CAT Para Summary Questions PDF [Most Important]

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Para Summary
Para Summary

Para Summary is one of the most important topics in the CAT VARC section. If you’re weak in Para Summary questions for CAT, make sure you learn the basic concepts well – learn how to identify the keywords of the given para. Here, you can learn the important concept of CAT Para Summary. You can check out these CAT Para Summary questions PDF from the CAT Previous year’s papers

This post will look at the important Para Summary questions in the CAT VARC section. These are a good source of practice for CAT preparation; If you want to practice these questions, you can download this CAT Para Summary Questions PDF (most important) along with the detailed solutions below, which is completely Free.

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Question 1: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’ s position.
To me, a “classic” means precisely the opposite of what my predecessors understood: a work is classical by reason of its resistance to contemporaneity and supposed universality, by reason of its capacity to indicate human particularity and difference in that past epoch. The classic is not what tells me about shared humanity — or, more truthfully put, what lets me recognize myself as already present in the past, what nourishes in me the illusion that everything has been like me and has existed only to prepare the way for me. Instead, the classic is what gives access to radically different forms of human consciousness for any given generation of readers, and thereby expands for them the range of possibilities of what it means to be a human being.

a) A classic is able to focus on the contemporary human condition and a unified experience of human consciousness.

b) A classical work seeks to resist particularity and temporal difference even as it focuses on a common humanity.

c) A classic is a work exploring the new, going beyond the universal, the contemporary, and the notion of a unified human consciousness.

d) A classic is a work that provides access to a universal experience of the human race as opposed to radically different forms of human consciousness.

1) Answer (C)

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Solution:

The author states that a classic is not which puts him at the centre of the universe but one which gives access to radically different forms of human consciousness.

Let us evaluate the options.

Option A states that a classic should focus on unified human experience. The author mentions the exact opposite in the paragraph. Therefore, we can eliminate option A. We can eliminate option D too since it mentions the polar opposite of what that is mentioned in the paragraph. The author is of the view that a classic should go beyond providing a unified human experience and expose one to radically different forms of human consciousness.

We can eliminate option B since it states that a classic focuses on common humanity. Only option C captures the essence of the given paragraph and hence, option C is the right answer.

Question 2: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’ s position.

A translator of literary works needs a secure hold upon the two languages involved, supported by a good measure of familiarity with the two cultures. For an Indian translating works in an Indian language into English, finding satisfactory equivalents in a generalized western culture of practices and symbols in the original would be less difficult than gaining fluent control of contemporary English. When a westerner works on texts in Indian languages the interpretation of cultural elements will be the major challenge, rather than control over the grammar and essential vocabulary of the language concerned. It is much easier to remedy lapses in language in a text translated into English, than flaws of content. Since it is easier for an Indian to learn the English language than it is for a Briton or American to comprehend Indian culture, translations of Indian texts is better left to Indians.

a) While translating, the Indian and the westerner face the same challenges but they have different skill profiles and the former has the advantage.

b) As preserving cultural meanings is the essence of literary translation Indians’ knowledge of the local culture outweighs the initial disadvantage of lower fluency in English.

c) Indian translators should translate Indian texts into English as their work is less likely to pose cultural problems which are harder to address than the quality of language.

d) Westerners might be good at gaining reasonable fluency in new languages, but as understanding the culture reflected in literature is crucial, Indians remain better placed.

2) Answer (C)

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Solution:

Let us note down the important points put down by the author.

Indians have better knowledge of their culture. A westerner might be fluent in the language but will find it hard to relate to the culture. Indians, on the other hand, might be less fluent in the language but will be able to preserve the culture when a text is translated. Therefore, Indians should translate Indian texts.

Let us evaluate the options now.

Option A states that Indians and Westerners face the same challenges but they have different skill sets. Indians and Westerners face different challenges while translating the text. Indians face difficulty in the language and westerners face difficulty in relating to the culture. Therefore, we can eliminate option A.

Option D fails to capture the fact that the primary intention of the paragraph is not to pit Indians against westerners but to suggest that Indians should translate Indian texts. Also, it does not capture the fact that Indians will retain the advantage only when translating the Indian texts. Therefore, we can eliminate option D.

