Chemistry Notes PDF for RRB & SSC Exams – General Science

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general science chemistry notes pdf
general science chemistry notes pdf

General Science – Chemistry PDF Notes for SSC CGL & RRB Exams (NTPC, JE, ALP and Group D):

Following is the Chemistry Important One-liner Notes for RRB Railway exams. You can download this Chemistry PDF useful for all competitive exams of UPSC (Civil services including IAS), SSC CGL, TNPSC etc.,

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Basic Chemistry up to Class X level is asked in Competitive Exams such as Indian Railways –ALP and Group D exams and SSC exams. Cracku brings to you the capsule – One Liners covering exam specific topics in Chemistry.

Matter and its Nature

  • Matter exists in three different states in Physical Form
  • Solids – Molecules are closely packed. It is structural rigidity to changes of shape or volume
  • Liquids – Molecular Bonds in a liquid are weaker than those in a solid but stronger than those in gases
  • Gases – Molecular Bonds in a gas are loosely held and weaker than those in solids and liquids
v    Boiling Point The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the Atmospheric Pressure
v    Melting Point The temperature at which the solid exists in equilibrium with its liquid under an external pressure of one atmosphere.
v    Evaporation Evaporation is the process of a substance in a liquid state changing to a gaseous state due to an increase in temperature and/or pressure
v Freezing Point Freezing point is the temperature at which a liquid becomes a solid at normal atmospheric pressure
v Surface Tension Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible
v Decantation Is a process to separate mixtures by removing a liquid layer that is free of a precipitate. The purpose may be to obtain the liquid free from particulates or to recover the precipitate
v Specific Gravity The ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume
v Filtration Filtration is process that separate solids from fluids by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass through
v Sublimation Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.
v Diffusion Diffusion is defined as the movement of Gas into open space or diffusion into another gas
v Effusion Movement of gas through a tiny hole is defined as effusion
v Emulsion A fine dispersion of minute droplets of one liquid into another in which it is not soluble or miscible
v Viscosity The state of being thick, sticky, and semi-fluid in consistency, due to internal friction
v Liquids at high altitudes boil at lower temperature due to low atmospheric pressure at high altitudes
v Evaporation takes place only on the surface of Liquids
v The melting point of Ice decreases with Increase in Pressure
v Pure water has a maximum density of 1 gm/cm 3 at 4 Degrees Celsius
v Surface Tension decreases with Increase in temperature
v Spherical Shape of Liquid Droplets is due to the property of Surface Tension in Liquids
v Boiling Point and Evaporation of a liquid differ in a basic point that Evaporation occurs at all temperatures whereas Boiling Point of a liquid occurs at specific Temperature
  • All matter is made up of Atoms which is the smallest particle of the element that consists of three fundamental units – Protons, electrons and neutrons.
v    Discovery of Atomic Nucleus v Ernest Rutherford
based on Geiger–Marsden Gold Foil Experiment
v    Discovery of Protons v E Goldstein
v    Discovery of Electrons v J J Thomson
v    Discovery of Neutrons v James Chadwick
  • Nucleus is the center of the Atom contains the neutral charges Neutrons and Positively charged Protons, the electrons revolve around the nucleus of an atom
  • Protons, electrons and Neutrons are called sub-atomic particle.
  • Each sub-atomic particle has an anti-particle with an opposite electric Charge
  • “Positron” is not a sub-atomic particle but an anti-particle of electron which has same mass as electron – 9.10 ×10-31Kg with opposite charge, whereas Proton is a sub atomic particle with mass 1.6726219 × 10-27Kg and positive Charge
  • Atoms combine with each other to form compound atoms called Molecules
  • John Dalton was the first scientist to use symbols for elements in a very specific sense.
  • The most commonly used measurement for atomic radius is Nanometer – 0 x 109Metre and Angstrom A – 1.0 x 10-10Metre
  • The relative Atomic Masses of all units have been measured w.r.t an atom of Carbon-12 which is equal to 1.66 × 10-24 g
  • Hydrogen has the smallest atom and is considered to have an atomic mass – 1
  • Molecules are defined as group of two or more atoms chemically bonded together, Atoms of same element or different elements group together to form a compound molecule.

