CAT 2020 VARC Question Paper (Slot-2)

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CAT 2020 VARC Question Paper (Slot-2)

Download CAT 2020 verbal Slot-1 Questions PDF with detailed solutions. Practice Verbal Ability and Reading Comprehension Slot-2 Questions asked in the CAT exam to understand the type and level of questions asked in the exam.

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Instructions

The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

The claims advanced here may be condensed into two assertions: [first, that visual] culture is what images, acts of seeing, and attendant intellectual, emotional, and perceptual sensibilities do to build, maintain, or transform the worlds in which people live. [And second, that the] study of visual culture is the analysis and interpretation of images and the ways of seeing (or gazes) that configure the agents, practices, conceptualities, and institutions that put images to work. . . .

Accordingly, the study of visual culture should be characterized by several concerns. First, scholars of visual culture need to examine any and all imagery – high and low, art and non-art. . . . They must not restrict themselves to objects of a particular beauty or aesthetic value. Indeed, any kind of imagery may be found to offer up evidence of the visual construction of reality. . . .

Second, the study of visual culture must scrutinize visual practice as much as images themselves, asking what images do when they are put to use. If scholars engaged in this enterprise inquire what makes an image beautiful or why this image or that constitutes a masterpiece or a work of genius, they should do so with the purpose of investigating an artist’s or a work’s contribution to the experience of beauty, taste, value, or genius. No amount of social analysis can account fully for the existence of Michelangelo or Leonardo. They were unique creators of images that changed the way their contemporaries thought and felt and have continued to shape the history of art, artists, museums, feeling, and aesthetic value. But study of the critical, artistic, and popular reception of works by such artists as Michelangelo and Leonardo can shed important light on the meaning of these artists and their works for many different people. And the history of meaning-making has a great deal to do with how scholars as well as lay audiences today understand these artists and their achievements.

Third, scholars studying visual culture might properly focus their interpretative work on life worlds by examining images, practices, visual technologies, taste, and artistic style as constitutive of social relations. The task is to understand how artifacts contribute to the construction of a world. . . . Important methodological implications follow: ethnography and reception studies become productive forms of gathering information, since these move beyond the image as a closed and fixed meaning-event. . . .

Fourth, scholars may learn a great deal when they scrutinize the constituents of vision, that is, the structures of perception as a physiological process as well as the epistemological frameworks informing a system of visual representation. Vision is a socially and a biologically constructed operation, depending on the design of the human body and how it engages the interpretive devices developed by a culture in order to see intelligibly. . . . Seeing . . . operates on the foundation of covenants with images that establish the conditions for meaningful visual experience.

Finally, the scholar of visual culture seeks to regard images as evidence for explanation, not as epiphenomena.

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Question 1: 
“Seeing . . . operates on the foundation of covenants with images that establish the conditions for meaningful visual experience.” In light of the passage, which one of the following statements best conveys the meaning of this sentence?

a) Sight becomes a meaningful visual experience because of covenants of meaningfulness that we establish with the images we see.

b) Images are meaningful visual experiences when they have a foundation of covenants seeing them.

c) Sight as a meaningful visual experience is possible when there is a foundational condition established in images of covenants.

d) The way we experience sight is through images operated on by meaningful covenants.

Question 2: All of the following statements may be considered valid inferences from the passage, EXCEPT:

a) visual culture is not just about how we see, but also about how our visual practices can impact and change the world.

b) artifacts are meaningful precisely because they help to construct the meanings of the world for us.

c) understanding the structures of perception is an important part of understanding how visual cultures work.

d) studying visual culture requires institutional structures without which the structures of perception cannot be analysed.

Question 3: Which one of the following best describes the word “epiphenomena” in the last sentence of the passage?

a) Overarching collections of images.

b) Visual phenomena of epic proportions.

c) Phenomena amenable to analysis.

d) Phenomena supplemental to the evidence.

Question 4: “No amount of social analysis can account fully for the existence of Michelangelo or Leonardo.” In light of the passage, which one of the following interpretations of this sentence is the most accurate?

a) Socially existing beings cannot be analysed, unlike the art of Michelangelo or Leonardo which can.

b) Social analytical accounts of people like Michelangelo or Leonardo cannot explain their genius.

c) Michelangelo or Leonardo cannot be subjected to social analysis because of their genius.

d) No analyses exist of Michelangelo’s or Leonardo’s social accounts.

