal with pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read, and which are open to discovery or verification (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘F’).
(ii) Inferences, which are conclusions drawn about the unknown, on the basis of the known (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘I’).
(iii) Judgements, which are opinions th at imply approval or disapproval of persons, objects, situations and occurrences in the past, the present or the future (the answer option indicates such a statement with a ‘J’).
Identify the Fact(F), Judgement(J) and Inference(I) from the given sentences
1) “I don’t see Ritu. She said she was tired, so she must have gone home to bed.”
2) “Ram’s been at the gym a lot; he must be trying to lose weight.”
3) “Shera is a dog, and all dogs love belly rubs. So Shera must love belly rubs.”

a) 1I, 2I, 3J

b) 1I, 2I, 3I

c) 1F, 2F, 3J

d) 1J, 2J, 3F

Solution:

The three statements given are inferences since we are drawing conclusions based on known facts.

Statement 1: The speaker does not see Ritu. Ritu had told the speaker that she was tired. From this known information, the speaker is concluding that Ritu must have gone home to bed.

Statement 2: The speaker knows that Ram is going to the gym a lot. From this information, the speaker is inferring that Ram must have been trying to lose weight.

Statement 3: It is known that Shera is a dog and all dogs love belly rubs. The speaker thus, infers from this that Shera must love belly rubs, too.

Hence, the answer is option B.

Question 12: The following question has a set of three statements. Each statement can be classified as one of the following:
(i) Facts, which deal with pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read, and which are open to discovery or verification (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘F’).
(ii) Inferences, which are conclusions drawn about the unknown, on the basis of the known (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘I’).
(iii) Judgements, which are opinions that imply approval or disapproval of persons, objects, situations and occurrences in the past, the present or the future (the answer option indicates such a statement with a ‘J’).
Identify the Fact(F), Judgement(J) and Inference(I) from the given sentences.
1. Weather forecast says 80% chance of thunderstorms, It’s a good idea to bring an umbrella.
2. My throat is sore and my nose is running, I have probably caught a cold.
3. There are over 40 million volumes in the university library, they probably have a copy of the famous book ‘Savitri’.

a) 1I,2I,3J

b) 1I,2I,3I

c) 1F,2F,3J

d) 1J,2J,3F

Solution:

All three sentences are inferences as they draw conclusions based on available information.

Statement 1: It is given that the weather forecast has given an 80% chance of thunderstorms. Based on this information, it is concluded to be a good idea to carry an umbrella.

Statement 2: The throat of the person is sore and their nose is running. Based on these symptoms, they are inferring that they might have a cold.

Statement 3: It is known that there are over 40million volumes in the university library. Based on this it is inferred that the library may also have a copy of the book “Savitri”.

Hence, the answer is option B.

Question 13: The following question has a set of three statements. Each statement can be classified as one of the following:-

(i) Facts, which deal with pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read, and which are open to discovery or verification (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘F’).
(ii) Inferences, which are conclusions drawn about the unknown, on the basis of the known (the answer option indicates such a statement with an ‘I’).
(iii) Judgements, which are opinions th at imply approval or disapproval of persons, objects, situations and occurrences in the past, the present or the future (the answer option indicates such a statement with a ‘J’).
Identify the Fact(F), Judgement(J) and Inference(I) from the given sentences.
1. God created the earth
2. God exists
3. Wine tastes better than beer

a) 1F,2J,3J

b) 1J,2J,3J

c) 1I,2F,3J

d) 1J,2J,3I