Option B, though true, fails to capture the India-centric angle that the paragraph adopts. The paragraph places huge emphasis on the term ‘Indian texts’ and only option C manages to capture this fact. Also, only option C captures the fact that it is easier to remedy errors in the language than to fix errors in the interpretation of culture. Therefore, option C is the right answer.

Question 3: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’ s position.

For each of the past three years, temperatures have hit peaks not seen since the birth of meteorology, and probably not for more than 110,000 years. The amount of carbon dioxide in the air is at its highest level in 4 million years. This does not cause storms like Harvey — there have always been storms and hurricanes along the Gulf of Mexico — but it makes them wetter and more powerful. As the seas warm, they evaporate more easily and provide energy to storm fronts. As the air above them warms, it holds more water vapour. For every half a degree Celsius in warming, there is about a 3% increase in atmospheric moisture content. Scientists call this the Clausius-Clapeyron equation. This means the skies fill more quickly and have more to dump. The storm surge was greater because sea levels have risen 20 cm as a result of more than 100 years of human- related global warming which has melted glaciers and thermally expanded the volume of seawater.

a) The storm Harvey is one of the regular, annual ones from the Gulf of Mexico; global warming and Harvey are unrelated phenomena.

b) Global warming does not breed storms but makes them more destructive; the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, though it predicts potential increase in atmospheric moisture content, cannot predict the scale of damage storms might wreck.

c) Global warming melts glaciers, resulting in seawater volume expansion; this enables more water vapour to fill the air above faster. Thus, modern storms contain more destructive energy.

d) It is naive to think that rising sea levels and the force of tropical storms are unrelated; Harvey was destructive as global warming has armed it with more moisture content, but this may not be true of all storms.

3) Answer (C)

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Solution:

Let us note down the important points in the given paragraph.

Global warming does not cause storms but make them more powerful. Due to the increase in the temperature, the air can absorb more moisture. This relationship (the change in the ability to absorb water with the increase in the temperature) is given by the Clausius-Clapeyron equation.

Let us evaluate the options.

The author provides storm Harvey as an example to illustrate how increased temperatures can arm the storms with more power. Harvey is not the central theme of the given paragraph. We can eliminate options A and D since option D places much emphasis on storm Harvey and option A states that there is no relationship between the increase in temperature and the power of storms.

Option B states that the Clausius-Clapeyron equation cannot predict the quantum of destruction that a storm might cause. This point is totally out of context with respect to what that is being discussed in the paragraph. Therefore, we can eliminate option B as well.

Option C precisely explains the mechanism through which global warming makes the modern storms more destructive. Therefore, option C is the right answer.

Question 4: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’ s position.
North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars (Amorpha juglandis) look like easy meals for birds, but they have a trick up their sleeves — they produce whistles that sound like bird alarm calls, scaring potential predators away. At first, scientists suspected birds were simply startled by the loud noise. But a new study suggests a more sophisticated mechanism: the caterpillar’s whistle appears to mimic a bird alarm call, sending avian predators scrambling for cover. When pecked by a bird, the caterpillars whistle by compressing their bodies like an accordion and forcing air out through specialized holes in their sides. The whistles are impressively loud — they have been measured at over 80 dB from 5 cm away from the caterpillar — considering they are made by a two-inch long insect.

a) North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars will whistle periodically to ward off predator birds – they have a specialized vocal tract that helps them whistle.

b) North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars can whistle very loudly; the loudness of their whistles is shocking as they are very small insects.

c) The North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars, in a case of acoustic deception, produce whistles that mimic bird alarm calls to defend themselves.

d) North American. walnut sphinx moth caterpillars, in. a case of deception and camouflage, produce whistles that mimic bird alarm calls to defend themselves.

4) Answer (C)

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Solution:

According to the paragraph, the North American walnut sphinx moth caterpillars produce whistles which are extremely loud considering their size. These whistles appear to mimic bird(predator) alarm calls which scares them to look for cover. Thus, these sounds act as acoustic deception and help the insect to defend themselves against predators.