Question 5: Which set of keywords below most closely captures the arguments of the passage?

a) Visual Culture, Aesthetic Value, Lay Audience, Visual Experience.

b) Visual Construction of Reality, Work of Genius, Ethnography, Epiphenomena.

c) Imagery, Visual Practices, Lifeworlds, Structures of Perception.

d) Scholars, Social Analysis, Michelangelo and Leonardo, Interpretive Devices.

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Instructions

The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

174 incidents of piracy were reported to the International Maritime Bureau last year, with Somali pirates responsible for only three. The rest ranged from the discreet theft of coils of rope in the Yellow Sea to the notoriously ferocious Nigerian gunmen attacking and hijacking oil tankers in the Gulf of Guinea, as well as armed robbery off Singapore and the Venezuelan coast and kidnapping in the Sundarbans in the Bay of Bengal. For [Dr. Peter] Lehr, an expert on modern-day piracy, the phenomenon’s history should be a source of instruction rather than entertainment, piracy past offering lessons for piracy present. . . .

But . . . where does piracy begin or end? According to St Augustine, a corsair captain once told Alexander the Great that in the forceful acquisition of power and wealth at sea, the difference between an emperor and a pirate was simply one of scale. By this logic, European empire-builders were the most successful pirates of all time. A more eclectic history might have included the conquistadors, Vasco da Gama and the East India Company. But Lehr sticks to the disorganized small fry, making comparisons with the renegades of today possible.

The main motive for piracy has always been a combination of need and greed. Why toil away as a starving peasant in the 16th century when a successful pirate made up to £4,000 on each raid? Anyone could turn to freebooting if the rewards were worth the risk . . . .

Increased globalisation has done more to encourage piracy than suppress it. European colonialism weakened delicate balances of power, leading to an influx of opportunists on the high seas. A rise in global shipping has meant rich pickings for freebooters. Lehr writes: “It quickly becomes clear that in those parts of the world that have not profited from globalisation and modernisation, and where abject poverty and the daily struggle for survival are still a reality, the root causes of piracy are still the same as they were a couple of hundred years ago.” . . .

Modern pirate prevention has failed. After the French yacht Le Gonant was ransomed for $2 million in 2008, opportunists from all over Somalia flocked to the coast for a piece of the action. . . . A consistent rule, even today, is there are never enough warships to patrol pirate-infested waters. Such ships are costly and only solve the problem temporarily; Somali piracy is bound to return as soon as the warships are withdrawn. Robot shipping, eliminating hostages, has been proposed as a possible solution; but as Lehr points out, this will only make pirates switch their targets to smaller carriers unable to afford the technology.

His advice isn’t new. Proposals to end illegal fishing are often advanced but they are difficult to enforce. Investment in local welfare put a halt to Malaysian piracy in the 1970s, but was dependent on money somehow filtering through a corrupt bureaucracy to the poor on the periphery. Diplomatic initiatives against piracy are plagued by mutual distrust: the Russians execute pirates, while the EU and US are reluctant to capture them for fear they’ll claim asylum.

Question 6: “Why toil away as a starving peasant in the 16th century when a successful pirate made up to £4,000 on each raid?” In this sentence, the author’s tone can best be described as being:

a) facetious, about the hardships of peasant life in medieval England.

b) analytical, to explain the contrasts between peasant and pirate life in medieval England.

c) ironic, about the reasons why so many took to piracy in medieval times.

d) indignant, at the scale of wealth successful pirates could amass in medieval times.

Question 7: “A more eclectic history might have included the conquistadors, Vasco da Gama and the East India Company. But Lehr sticks to the disorganised small fry . . .” From this statement we can infer that the author believes that:

a) Lehr does not assign adequate blame to empire builders for their past deeds.

b) the disorganised piracy of today is no match for the organised piracy of the past.

c) Vasco da Gama and the East India Company laid the ground for modern piracy.

d) colonialism should be considered an organised form of piracy.

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Question 8: 
We can deduce that the author believes that piracy can best be controlled in the long run:

a) if we eliminate poverty and income disparities in affected regions.

b) through international cooperation in enforcing stringent deterrents.

c) through lucrative welfare schemes to improve the lives of people in affected regions.

d) through the extensive deployment of technology to track ships and cargo.

Question 9: The author ascribes the rise in piracy today to all of the following factors EXCEPT:

a) decreased surveillance of the high seas.

b) the high rewards via ransoms for successful piracy attempts.

c) the growth in international shipping with globalisation.

d) colonialism’s disruption of historic ties among countries.