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  • Compound formed between Atoms of Metals and Non-Metals have charged ions
v    Charge on the Ion – Negative v    Anion
v    Charged on the Ion – Positive v    Cation
  • The combining capacity of an atom of an element with atoms of same element or different elements is called Valency of the element
v    Atomic Number v    Sum total of all protons present in the nucleus of an atom
v    Atomic Mass v    Sum total of Protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an Atom
  • The electrons present in the outermost shell of an atom are known as its valence electrons.
  • Isotopes are atoms of same element having same Atomic Number but different Mass Numbers – (Hydrogen element has three Isotopes 1H1-Hydrogen, 2H1-Deuterium,3H1 – Tritium)
  • Atoms of different elements with different Atomic Number but Same Mass Numbers are called Isobars. (Argon, Potassium, Calcium all have same Mass Numbers but different Atomic Number)
  • Atoms of different elements, which have same number of neutrons but different atomic numbers, are called isotones.
  • Avagadro Number: The number of Atoms present in 12g of Carbon of C-12 Isotope is 6.023 × 1023 Atoms
  • 1 Mole of any substance will contain Avagadro number of Molecules or 6.023 × 1023 Atoms
  • One Mole of any Gas at standard Atmospheric Pressure (STP) will have a volume of 22.4 Litres
  • The electric neutrality of the atom is due to the presence of Equal number of Electrons and Protons in the atom
  • The Spontaneous emission of radiation from the nucleus of an atom is a nuclear Phenomenon termed as Radioactivity
  • Henry Becquerel first discovered radioactivity in 1896. The SI units to measure
  • Radioactivity is Becquerel and unit of Becquerel is Second‑1(Second Inverse)
  • The radiation dose absorbed by the human body is measured using the SI unit Gray or conventional unit RAD
  • Carbon dating is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
  • The most essential particle to continue the chain reaction in the fission of Uranium is Neutron.

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PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS

  • Elements, the purest form of substance can also be classified as
v Metal – 91/118 in the Periodic Table

 

v A material that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity
v Non- Metals – 17/118 in the Periodic Table

 

v Is a chemical element that tend to be highly volatile, have low elasticity, and are good insulators of heat and electricity
v Metalloids – 10/118 in the Periodic Table v A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals
  • Eminent scientist suggested the classification of elements as Mendeleev’s Periodic Law which states that the Chemical and Physical Properties of elements are the periodic functions of their atomic weights.
  • Important points to remember for competitive exams
v    Most Abundant element in the earth’s crust v    Oxygen
v    Lightest element in the Universe v    Hydrogen
v    The Only Liquid metallic Element v    Mercury
v    Element which is the best conductor

of Electricity

v    Silver
v    Highest electo-Negative Element v    Fluorine
v    Most Malleable Element v    Gold
v    The Most abundantly found element

in the Human Body

v    Oxygen

 

ACIDS BASES AND SALTS

ACIDS BASES
Acids are compounds that form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water, and whose aqueous solutions react with bases and certain metals to form salts Bases are compounds that, in aqueous solution, are slippery to the touch, taste astringent and react with acids to form salts
Acid is a Proton Donor Base is a Proton Acceptor
Types of Acids:

Strong Acid: An acid, which dissociates completely or almost completely in water.

Weak Acid: An acid that dissociates only partially when dissolved in water.