Option A mentions about vocal tracts which is out of scope. Hence, it can be eliminated.

Option B though correct, fails to mention the use of sound to defend against the predators. Hence, it can be eliminated.

Option C captures all the main points and hence is right choice.

Option D mentions ‘camouflage’ which is also out of context. Hence, it can be eliminated.

Hence, option C is the right answer.

Question 5: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.

Both Socrates and Bacon were very good at asking useful questions. In fact, Socrates is largely credited with coming up with a way of asking questions, ‘the Socratic method,’ which itself is at the core of the ‘scientific method,’ popularised by Bacon. The Socratic method disproves arguments by finding exceptions to them, and can therefore lead your opponent to a point where they admit something that contradicts their original position. In common with Socrates, Bacon stressed it was as important to disprove a theory as it was to prove one — and real-world observation and experimentation were key to achieving both aims. Bacon also saw science as a collaborative affair, with scientists working together, challenging each other.

a) Both Socrates and Bacon advocated clever questioning of the opponents to disprove their arguments and theories.

b) Both Socrates and Bacon advocated challenging arguments and theories by observation and experimentation.

c) Both Socrates and Bacon advocated confirming arguments and theories by finding exceptions.

d) Both Socrates and Bacon advocated examining arguments and theories from both sides to prove them.

5) Answer (D)

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Solution:

According to the paragraph, Socrates and Bacon were good at asking questions. The Socratic method works in a way by finding exceptions to the arguments of the opponent, which makes the opponent to agree on something that contradicts their original position. In a similar way, Bacon stressed that it was important to disprove theory as it is to prove it. Thus both Socrates and Bacon stressed on examining arguments from both ends – to prove as well as disprove.

Option A, which speaks only about disproving of arguments, can be eliminated.

Option B talks only about examining and observation. Hence, it can be eliminated.

Option C talks only about confirming of arguments and not the other way. Hence, it can be eliminated.

Option D captures the main points which we discussed earlier.

Hence, option D is the right answer.

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Question 6: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’ s position.
A fundamental property of language is that it is slippery and messy and more liquid than solid, a gelatinous mass that changes shape to fit. As Wittgenstein would remind us, “usage has no sharp boundary.” Oftentimes, the only way to determine the meaning of a word is to examine how it is used. This insight is often described as the “meaning is use” doctrine. There are differences between the “meaning is use” doctrine and a dictionary-first theory of meaning. “The dictionary’s careful fixing of words to definitions, like butterflies pinned under glass, can suggest that this is how language works. The definitions can seem to ensure and fix the meaning of words, just as the gold standard can back a country’s currency.” What Wittgenstein found in the circulation of ordinary language, however, was a free-floating currency of meaning. The value of each word arises out of the exchange. The lexicographer abstracts a meaning from that exchange, which is then set within the conventions of the dictionary definition.

a) Dictionary definitions are like ‘gold standards’ — artificial, theoretical and dogmatic. Actual meaning of words is their free-exchange value.

b) Language is already slippery; given this, accounting for ‘meaning in use’ will only exasperate the problem. That is why lexicographers ‘fix’ meanings.

c) Meaning is dynamic; definitions are static. The ‘meaning in use’ theory helps us understand that definitions of words are culled from their meaning in exchange and use and not vice versa.

d) The meaning of words in dictionaries is clear, fixed and less dangerous and ambiguous than the meaning that arises when words are exchanged between people.

6) Answer (C)

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Solution:

According to the paragraph, language is like a gelatinous mass that changes shape to fit. Also, many times the only way to find meaning of word is to examine how it is used. It is stated that definitions are fixed for the word by dictionary.Wittgenstein found that circulation of ordinary language was a free-floating currency of meaning. So the meanings are dynamic. Thus, the value of word arises from the exchange and then the lexicographer abstracts meaning from that exchange. Thus, definitions are picked up from the meaning in use.

Option A, which states that definitions are like dogmatic, cannot be found in the paragraph. Hence, it can be eliminated.