Instructions

The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

Aggression is any behavior that is directed toward injuring, harming, or inflicting pain on another living being or group of beings. Generally, the victim(s) of aggression must wish to avoid such behavior in order for it to be considered true aggression. Aggression is also categorized according to its ultimate intent. Hostile aggression is an aggressive act that results from anger, and is intended to inflict pain or injury because of that anger. Instrumental aggression is an aggressive act that is regarded as a means to an end other than pain or injury. For example, an enemy combatant may be subjected to torture in order to extract useful intelligence, though those inflicting the torture may have no real feelings of anger or animosity toward their subject. The concept of aggression is very broad, and includes many categories of behavior (e.g., verbal aggression, street crime, child abuse, spouse abuse, group conflict, war, etc.). A number of theories and models of aggression have arisen to explain these diverse forms of behavior, and these theories/models tend to be categorized according to their specific focus. The most common system of categorization groups the various approaches to aggression into three separate areas, based upon the three key variables that are present whenever any aggressive act or set of acts is committed. The first variable is the aggressor him/herself. The second is the social situation or circumstance in which the aggressive act(s) occur. The third variable is the target or victim of aggression.

Regarding theories and research on the aggressor, the fundamental focus is on the factors that lead an individual (or group) to commit aggressive acts. At the most basic level, some argue that aggressive urges and actions are the result of inborn, biological factors. Sigmund Freud (1930) proposed that all individuals are born with a death instinct that predisposes us to a variety of aggressive behaviors, including suicide (self directed aggression) and mental illness (possibly due to an unhealthy or unnatural suppression of aggressive urges). Other influential perspectives supporting a biological basis for aggression conclude that humans evolved with an abnormally low neural inhibition of aggressive impulses (in comparison to other species), and that humans possess a powerful instinct for property accumulation and territorialism. It is proposed that this instinct accounts for hostile behaviors ranging from minor street crime to world wars. Hormonal factors also appear to play a significant role in fostering aggressive tendencies. For example, the hormone testosterone has been shown to increase aggressive behaviors when injected into animals. Men and women convicted of violent crimes also possess significantly higher levels of testosterone than men and women convicted of non violent crimes. Numerous studies comparing different age groups, racial/ethnic groups, and cultures also indicate that men, overall, are more likely to engage in a variety of aggressive behaviors (e.g., sexual assault, aggravated assault, etc.) than women. One explanation for higher levels of aggression in men is based on the assumption that, on average, men have higher levels of testosterone than women.

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Question 10: 
All of the following statements can be seen as logically implied by the arguments of the passage EXCEPT:

a) a common theory of aggression is that it is the result of an abnormally low neural regulation of testosterone.

b) if the alleged aggressive act is not sought to be avoided, it cannot really be considered aggression.

c) Freud’s theory of aggression proposes that aggression results from the suppression of aggressive urges.

d) the Freudian theory of suicide as self-inflicted aggression implies that an aggressive act need not be sought to be avoided in order for it to be considered aggression.

Question 11: The author identifies three essential factors according to which theories of aggression are most commonly categorised. Which of the following options is closest to the factors identified by the author?

a) Aggressor – Circumstances of aggression – Victim.

b) Psychologically – Sociologically – Medically.

c) Hostile – Instrumental – Hormonal.

d) Extreme – Moderate – Mild.

Question 12: “[A]n enemy combatant may be subjected to torture in order to extract useful intelligence, though those inflicting the torture may have no real feelings of anger or animosity toward their subject.” Which one of the following best explicates the larger point being made by the author here?

a) In certain kinds of aggression, inflicting pain is not the objective, and is no more than a utilitarian means to achieve another end.

b) Information revealed by subjecting an enemy combatant to torture is not always reliable because of the animosity involved.

c) When an enemy combatant refuses to reveal information, the use of torture can sometimes involve real feelings of hostility.

d) The use of torture to extract information is most effective when the torturer is not emotionally involved in the torture.

Question 13: The author discusses all of the following arguments in the passage EXCEPT that:

a) men in general are believed to be more hormonally driven to exhibit violence than women.

b) several studies indicate that aggression may have roots in the biological condition of humanity.

c) aggression in most societies is kept under control through moderating the death instinct identified by Freud.

d) the nature of aggression can vary depending on several factors, including intent.

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Instructions

The passage below is accompanied by a set of questions. Choose the best answer to each question.