Types of Bases:

Strong Base: A base that dissociates completely or almost completely in water

Weak Base:  A base that dissociates partially when dissolved in water

 

Acids are sour to taste Bases are bitter to taste
The acidic property of an acid is due to the presence of hydrogen ions (H+) Property of Base is due to the presence of hydroxyl (OH–) ions
A Salt results when an acid reacts with a base
A scale for measuring Hydrogen ion concentration in a solution is called pH scale
The P in pH stands for “Potenz” –meaning – Power


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CHEMICAL BONDING, REACTIONS AND EQUATIONS

  • The binding force of the constituent atoms of a molecule to maintain a mutual atomic order and definite shape is called Chemical Bonding
  • There are three types of Chemical Bonding
Electrovalent Bond Covalent Bond Metallic Bond
Chemical bond formed between two atoms due to transfer of electron(s) from one atom to the other. A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms. Metallic bonding is a type of chemical bonding that arises from the electrostatic attractive force between conduction electrons and positively charged metal ions.
  • Redox Reaction: Any reaction involves both a reduction process and a complementary oxidation process the two key reactions involved with electron transfer processes is called redox reaction
  • An oxidation- reduction involves many parameters
Oxidation Reaction Reduction Reaction
Addition of Oxygen Addition of Hydrogen
Removal of Hydrogen Removal of Oxygen
Loss of electron Gain of Electron
Increase in Valency Decrease in Valency

 

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

 Organic chemistry is the chemistry of carbon compounds, carbon which is an essential constituent of all Organic Compounds discovered till today.

The Simplest of all organic compounds are Hydrocarbons which contain only Hydrogen and Carbon

  • CARBON – HYDROGEN – ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
    The three types of Hydro Carbons are Alkanes-CH4 (Methane), Alkenes-C2H4 (Ethene) and Alkynes- C3H4(Propyne)
  • CARBON-HYDROGEN-OXYGEN
    Alcohols have (OH) Hydroxyl groups – Methanol (CH3OH)
    Most common compounds containing Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen is “Carbohydrates” (C12H22O11)
    Some other examples are: Ketones, Aldehydes, Fatty Acids
  • CARBON-NITROGEN-HYDROGEN
    Many important Organic Compounds are obtained in this combination Amines – NH3 Cyanides etc…

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IMPORTANT SCIENTISTS ASSOCIATED WITH CHEMISTRY 

v The first person to discover the evidence of Radio- Activity, The SI unit of Radio-activity is named after him. He is often considered as the Father of Radio-Activity Antoine Henri Becquerel
v Scientist who did Pioneering research in the field of Radio- Activity

Discovered important radio-active elements Radium and Polonium

Won the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1911 and Nobel Prize in Physics 1903 along with Antoine Henri Becquerel, Pierre Curie

Marie Curie
v A Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, and philanthropist. Known for inventing dynamite and the founder of Nobel Prize instituted in 1895 Alfred Nobel
v A Russian chemist and inventor who has formulated the Periodic Law, created a farsighted version of the periodic table of elements. Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev
v A noted Scottish physician and chemist, known for his discoveries of Magnesium, latent heat, specific heat, and carbon dioxide Joseph Black
v A Scottish physician, chemist and botanist who is credited with the discovery of nitrogen in 1772 Daniel Rutherford
v A Cornish chemist and inventor, who is best remembered today for the discovery of multiple important elements essential for Humans – Pottasium, Calicium, Barium, Boron, Sodium Sir Humphry Davy
v A British chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904 for the discovery of noble gases. Sir William Ramsay
v English chemist and meteorologist who pioneered studies of Atomic Theory and who is credited with the discovery of color Blindness and is often considered as one of the founders of Modern Chemistry John Dalton
v A Swedish chemist often considered as the founders of Modern Chemistry and is known for discovery of important elements – Silicon, Thorium Baron Jons Jacob Berzelius
v A German Chemist considered as the father of Nuclear Chemistry and winner of Noble Prize in Chemistry in 1944 for discovery of Nuclear Fission Otto Hann
v A Jewish chemist who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his invention of the Haber–Bosch process. Fritz Haber
v The Most important element to Humans  – Discovery of Oxygen is often credit with an English Scientist Joseph Priestley
v A French physicist – a pioneer in magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity, recipient of Nobel Prize in Physics for joint research on radiation Phenomenon Pierre Curie
v A Mexican chemist known for his pivotal role in the discovery of the Antarctic ozone hole and Noble Prize winner for discovery of theory developed on depletion of Ozone due to CFCs Mario Jose Molina
v A British biochemist one of only two people to have won twice the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for discovery of Amino acid sequence of insulin Frederick Sanger
v An Italian scientist, most noted for his contribution to molecular theory now known as Avogadro’s law Lorenzo Romano Amedeo Carlo Avogadro
v British Chemist known for development of Protein crystallography; determining the structure of Insulin Dorothy Hodgkin
v Scientist credited with the discovery of the covalent bond Gilbert N. Lewis
v Scientist credited with the discovery of 3rd law of Thermodynamics Walther Nernst
v Dutch Scientist and The first recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry Jacobus Henricus van ‘t Hoff
v Scientist credited with the discovery of Fluorine Henri Moissan
v Current President of the Royal Society and recipient of Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 2009 for studying the structure of Ribosome V Ramakrishnan
v A British scientist, and an important experimental and theoretical chemist  noted for his discovery of hydrogen James Chadwick