The paragraph doesn’t talk about why lexicographers fix meanings. Hence, option B can be eliminated.

Option C covers all the main points. Hence, it is the right choice.

The purpose of the passage is not to compare meaning of words in dictionaries with meaning which arises from exchange. Hence, option D can be eliminated.

Hence, option C is the right choice.

Question 7: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.
Production and legitimation of scientific knowledge can be approached from a number of perspectives. To study knowledge production from the sociology of professions perspective would mean a focus on the institutionalization of a body of knowledge. The professions-approach informed earlier research on managerial occupation, business schools and management knowledge. It however tends to reify institutional power structures in its understanding of the links between knowledge and authority. Knowledge production is restricted in the perspective to the selected members of the professional community, most notably to the university faculties and professional colleges. Power is understood as a negative mechanism, which prevents the non-professional actors from offering their ideas and information as legitimate knowledge.

a) Professions-approach focuses on the creation of institutions of higher education and disciplines to promote knowledge production

b) The study of knowledge production can be done through many perspectives.

c) The professions-approach has been one of the most relied upon perspective in the study of management knowledge production.

d) Professions-approach aims at the institutionalization of knowledge but restricts knowledge production as a function of a select few.

7) Answer (D)

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Solution:

Let us note down the important points.

Professions-approach structures and institutionalizes knowledge but knowledge production is restricted to the select members of the community. It prevents the non-professional actors from offering their ideas.

Options A, B, and C do not capture the negative aspects of the professions-approach at all. They just focus on the advantages offered by the approach but the given paragraph places a huge emphasis on the limitations of the approach as well. Only option D captures both the advantage offered by the approach and its limitations. Therefore, option D is the right answer.

Question 8: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.
The conceptualization of landscape as a geometric object first occurred in Europe and is historically related to the European conceptualization of the organism, particularly the human body, as a geometric object with parts having a rational, three-dimensional organization and integration. The European idea of landscape appeared before the science of landscape emerged, and it is no coincidence that Renaissance artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, who studied the structure of the human body, also facilitated an understanding of the structure of landscape. Landscape which had been a subordinate background to religious or historical narratives, became an independent genre or subject of art by the end of sixteenth century or the beginning of the seventeenth century.

a) The three-dimensional understanding of the organism in Europe led to a similar approach towards the understanding of landscape.

b) Landscape became a major subject of art at the turn of the sixteenth century.

c) The study of landscape as an independent genre was aided by the Renaissance artists.

d) The Renaissance artists were responsible for the study of landscape as a subject of art.

8) Answer (C)

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Solution:

Let us note down the main points of the given paragraph:

The given paragraph describes how the study of landscape gained prominence and became an independent genre. Renaissance artists facilitated the development of the field as an independent genre.

Let us evaluate the options one by one.

Option A states that understanding of the organism in Europe led to a similar approach towards the understanding of landscape. Though this option is true, it fails to capture the fact that the field evolved as an independent genre with the help of Renaissance artists.

Option B states that Landscape became a major subject of art at the turn of the sixteenth century. Again, option B fails to capture the role played by the Renaissance artists.

Option D states that Renaissance artists were responsible for the study of landscape as a subject of art. The paragraph mentions that the artists facilitated in the transformation of the field into an independent genre. Option D establishes a strong relationship and holds Renaissance artists ‘responsible’ for the study of landscape ‘as a subject of art’. The parts within the quotes disregard the fact that the artists just aided the process. They were not solely responsible for the development. Therefore, we can eliminate option D.

Only option C captures the fact that the renaissance artists ‘aided’ in the development of the study of landscape as an independent genre and hence, option C is the right answer.

Question 9: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.

Artificial embryo twinning is a relatively low-tech way to make clones. As the name suggests, this technique mimics the natural process that creates identical twins. In nature, twins form very early in development when the embryo splits in two. Twinning happens in the first days after egg and sperm join, while the embryo is made of just a small number of unspecialized cells. Each half of the embryo continues dividing on its own, ultimately developing into separate, complete individuals. Since they developed from the same fertilized egg, the resulting individuals are genetically identical.

a) Artificial embryo twinning is low-tech and mimetic of the natural development of genetically identical twins from the embryo after fertilization.

b) Artificial embryo twinning is low-tech and is close to the natural development of twins where the embryo splits into two identical twins.

c) Artificial embryo twinning is low-tech unlike the natural development of identical twins from the embryo after fertilization.

d) Artificial embryo twinning is just like the natural development of twins, where during fertilization twins are formed.