In a low-carbon world, renewable energy technologies are hot business. For investors looking to redirect funds, wind turbines and solar panels, among other technologies, seem a straightforward choice. But renewables need to be further scrutinized before being championed as forging a path toward a low-carbon future. Both the direct and indirect impacts of renewable energy must be examined to ensure that a climate-smart future does not intensify social and environmental harm. As renewable energy production requires land, water, and labor, among other inputs, it imposes costs on people and the environment. Hydropower projects, for instance, have led to community dispossession and exclusion . . . Renewable energy supply chains are also intertwined with mining, and their technologies contribute to growing levels of electronic waste . Furthermore, although renewable energy can be produced and distributed through small-scale, local systems, such an approach might not generate the high returns on investment needed to attract capital.

Although an emerging sector, renewables are enmeshed in long-standing resource extraction through their dependence on minerals and metals . . . Scholars document the negative consequences of mining . . . even for mining operations that commit to socially responsible practices[:] “many of the world’s largest reservoirs of minerals like cobalt, copper, lithium, [and] rare earth minerals”—the ones needed for renewable technologies—“are found in fragile states and under communities of marginalized peoples in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.” Since the demand for metals and minerals will increase substantially in a renewable-powered future . . . this intensification could exacerbate the existing consequences of extractive activities.

Among the connections between climate change and waste, O’Neill . . . highlights that “devices developed to reduce our carbon footprint, such as lithium batteries for hybrid and electric cars or solar panels[,] become potentially dangerous electronic waste at the end of their productive life.” The disposal of toxic waste has long perpetuated social injustice through the flows of waste to the Global South and to marginalized communities in the Global North . . .

While renewable energy is a more recent addition to financial portfolios, investments in the sector must be considered in light of our understanding of capital accumulation. As agricultural finance reveals, the concentration of control of corporate activity facilitates profit generation. For some climate activists, the promise of renewables rests on their ability not only to reduce emissions but also to provide distributed, democratized access to energy . . . But Burke and Stephens . . . caution that “renewable energy systems offer a possibility but not a certainty for more democratic energy futures.” Small-scale, distributed forms of energy are only highly profitable to institutional investors if control is consolidated somewhere in the financial chain. Renewable energy can be produced at the household or neighborhood level. However, such small-scale, localized production is unlikely to generate high returns for investors. For financial growth to be sustained and expanded by the renewable sector, production and trade in renewable energy technologies will need to be highly concentrated, and large asset management firms will likely drive those developments.

Question 14: Which one of the following statements best captures the main argument of the last paragraph of the passage?

a) The development of the renewable energy sector is a double-edged sword.

b) Renewable energy systems are not democratic unless they are corporate-controlled.

c) Renewable energy produced at the household or neighbourhood level is more efficient than mass-produced forms of energy.

d) Most forms of renewable energy are not profitable investments for institutional investors.

Question 15: Which one of the following statements, if true, could be an accurate inference from the first paragraph of the passage?

a) The author has reservations about the consequences of renewable energy systems

b) The author has reservations about the consequences of non-renewable energy systems.

c) The author does not think renewable energy systems can be as efficient as non-renewable energy systems.

d) The author’s only reservation is about the profitability of renewable energy systems.

Question 16: Which one of the following statements, if false, could be seen as best supporting the arguments in the passage?

a) Renewable energy systems are as expensive as non-renewable energy systems.

b) Renewable energy systems have little or no environmental impact.

c) Renewable energy systems are not as profitable as non-renewable energy systems.

d) The production and distribution of renewable energy through small-scale, local systems is not economically sustainable.

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Question 17: 
All of the following statements, if true, could be seen as supporting the arguments in the passage, EXCEPT:

a) The example of agricultural finance helps us to see how to concentrate corporate activity in the renewable energy sector.

b) One reason for the perpetuation of social injustice lies in the problem of the disposal of toxic waste.

c) Marginalised people in Africa, Asia and Latin America have often been the main sufferers of corporate mineral extraction projects

d) The possible negative impacts of renewable energy need to be studied before it can be offered as a financial investment opportunity.

Question 18: Based on the passage, we can infer that the author would be most supportive of which one of the following practices?

a) More stringent global policies and regulations to ensure a more just system of toxic waste disposal.

b) The study of the coexistence of marginalised people with their environments.

c) Encouragement for the development of more environment-friendly carbon-based fuels.

d) The localised, small-scale development of renewable energy systems.

