This blog contains the important questions for CAT Critical Reasoning PDF reasoning topics questions for critical reasoning for CAT exams questions and answers with explanation
Critical Reasoning Questions for CAT PDF Set 2
In a recent study conducted it was found that in car accidents where at least one passenger is killed, in 80% of the cases it is the passenger and not the driver who is killed. In order to increase the safety of the passengers, the traffic authorities should impose heavy fines on passengers not wearing seat belts.
Which of the following, if true, weakens the author’s argument the most?
a) Most drivers of cars that have survived fatal accidents wore seatbelts
b) In cars, the standards for passenger safety are not as good as those for drivers
c) Drivers of cars are rarely killed in accidents
d) In most deadly accidents, the driver of the car in which the passenger is killed is responsible for the accident
The supermarkets waste more energy than any other industry in India. Nearly 85 percent of the Rs100 crores spent on electricity bills by supermarkets each year is thriftlessly squandered by the use of inept equipment. Furthermore, approximately 65 percent of supermarkets in India are small businesses that are incapable of investing in energy-efficient technology. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the information above?
a) Approximately Rs15 crores of the amount spent on energy each year by the supermarkets is not squandered.
b) By using energy-efficient technology, small supermarkets will reduce its expenses by a greater percentage than will a big supermarket.
c) The replacement of inefficient equipment represents the largest potential source of energy savings for the supermarkets
d) No industry in India spends greater than Rs 100 crores each year on energy.
A study conducted on a group of people in Alabama State University in 2013 demonstrates that experiential purchases, such as a meal out or theatre tickets, result in increased greater well-being than material possessions. These experiences tend to satisfy higher order needs, specifically the need for social connectedness and vitality—a feeling of being alive. Therefore to improve the work environment, work efficiency and employee satisfaction, companies should give out free meal passes and theatre tickets instead of bonuses.
Which of the following is NOT a logical flaw in the above argument?
a) The argument fails to consider that some people like to dine at places of their choice.
b) The argument assumes that people value disposable income and free passes equally.
c) The argument fails to consider that more leisure can adversely affect employees’ work efficiency.
d) The argument fails to consider that the study might have been conducted on a group of people, not all of whom might be working.
If the Bombay Municipal Corporation continues to collect garbage from its residents at the current level, the landfills would be overflowing very soon. The BMC would then be forced to take additional land from the forest area that is adjacent to the present landfill site in order to meet the growing needs. In order to avoid this situation, the BMC has decided to increase the collection fee per kilo of garbage from the residents and thus, protect the forest area.
Which of the following is an assumption made by BMC in drawing the conclusion above?
a) Protection of the forest area is not an important concern for the residents of the city
b) The residents would reduce the waste they generate by using long lasting items instead of disposable ones
c) The landfills that are outside the city area could be used as dumping sites
d) The residents of the city, in order to avoid the increased fee, will not start dumping wastes illegally in the forest area
Read the following information carefully and answer the question that follows.
Swapdeal and Kabong have the same number of package deliveries each day. Swapdeal experiences 31 delivery delays per 100 packages, while Kabong experiences 25 delivery delays per 100 packages. When delivery delays caused by bad weather are excluded, Swapdeal has four fewer delivery delays per 100 packages than Kabong does. Which of the following conclusions is best supported by the information given in the passage?
a) Bad weather causes a greater number of delays at Swapdeal than at Kabong.
b) On average, the weather near Swapdeal’s warehouse is worse than it is near Kabong’s warehouse .
c) Traffic delays cause a greater proportion of delays at Kabong than at Swapdeal.
d) The delivery executives of Kabong are better equipped to handle inclement weather than delivery executives of Swapdeal.
Solutions (1 to 5)
1) Answer (b)
The author’s underlying argument is based on the assumption that more passengers have died compared to drivers because the passengers have not worn any seatbelts. So any statement that says the deaths have not been due to lack of wearing seatbelts or provides another reason for the cause of the passenger’s death would weaken the author’s argument.
Sentence B provides an alternate reason for why passengers are killed more in accidents than drivers. Thus, B weakens the author’s conclusion
If sentence A had stated the contrary i.e. the drivers who have survived fatal crashes did not wear any seatbelts, it would have weakened the author’s argument as it would have proved that seatbelts have no relation to passenger deaths. Since the opposite is stated in option A, it does not weaken the author’s argument and is thus incorrect.
Sentence C just states a fact and does not provide any reason for increased passenger deaths. Thus, option C is incorrect.
The driver of the car in which the passenger is killed being responsible for the accident does not again provide any reason for the increased death of passengers. Thus, D also does not give any reason to weaken the author’s argument. Thus, D is also incorrect.
2) Answer (c)
The passage states that 85% i.e. Rs 85 crores is wasted due to inefficient equipment. The rest of Rs 15 crores in unaccounted. That doesn’t mean that some of this amount is not squandered. It might be wasted by employees who forget to turn off the lights. Thus, A is incorrect. B is incorrect because the no information is given about savings of small supermarkets as compared to that of big supermarkets. D is wrong because the passage doesn’t provide information about energy costs of any other industry except that of the supermarket. The passage only states that supermarkets waste more energy than any other industry. It does not claim that supermarkets spend the most in energy. C is correct because according to the passage, Rs 80 crores is attributed to inefficient equipment. That means Rs 20 crores is the highest amount that can be saved through other sources. Thus replacement of inefficient equipment represents the largest potential for energy savings.
3) Answer (a)
The best way to answer this is to read the options and eliminate them.
Option B states that the argument assumes that people value disposable income and free passes equally. This is a logical flaw as disposable income is different from material possessions and what is true for material possessions might not be true for disposable income. Hence, disposable income in the form of bonuses might be more valued than free passes.
The argument assumes that higher employee satisfaction would necessarily mean greater employee work efficiency. Option C correctly points out the flaw that this might not be the case.
The argument assumes that was true for the group of people that formed the basis of the study would be true for all employees. Option D points out this might not be the case if the two groups are different from each other.
Option A states that employees might prefer to eat at the restaurants of their choice. This is not a flaw as the paragraph does not assume that the company will issue meal passes tied to specific restaurants. Hence, option A is not a logical flaw in the argument.
4) Answer (d)
The collection fee has been increased by BMC so that the residents in order to avoid the increased fee will reduce their trash and thus, the forest area would be protected. But the plan would not work if the residents start dumping illegally in the forest area, as it would harm the forest cover. The same is stated in option D and thus, D is an assumption the BMC has made.
Option A is not right because even if the residents are concerned about forest area they might not reduce their garbage output.
Even though B is an outcome the BMC would desire the formation of the plan is not based on that assumption. Thus, B is also incorrect
The BMC’s plan doesn’t include finding alternative dumping sites for the garbage produced. It involves in reducing the waste generated. Thus, option C is not an assumption made while formulating the plan.
5) Answer (a)
In general, Swapdeal experiences a greater number of delays per 100 packages than Kabong does. However, when delays caused by bad weather are excluded, Swapdeal has four fewer delays per 100 packages. Since the number of deliveries each day is same, the bad weather must cause a greater number of delays at Swapdeal than at Kabong. B is not a necessary condition since it might be the case that Kabong experiences worse weather than Swapdeal but they handle it very efficiently. C is incorrect because it is true only when there are two types of delays- weather borne and traffic borne- which is not mentioned in the passage. D is again a condition that is not necessary. There can be many reasons why Kabong has less delay due to weather conditions other than they handling it efficiently. So, A is the answer.
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