9) Answer (A)

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Solution:

The author mentions that artificial embryo twinning is ‘low tech’ to introduce the topic. Then, he explains how the process is exactly similar to the process of development of twins. He states that the process mimics the natural development of twins. He has not highlighted any of the differences between the 2 processes.

Let us evaluate the options.
Option C states that artificial embryo twinning is ‘low tech’ unlike the natural development of twins. The author makes no such comparison in the paragraph and hence, option C can be eliminated.

Option D states that the twins are formed during fertilization but the paragraph mentions that the twins are formed after the process of fertilization (i.e, after the sperm and the egg join).

Option B fails to capture the fact that the twins are ‘genetically’ identical. Also, it states that the artificial twinning process is ‘close to’ the natural development of twins. Though this option is not incorrect, option A is worded in a better way. Option A states that the process is mimetic of the natural development of the twins (emphasizing that no difference has been highlighted), the twins are genetically identical and the process is similar to the process of development of twins after fertilization. Therefore, option A is the right answer.

Question 10: The passage given below is followed by four summaries. Choose the option that best captures the author’s position.
The early optimism about sport’s deterrent effects on delinquency was premature as researchers failed to find any consistent relationships between sports participation and deviance. As the initial studies were based upon cross-sectional data and the effects captured were short-term, it was problematic to test and verify the temporal sequencing of events suggested by the deterrence theory. The correlation between sport and delinquency could not be disentangled from class and cultural variables known. Choosing individuals to play sports in the first place was problematic, which became more acute in the subsequent decades as researchers began to document just how closely sports participation was linked to social class indicators.

a) There is a direct relationship between sport participation and delinquency but it needs more empirical evidence.

b) Statistical and empirical weaknesses stand in the way of inferring any relationship between sports participation and deviance.

c) Sports participation is linked to class and cultural variables such as education, income, and social capital.

d) Contradicting the previous optimism, latter researchers have proved that there is no consistent relationship between sports participation and deviance.

10) Answer (B)

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Solution:

The main points of the passage are that the relation between sports participation and deviation have not been established and that there is not sufficient evidence to prove the relationship.
Option A is distorted because it states that the relationship is already established.
Option B mentions all the relevant points.
Option C does not talk about the relationship and hence, ruled out.
Option D distorts what is given in the paragraph by saying that latter researchers have “proved” there is no consistent relationship. Thus, it is can be eliminated.
Hence, option B is the correct answer.

Question 11: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Vance Packard’s The Hidden Persuaders alerted the public to the psychoanalytical techniques used by the advertising industry. Its premise was that advertising agencies were using depth interviews to identify hidden consumer motivations, which were then used to entice consumers to buy goods. Critics and reporters often wrongly assumed that Packard was writing mainly about subliminal advertising. Packard never mentioned the word subliminal, however, and devoted very little space to discussions of “subthreshold” effects. Instead, his views largely aligned with the notion that individuals do not always have access to their conscious thoughts and can be persuaded by supraliminal messages without their knowledge.

a) Packard held that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ understands the hidden motivations of consumers and works at the supraliminal level, though the people targeted have no awareness of being persuaded.

b) Packard held that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ builds on peoples’ conscious thoughts and awareness, by understanding the hidden motivations of consumers and works at the subliminal level.

c) Packard argued that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ works at the supraliminal level, wherein the people targeted are aware of being persuaded, after understanding the hidden motivations of consumers and works.

d) Packard argued that advertising as a ‘hidden persuasion’ understands the hidden motivations of consumers and works at the subliminal level, on the subconscious level of the awareness of the people targeted.