Question 19: The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
All humans make decisions based on one or a combination of two factors. This is either intuition or information. Decisions made through intuition are usually fast, people don’t even think about the problem. It is quite philosophical, meaning that someone who made a decision based on intuition will have difficulty explaining the reasoning behind it. The decision-maker would often utilize her senses in drawing conclusions, which again is based on some experience in the field of study. On the other side of the spectrum, we have decisions made based on information. These decisions are rational — it is based on facts and figures, which unfortunately also means that it can be quite slow. The decision-maker would frequently use reports, analyses, and indicators to form her conclusion. This methodology results in accurate, quantifiable decisions, meaning that a person can clearly explain the rationale behind it.

a) It is better to make decisions based on information because it is more accurate, and the rationale behind it can be explained.

b) Decisions based on intuition and information result in differential speed and ability to provide a rationale.

c) While decisions based on intuition can be made fast, the reasons that led to these cannot be spelt out.

d) We make decisions based on intuition or information on the basis of the time available.

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Question 20: 
The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.
The rural-urban continuum and the heterogeneity of urban settings pose an obvious challenge to identifying urban areas and measuring urbanization rates in a consistent way within and across countries. An objective methodology for distinguishing between urban and rural areas that is based on one or two metrics with fixed thresholds may not adequately capture the wide diversity of places. A richer combination of criteria would better describe the multifaceted nature of a city’s function and its environment, but the joint interpretation of these criteria may require an element of human judgment.

a) With the diversity of urban landscapes, measurable criteria for defining urban areas may need to be supplemented with human judgement.

b) Current methodologies used to define urban and rural areas are no longer relevant to our being able to study trends in urbanisation.

c) The difficulty of accurately identifying urban areas means that we need to create a rich combination of criteria that can be applied to all urban areas.

d) Distinguishing between urban and rural areas might call for some judgement on the objective methodology being used to define a city’s functions.

Question 21: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:

1. You can observe the truth of this in every e-business model ever constructed: monopolise and protect data.
2. Economists and technologists believe that a new kind of capitalism is being created – different from industrial capitalism as was merchant capitalism.
3. In 1962, Kenneth Arrow, the guru of mainstream economics, said that in a free  market economy the purpose of inventing things is to create intellectual property rights.
4. There is, alongside the world of monopolised information and surveillance, a different dynamic growing up: information as a social good, incapable of being owned or exploited or priced.
5. Yet information is abundant. Information goods are freely replicable. Once a thing is made, it can be copied and pasted infinitely.

Question 22: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. But the attention of the layman, not surprisingly, has been captured by the atom bomb, although there is at least a chance that it may never be used again.
2. Of all the changes introduced by man into the household of nature, [controlled] large-scale nuclear fission is undoubtedly the most dangerous and most profound.
3. The danger to humanity created by the so-called peaceful uses of atomic energy may, however, be much greater.
4. The resultant ionizing radiation has become the most serious agent of pollution of the environment and the greatest threat to man’s survival on earth.

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Question 23: 
The passage given below is followed by four alternate summaries. Choose the option that best captures the essence of the passage.

With the Treaty of Westphalia, the papacy had been confined to ecclesiastical functions, and the doctrine of sovereign equality reigned. What political theory could then explain the origin and justify the functions of secular political order? In his Leviathan, published in 1651, three years after the Peace of Westphalia, Thomas Hobbes provided such a theory. He imagined a “state of nature” in the past when the absence of authority produced a “war of all against all.” To escape such intolerable insecurity, he theorized, people delivered their rights to a sovereign power in return for the sovereign’s provision of security for all within the state’s border. The sovereign state’s monopoly on power was established as the only way to overcome the perpetual fear of violent death and war.

a) Thomas Hobbes theorized the voluntary surrender of rights by people as essential for emergence of sovereign states.

b) Thomas Hobbes theorized the emergence of sovereign states as a form of transactional governance to limit the power of the papacy.

c) Thomas Hobbes theorized that sovereign states emerged out of people’s voluntary desire to overcome the sense of insecurity and establish the doctrine of sovereign equality.

d) Thomas Hobbes theorized the emergence of sovereign states based on a transactional relationship between people and sovereign state that was necessitated by a sense of insecurity of the people.