 

IMPORTANT CHEMICALS AND COMPOUNDS 

Name of the Compound Application
Hydrogen Chloride (HCL) Found in stomach as Gastric Juice for Digestion of food
Sulphuric Acid Often referred to as the “King of Chemicals”, has applications mainly in Car Batteries, Detergents, Fertilizers
Acetic Acid ( CH3COOH) Chemical name of Vinegar
Citric Acid Present in Lemons and Citrus fruit
Sodium Chloride Chemical Name of Common Salt
Benzoic Acid Mainly used as a preservative for Food
Sodium Carbonate Chemical Name of Washing Soda
Nitric Acid Commonly used in Manufacturing of Fertilizers like Ammonium Nitrate
Sodium Hydrogen Carbonate Chemical name of Baking Soda
Formic Acid Used as Food Preservative, found mainly in ants, low concentration is useful to Humans. High Concentration is dangerous
Potassium Hydroxide Chemical name of Caustic Pottash
Calcium Hydroxide Chemical name of Lime Water
Boric Acid – Hydrogen Borate Commonly used antiseptic, Flame retardant
Magnesium Hydroxide Chemical name of Milk of Magnesia, commonly used an antacid
Aluminum Hydroxide Most commonly used foaming agent in Fire Extinguishers
Potassium Nitrate Commonly used in manufacturing of Match Sticks and Gunpowder
Calcium Carbonate Very Important Compound in Cement Industry
Calcium Sulphate Chemical name of Plaster of Paris
Calcium Hypochlorite Chemical name of Bleaching Powder
2-Acetoxybenzoic acid Chemical name of Aspirin
Ethanol Chemical name of Alcohol
Copper Sulphate Chemical name of Blue Vitriol – Hydrated Salt
Ferrous Sulphate Chemical name of Green Vitriol – Hydrated Salt
Magnesium Sulphate Chemical name of Epsom Salt – Hydrated Salt
Borax Chemical name of Sodium Borate – Hydrated Salt
Trichloromethane Chemical name of Chloroform
Carbon Dioxide Chemical Name of Dry Ice, primarily used as a cooling agent
Detergents are generally ammonium or sulphonate salts of long chain carboxylic acids

Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long chain carboxylic acids

Composed of about 75% saturated hydrocarbons and 25% aromatic hydrocarbons Diesel – Derived from Petroleum
Organic compound generally derived from a carboxylic acid and an alcohol Esters with characteristic odors are commonly used in synthetic flavors, perfumes, and cosmetics.
Second Isotope of Hydrogen –Water Often called as Deuterium Oxide or Heavy Water, used in the nuclear reactor to slow down the speed of neutrons
Hydrated Iron Oxides Rust – Red Oxide
Dinitrogen Monoxide Chemical name of Laughing Gas
Hydroxy Propanoic Acid Chemical name of Lactic Acid, a commonly used food preservative
Calcium Carbonate Chemical name of Marble
Fuming Sulphuric Acid Chemical name of Oleum, which is commonly used in Oil refining process
Ethanedioic Acid Chemical name of Oxalic Acid- commonly used as a bleach for wood and
Trinitrophenol Chemical name of Picric acid which is more acidic than phenol and is commonly used in military explosives, as an yellow dye.
Calcium Oxide Chemical name of Quicklime
Chlorobenzalmalononitrile Chemical name of Tear Gas
Zinc Sulphate Chemical name of White Vitriol
Carbon Monoxide Chemical name of Water Gas
Aluminum Hydroxide Chemical name for Window Cleaner, has its application in the cleaning of windows
Silver Nitrate solution is poured into a solution of Sodium Chloride White Precipitate
Potassium Iodide solution reacts with Lead Nitrate solution Yellow Precipitate of Lead Iodide
Lead sulphide mineral “Galena” primarily found ore of lead and is mined from large number of deposits from many countries

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MAIN ORES OF IMPORTANT ELEMENTS

Main ore of Iron Hematite
Main ore of Aluminum Bauxite
Main ore of Copper Chalcopyrite
Main ore of Zinc Sphalerite
Main ore of Lead Galena
Main ore of Mercury Cinnabar
Main source of Sodium Rock Salt
Main ore of Tin Cassiterite
Main Ore of Magnesium Dolomite
Main ore of Phosphorous Fluorapatite

 

IMPORTANT DEFINITIONS, ABBREVIATIONS AND POINTS TO REMEMBER
IN CHEMISTRY

Element that is common to all acids Hydrogen
Most Abundant element in the earth’s crust Aluminum
First scientist to use symbols for elements in a very specific sense John Dalton
Oxides of metals which show characteristics of both acidic and basic nature Aluminum Oxide and Zinc Oxide – known as atmospheric oxides
Metals kept in kerosene to avoid combustion in open air due to their high reactivity Potassium and Sodium
The relation of two or more compound that are composed of the same kind and number of atoms but differ from each other in structural arrangement Isomers  – Phenomenon is called Isomerism
The temperature at which a given mass of gas does not occupy any volume or does not exert pressure Absolute Zero temperature
Celsius Scale

Kelvin Scale

Fahrenheit Scale

 

Three scales to measure Temparature
Diamond

Graphite

Amorphous

Three states of Carbon
Substance that can exist in all the three states of matter – Solids, Liquids and Gases Water
Acid that decomposes at ordinary room temperature Nitric Acid
Strongest Oxidizing Agent Fluorine
Strongest Reducing Agent Lithium
Element found in maximum percentage in Human Body Oxygen
The purest form of coal Anthracite
Main element used in the conversion of Solar Energy Silicon
PH values of important compounds:

Hydrochloric Acid

Vinegar

Tomatoes

Milk

Pure Water

Human Blood

Milk of Magnesia

Sodium Hydroxide

 

0

2.2

4.5

6.6

7.0

7.4

10.5

14

Element which has highest Melting Point Tungsten
Element which has highest electron affinity Chlorine
Element with highest Boiling Point Tungsten
Element with lowest Boiling Point Helium
Element which has the highest Density Osmium
Element with the lowest Boiling Point Helium
Element with the lowest Density Hydrogen
Most commonly used chemical in photography Silver Bromide
Most commonly used chemical for artificial rain or cloud seeding Silver Iodide
Most common chemical used in toothpaste Fluoride
Most common chemical used Voting Ink Silver Nitrate
Chemical commonly used in Artificial ripening of Fruits Calcium Carbide
Commonly used chemical used in Airbag Sodium Azide
Commonly used chemical in Blood Bank CPD : Citrate-Phosphate- Dextrose
Commonly used Chemical in Mouth Wash Hydrogen peroxide
Most commonly used semiconductors Germanium and Silicon

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