11) Answer (A)

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Solution:

In this context, “Psychoanalytical analytical technique” implies that the advertising agencies are adapting methods to tap into the unconscious mind of the consumers. They are conducting detailed interviews to identify hidden motivations.

Here, subliminal advertising represents some portion of the ad being difficult to comprehend or simply put, when one of the motives of the ad is so subtle that it is difficult to be understood by a layman.

While supraliminal advertising can be clearly conceived by most people.

Packard claims that the ‘Hidden persuaders’ use supraliminal advertising to entice customers by tapping into consumers without their knowledge.  (….can be persuaded by supraliminal messages without their knowledge.)

Option B and D say that the method is subliminal, hence, it is incorrect
Option C says that people are well aware about being persuaded, hence incorrect.
Option A is a wholesome summary of the method of persuation.

Question 12: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
A distinguishing feature of language is our ability to refer to absent things, known as displaced reference. A speaker can bring distant referents to mind in the absence of any obvious stimuli. Thoughts, not limited to the here and now, can pop into our heads for unfathomable reasons. This ability to think about distant things necessarily precedes the ability to talk about them. Thought precedes meaningful referential communication. A prerequisite for the emergence of human-like meaningful symbols is that the mental categories they relate to can be invoked even in the absence of immediate stimuli.

a) Displaced reference is particular to humans and thoughts pop into our heads for no real reason.

b) Thoughts precede all speech acts and these thoughts pop up in our heads even in the absence of any stimulus.

c) Thoughts are essential to communication and only humans have the ability to think about objects not present in their surroundings.

d) The ability to think about objects not present in our environment precedes the development of human communication.

12) Answer (D)

View Video Solution

Solution:

The paragraph says that humans think about past occurrences suddenly without any immediate stimuli.
The author also says that thinking/thoughts about a certain distant past is a necessity before one can speak about it.
He says that thoughts are a pre-requisite before one talks about it. He also gives an example that various human-like symbols might have emerged without any immediate stimuli.

Option A and C: There is no mention of specificity to humans in the passage
Option B : “All speech acts” is a false generalisation. The passage says that speaking about distant past requires thinking about it first
Option D : It clearly captures the essence of the passage and says that one needs to think about distant past events before talking about them
Hence option D is correct.

Question 13: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
Physics is a pure science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter without regard to whether it will afford any practical benefit. Engineering is the correlative applied science in which physical theories are put to some specific use, such as building a bridge or a nuclear reactor. Engineers obviously rely heavily on the discoveries of physicists, but an engineer’s knowledge of the world is not the same as
the physicist’s knowledge. In fact, an engineer’s know-how will often depend on physical theories that, from the point of view of pure physics, are false. There are some reasons for this. First, theories that are false in the purest and strictest sense are still sometimes very good approximations to the true ones, and often have the added virtue of being much easier to work with. Second, sometimes the true theories
apply only under highly idealized conditions which can only be created under controlled experimental situations. The engineer finds that in the real world, theories rejected by physicists yield more accurate predictions than the ones that they accept.

a) Though engineering draws heavily from pure science, it contributes to knowledge, by incorporating the constraints and conditions in the real world.

b) Engineering and physics fundamentally differ on matters like building a bridge or a nuclear reactor.

c) The relationship between pure and applied science is strictly linear, with the pure science directing applied science, and never the other way round.

d) The unique task of the engineer is to identify, understand, and interpret the design constraints to produce a successful result.

13) Answer (A)

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Solution:

The passage says that pure science intends to discover without any end-goal in mind. While engineers use these benefits for practical applications. The author says that the science behind these practical applications are often considered false by pure science since they are approximated or not applied as per ideal conditions. In any case, even though they are rejected, these approximated science theories find lot of practical applications in everyday life.

Option A is correct. By diluting science, these theories are put into practical benefits. Hence, option A is correct

Option B is incorrect as no such implication can be drawn from the passage

Option C is incorrect. Linear relationship indicates that, if a certain theory is rejected by pure science, it is bound to be rejected by applied science too. This is clearly not the case as engineers use rejected theories for practical benefits.