Question 24: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:

1. The victim’s trauma after assault rarely gets the attention that we lavish on the moment of damage that divided the survivor from a less encumbered past.
2. One thing we often do with narratives of sexual assault is sort their respective parties into different temporalities: it seems we are interested in perpetrators’ futures and victims’ pasts.
3. One result is that we don’t have much of a vocabulary for what happens in a victim’s life after the painful past has been excavated, even when our shared language gestures toward the future, as the term “survivor” does.
4. Even the most charitable questions asked about the victims seem to focus on the past, in pursuit of understanding or of corroboration of painful details.
5. As more and more stories of sexual assault have been made public in the last two years, the genre of their telling has exploded — crimes have a tendency to become not just stories but genres.

Question 25: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

1. It also has four movable auxiliary telescopes 1.8 m in diameter.
2. Completed in 2006, the Very Large Telescope (VLT) has four reflecting telescopes, 8.2 m in diameter that can observe objects 4 billion times weaker than can normally be seen with the naked eye.
3. This configuration enables one to distinguish an astronaut on the Moon.
4. When these are combined with the large telescopes, they produce what is called interferometry: a simulation of the power of a mirror 16 m in diameter and the resolution of a telescope of 200 m.

Question 26: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. While you might think that you see or are aware of all the changes that happen in your immediate environment, there is simply too much information for your brain to fully process everything.
2. Psychologists use the term ‘change blindness’ to describe this tendency of people to be blind to changes though they are in the immediate environment.
3. It cannot be aware of every single thing that happens in the world around you.
4. Sometimes big shifts happen in front of your eyes and you are not at all aware of these changes.

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Answers & Solutions:

1) Answer (A)

Let’s look at the options one by one.

Option B is “Images are meaningful visual experiences when they have a foundation of covenants seeing them.” This is a distorted option. The actual statement states that sight becomes a meaning visual experience when images are associated with covenants . There is nowhere any discussion about the meaningfulness of images

Option C is “Sight as a meaningful visual experience is possible when there is a foundational condition established in images of covenants.” Again a twisted option. There is nothing said about the possibility of sight as a visual experience. There could be other cases too in which meaningful visual experience could be established

Option D is “The way we experience sight is through images operated on by meaningful covenants.” Entirely out of context option. The statement is about meaningful visual experience not about meaningful covenants.

Option A correctly encapsulates all the points. Hence it is the correct answer.

2) Answer (D)

Option D states “studying visual culture requires institutional structures without which the structures of perception cannot be analysed”.

Look at the penultimate paragraph of the question,” Vision is a socially and a biologically constructed operation, depending on the design of the human body and how it engages the interpretive devices developed by a culture in order to see intelligibly”

Studying visual culture thus depends on the design of human body and interpretative devices developed by the culture. Nowhere it is mentioned that ,without institutional structures of culture vision can’t be analysed as it also depends on the design of human body. Hence this is a wrong inference. Remaining all three options are correct.

3) Answer (D)

This is a vocab question. Epiphenomena means “a secondary effect or byproduct”. The option “Phenomena supplemental to the evidence”, is the closest one. Hence it is the correct answer.

4) Answer (B)

Let’s look at the options one by one.

Option A states that ,”Socially existing beings cannot be analysed, unlike the art of Michelangelo or Leonardo which can.” Twisted option. The excerpt from the passage states that “no amount of social analysis is enough for Michelangelo and Leonardo, because they were such vast artists” However other beings could be socially analysed because not everyone is like Michelangelo or Leonardo.

Option C states that ,”Michelangelo or Leonardo cannot be subjected to social analysis because of their genius.” This is an entirely wrong option. These artists can be subjected to social analysis, but nothing will do justice to them.

Option D states that ,”No analyses exist of Michelangelo’s or Leonardo’s social accounts.”. This is beyond the scope of the pasaage, as nothing has been mentioned about this.

Option B is the correct answer.

5) Answer (C)

This is a fact based easy question. Read the passage carefully. Imagery can be inferred from the second paragraph. And from the subsequent paragraphs you can also infer Visual Practices, Lifeworlds and Structures of Perception(penultimate paragraph).

Hence Option C is the correct answer.

6) Answer (C)

Option A states that the author is “facetious”. Facetious means, treating serious issues with inappropriate humor. Author is nowhere mocking the hard life of peasants. On the contrary, he is actually admitting it and suggesting it as the reason why so many people became pirates in the first place. Hence this option is incorrect.

Option B states analytical. The author is nowhere contrasting the lives of peasant and pirates. He has not portrayed the lives of pirates in a pleasant light. Ultimately they also have to face surveillance and other dangers, thus the contrast in the option is wrong.