Option D speaks only about engineers and has no reference to sciences or the main point of the paragraph. The paragraph intends to compare the functionalities of scientists and engineers while option D is specific to engineers and does not encapsulate the essence of the paragraph.

Hence, by way of elimination Option A is the most suitable summary

Question 14: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

For nearly a century most psychologists have embraced one view of intelligence. Individuals are born with more or less intelligence potential (I.Q.); this potential is heavily influenced by heredity and difficult to alter; experts in measurement can determine a person’s intelligence early in life, currently from paper-and-pencil measures, perhaps eventually from examining the brain in action or even scrutinizing his/her genome. Recently, criticism of this conventional wisdom has mounted. Biologists ask if speaking of a single entity called “intelligence” is coherent and question the validity of measures used to estimate heritability of a trait in humans, who, unlike plants or animals, are not conceived and bred under controlled conditions.

a) Biologists have questioned the long-standing view that ‘intelligence’ is a single entity and the attempts to estimate it’s heritability.

b) Biologists have criticised that conventional wisdom that individuals are born with more or less intelligence potential.

c) Biologists have started questioning psychologists’ view of ‘intelligence’ as a measurable immutable characteristic of an individual.

d) Biologists have questioned the view that ‘intelligence’ is a single entity and the ways in which what is inherited

14) Answer (A)

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Solution:

The paragraph highlights the following:

1. The validity of the ubiquitous perspective held by psychologists {of intelligence being a measurable, unalterable entity that is greatly influenced by heredity} is now being questioned by biologists.

2. The dubiety concerning the aspect of intelligence being hereditary {given the fact that “humans, who, unlike plants or animals, are not conceived and bred under controlled conditions.“}

Thus, a statement capturing these elements is bound to be the answer. Option A aptly encompasses these two key points.

Option B: Calling the widely -held perspective as conventional wisdom would be inappropriate. Additionally, the statement here fails to capture point (2).

Option C: Although close, it misses out on the second half of the discussion.

Option D: This option might appear confusing, given that it touches upon both the key elements. However, it is unspecific and comes across as a bit odd {“ways in which what is inherited” doesn’t make sense}. Between Options A and D, A is definitely the better choice.

Question 15: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

As Soviet power declined, the world became to some extent multipolar, and Europe strove to define an independent identity. What a journey Europe has undertaken to reach this point. It had in every century changed its internal structure and invented new ways of thinking about the nature of the international order. Now at the culmination of an era, Europe, in order to participate in it, felt obliged to set aside the political mechanisms through which it had conducted its affairs for three and a half centuries. Impelled also by the desire to cushion the emergent unification of Germany, the new European Union established a common currency in 2002 and a formal political structure in 2004. It proclaimed a Europe united, whole, and free, adjusting its differences by peaceful mechanisms.

a) Europe has consistently changed in keeping with the changing world order and that has culminated in a united Europe.

b) The establishment of a formal political structure in Europe was hastened by the unification of Germany and the emergence of a multipolar world.

c) Europe has consistently changed its internal structure to successfully adapt to the changing world order.

d) Europe has chosen to lower political and economic heterogeneity, in order to adapt itself to an emerging multi-polar world.

15) Answer (D)

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Solution:

The passage begins by highlighting Europe’s continual attempt to adapt itself in a multipolar world by striving to be a dynamic entity- nationally and internationally{“changed its internal structure and invented new ways of thinking about the nature of international order“}.  Post this, the author portrays how certain stimuli in the modern world has lead Europe to review its political components {“set aside the political mechanisms through which it had conducted its affairs for three and a half centuries“} and to make changes in its economic structure {“established a common currency “}. Thus, the passage presents two key elements: (1) the fact that Europe has consistently tried to adapt to a changing world and (2) the manner in which Europe has attempted to achieve that in the existing multi-polar setup. Option D correctly highlights these points.

Option A: This misses out on the point (2). Furthermore, directly ascribing the unification of Europe to its attempt to rapidly change would be incorrect.

Option B: This does not fully capture the essence of the passage and misses out on point 1.

Option C: Although the statement in this option captures point 1, it misses out on point 2.

Hence, Option D is the correct answer.

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