Indignant is completely wrong. The author is not angry at the pirates , for amassing huge wealth. Entirely out of context.

Option C talks about irony, which is actually correct. The author is ironical that an honest peasant has to toil day and night and still has to sleep empty stomach but on the other hand a pirate could easily amass twice the fortunes of peasant, without breaking much sweat. This entirely captures the essence of the mentioned line. Hence this answer is correct.

7) Answer (D)

Option B and Option C are factually out of scope. Nothing has been said about who laid the groundwork for modern piracy. Neither has any comparisons made between the piracy of today and yesteryears,

In this statement , the author is obviously not assigning any blame to Vasco Da Gama and East India company. He just wants to highlight their roles in early pirates history.

Option D is the most accurate one.Hope this helps. Thanks

8) Answer (A)

Look at the 4th paragraph of the passage. ” It quickly becomes clear that in those parts of the world that have not profited from globalisation and modernisation, and where abject poverty and the daily struggle for survival are still a reality, the root causes of piracy are still the same as they were a couple of hundred years ago.” Hence to best control the problem of piracy one has to solve this root problem that is eliminate income disparities and poverty in affected regions. Hence 1 is the correct answer. Remaining options are solution but not the one which can eliminate piracy in the long run.

9) Answer (A)

The author in the passage that. “surveillance is there, but they are costly and will never be enough to cover the entire sea” He nowhere mentions that surveillance has decreased, actually it is not possible to map the entire sea. Hence this option is incorrect. Remaining all the options are correct.

10) Answer (A)

Look at the last paragraph of the passage,” Other influential perspectives supporting a biological basis for aggression conclude that humans evolved with an abnormally low neural inhibition of aggressive impulses”. While the first option talks about neural regulation of testosterone, which is factually incorrect. Hence this is the answer.

11) Answer (A)

Option A can be easily inferred from the last few lines of the first paragraph. Remaining options are out of context.

12) Answer (A)

Let’s look at the options one by one.

Option B is a distorted option. The sentence is not about the reliability of the information. Its about the inherent aggression involved.

Option C is also incorrect. Nothing has been mentioned about when the enemy refuses to reveal information. Hence this is beyond the scope of the passage.

On similar lines option D is also incorrect. Nothing has been said about the most effective method to extract information.

Option A correctly captures the essence. Sometimes the aggressor has no intention to inflict pain, its just a means to an utilitarian end. Hence this is the correct option.

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13) Answer (C)

Option C is a twisted option. It incorrectly distorts what is given in the passage. The passage talks about the identification of death instinct by Freud. It doesn’t talk about its moderation and keeping the resulting aggression in check. Hence this option is completely out of context and is incorrect.

14) Answer (A)

The last paragraph talks about how renewable energy can be produced at local or household level but it also talks about the roadblocks in terms of financing. Hence it portrays two sides of the coin, talking about both the positives and negatives. Thus we can fairly conclude that renewable energy is a double edged sword. Option1 is the correct answer.

15) Answer (A)

Look at these lines from the first paragraph of the passage, “But renewables need to be further scrutinized before being championed as forging a path toward a low-carbon future. Both the direct and indirect impacts of renewable energy must be examined to ensure that a climate-smart future does not intensify social and environmental harm. As renewable energy production requires land, water, and labor, among other inputs, it imposes costs on people and the environment.”

These lines clearly indicate that the author has reservations about the renewable energy systems.

Option (2) is factually incorrect. Option 3 is beyond the scope of the passage. No comparison has been made as such. Option (4) is partially correct. The author has reservations about profitability and various other factors too which is accurately captured by the first option.

16) Answer (B)

Here we have to look at those options which if false will support the author’s arguments. Look at the option 2. It states that renewable energy have little or no environmental impact. Its negation will be renewable energy have considerable environmental impact, this is what the author states throughout the passage, about the harmful impact of renewable energy. Hence option 2 is correct.

17) Answer (D)

Look at the last line of the passage,” For financial growth to be sustained and expanded by the renewable sector, production and trade in renewable energy technologies will need to be highly concentrated, and large asset management firms will likely drive those developments ”  Nowhere it is mentioned that the negative impacts of renewable energy needs to be studied , for it to be financially viable. Hence option 4 is incorrect.

18) Answer (A)

Let’s look at the options one by one. Option 2 states “The study of the coexistence of marginalised people with their environments.” This passage is about the impact of renewable energy on marginalized people, not about their coexistence. Hence ignore this option.

Option 3 states “Encouragement for the development of more environment-friendly carbon-based fuels”. In the third paragraph, the author talks about reducing carbon footprint. Hence he will never support carbon based fuels. This option is incorrect.

Option 4 is completely negated by the last paragraph. The author talks about the financial viability of the localised small scale production. Hence this option too is incorrect.

Option 1 is completely correct.”many of the world’s largest reservoirs of minerals like cobalt, copper, lithium, [and] rare earth minerals”—the ones needed for renewable technologies—“are found in fragile states and under communities of marginalized peoples in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.” Since the demand for metals and minerals will increase substantially in a renewable-powered future . . . this intensification could exacerbate the existing consequences of extractive activities.”

This intensification could exacerbate the existing consequences, i.e. if propar disposal of toxic materials is not done it can make the conditions worse. Option 1 is the correct answer.

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19) Answer (B)

Let’s look at the options one by one.

The author has not made any comparisons between the two methodologies, about which method is better. Hence optionA is incorrect.

Option 3 is incorrect too because it doesnot summarise the para accurately. Nothing is mentioned about decisions based on information.

Although time is a factor, nowhere it is mentioned that time is the factor in determining the method of our decision making. Hence Option4 is incorrect too.

Option 2 correctly summarises the passage by differentiating between the two methods. Hence it is correct.

20) Answer (A)

Option B is incorrect, as it mentions “is no longer relevant” whereas the author says may no longer be relevant.

Option C is incorrect too, as the passage talks about distinguishing between urban/rural, not about accurately identifying rural areas.

Option D is distorted. Judgement would be required on the richer criteria , not on the objective methodology, as mentioned in this option.

Option A is correct as it correctly captures the essence of the passage.

21) Answer: 2

We notice that Statement  (3) serves as an introduction by touching upon the topic of intellectual property rights. Statement (2) continues along this line and mentions how ‘monopolizing and protecting data’ {an idea perhaps associated with the aforementioned intellectual property rights} can be observed in certain business models. Thus, the discussion revolves around data/information and its place in the market system. Statement (5) mentions that despite the monopolization, “information is abundant”. And this brings us to the description in Statement (4) which portrays information differently – as a social good. Hence, although a bit discontiguous, 3-1-5-4 seems to talk about the same subject while Statement (2) {on “Merchant Capitalism”} diverges from it. Therefore, (2) is the odd-one-out.

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22) Answer: 2413

Of all the sentences, sentence 2 will be the starting point because it introduces the concept of nuclear fission. Sentence 4 continues this concept by talking about the “resulting ionizing radiation”. Out of sentence 1 and 4, 1 will come first because it introduces the concept of atom bomb and sentence 4 further explores it by talking about how the impact of atomic energy could be much greater. Hence the correct order is 2413.

23) Answer (D)

Let’s look at the options one by one. Option 1 talks about voluntary surrender of rights. But the passage talks about “transfer” of rights, not “surrender” of rights.

The main point is not about “powers of papacy”, option 2 is inconsequential.

Option 3 does not cover one of the main points of the passage, the transfer of rights, between people and the sovereign power. It’s an incomplete option.

Option 4 is the correct summary, it talks about the transactional relationship i.e give and take or transfer of rights between people and sovereign government.

24) Answer: 4

The subject here is about the narratives of sexual assault and the subsequent treatment of the victims. The paragraph begins with Statement (5) which talks about sexual assault narratives turning into a genre. Statement (2) comments on a stark element within these narratives: the general interest in perpetrators’ futures and victims’ pasts. Statement (3) delineates on the outcome of the latter: the focus on a victim’s past’ and Statement (1) further adds to this point. Although Statement (4) appears on a similar topic, we cannot place it in the above arrangement since it diverges into the subject of asking questions to the survivors {an element that is yet to be discussed}. Thus, (4) is the odd-one-out.

25) Answer: 2143

This is a very easy parajumble question. Sentence 2 introduces the topic, VLT. Option 4 further explores it by discussing about the telescopes. 43 forms a natural block as one provides the use and other the application.  Hence 2143 is the correct order

26) Answer: 1342

1 and 3 forms a natural block , as the “It” in sentence 3 refers to the “brain” discussed in statement 1. Again 4 and 2 forms a natural block, as the “this tendency” in statement 2 , refers to the tendency of the people ignoring things happening in front of their eyes as discussed in statement 4. Hence the correct order is 1342

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