CAT Para Jumbles Questions PDF [Most Important]

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CAT ParaJumbles Questions PDF
cat parajumbles pdf

CAT Para Jumbles Questions PDF [Most Important]

Para Jumbles is one of the key topics in the CAT Verbal Section. The questions on Para Jumbles are usually easy, and hence students should not ignore this topic. It is essential that you know the basics of the CAT Para Jumbles well and practice the questions. Also, do check out all the Para Jumbles questions for CAT from the CAT Previous Papers with detailed video solutions. This article will look into some important Logs questions for the CAT Exam. If you want to practice these important Para Jumbles questions, you can download the PDF, which is completely Free.

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Question 1: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. Restitution of artefacts to original cultures could face legal obstacles, as many Western museums are legally prohibited from disposing off their collections.
2. This is in response to countries like Nigeria, which are pressurising European museums to return their precious artefacts looted by colonisers in the past.
3. Museums in Europe today are struggling to come to terms with their colonial legacy, some taking steps to return artefacts but not wanting to lose their prized collections.
4. Legal hurdles notwithstanding, politicians and institutions in France and Germany would now like to defuse the colonial time bombs, and are now backing the return of part of their holdings.

1) Answer: 3214

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph is about restitution of articles that were taken from colonies. 3 introduces the topic at hand: European museums are trying to come to terms with their colonial legacy by returning artefacts. 2 follows 3, providing the reason why this development has taken place. 1 then further describes the current situation: the legal obstacles this action could face. 4 concludes the paragraph by saying that other than these legal obstacles, institutions in France and Germany are seriously backing the move. Hence, the correct arrangement is 3214.

Question 2: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:
1. They often include a foundation course on navigating capitalism with Chinese characteristics and have replaced typical cases from US corporates with a focus on how Western theories apply to China’s buzzing local firms.
2. The best Chinese business schools look like their Western rivals but are now growing distinct in terms of what they teach and the career boost they offer.
3. Western schools have enhanced their offerings with double degrees, popular with domestic and overseas students alike—and boosted the prestige of their Chinese partners.
4. For students, a big draw is the chance to rub shoulders with captains of China’s private sector.
5. Their business courses now largely cater to the growing demand from China Inc which has become more global, richer and ready to recruit from this sinocentric student body.

2) Answer: 3

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences tells us that the paragraph is about Chinese business schools and how they stand in comparison to their western counterparts. 2 mentions that thought they have a similar outlook, Chinese business schools have a different curriculum and are also different in what they have to offer. 1, 4, and 5 further talk about the peculiarity of the Chinese schools.

3, however, runs tangent to the discussion. It shifts the focus from Chinese schools and describes western schools. Hence, 3 is out of the context here.

Question 3: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:
1. A typical example is Wikipedia, where the overwhelming majority of contributors are male and so the available content is skewed to reflect their interests.
2. Without diversity of thought and representation, society is left with a distorted picture of future options, which are likely to result in augmenting existing inequalities.
3. Gross gender inequality in the technology sector is problematic, not only for the industry-wide marginalisation of women, but because technology designs embody the values of their makers.
4. While redressing unequal representation in the workplace is a step in the right direction, broader social change is needed to address the structural inequalities embedded within the current organisation of work and employment.
5. If technology merely reflects the perspectives of the male stereotype, then new technologies are unlikely to accommodate the diverse social contexts within which they operate.

3) Answer: 4

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph must be about the disparity in the representation of different genders. Sentences 1,2,3, and 5 are concerned with the problems that arise when the representation of females is less.

4, however, runs tangent to the discussion at hand. It talks about ‘structural inequalities’. This sentence, if included in the paragraph, would render it incomplete as all the other sentences talk about gender inequality and not structural inequality. Thus, 4 is out of context here.

Question 4: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. It is regimes of truth that make certain relationships speakable – relationships, like subjectivities, are constituted through discursive formations, which sustain regimes of truth.
2. Relationships are nothing without the communication that brings them into being; interpersonal communication is connected to knowledge shared by interlocutors, and scholars should attend to relational histories in their analyses.
3. A Foucauldian approach to relationships goes beyond these conceptions of discourse and history to macrolevel regimes of truth as constituting relationships.
4. Reconsidering micropractices within relationships that are constituted within and simultaneously contributors to regimes of truth acknowledges the central position of power/knowledge in the constitution of what has come to be considered true and real.

4) Answer: 2314

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences tells us that the paragraph is about the different conceptions of relationships. 2 explains that communication is an important aspect here, and should be studied properly. 3 mentions a Foucauldian approach, that goes beyond this, and includes macrolevel regimes of truth. 1 then explains why the concept of regimes of truth is relevant here. 4 then aptly concludes the paragraph, implying how the micropractices within the relationships allude the importance of knowledge/power. Thus, the correct sequence would be 2314.

Question 5: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. Businesses find automation, such as robotic employees, a big asset in terms of productivity and efficiency.
2. But in recent years, robotics has had increasing impacts on unemployment, not just of manual labour, as computers are rapidly handling some white-collar and service-sector work.
3. For years politicians have promised workers that they would bring back their jobs by clamping down on trade, offshoring and immigration.
4. Economists, based on their research, say that the bigger threat to jobs now is not globalisation but automation.

5) Answer: 3412

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Solution:

A quick read of the sentences tells us that the paragraph is about the unemployment caused by automation. The passage is best opened by 3, which provides the current state of unemployment. The politicians view globalisation as the factor exacerbating unemployment. 4 contrasts this by saying that expert analysis tells a different story. It is automation that could prove to be a crucial factor. 12 forms a pair, that further elucidate the kind and scope of impact that automation has on jobs. Hence, the correct sequence would be 3412.

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Question 6: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. The US has long maintained that the Northwest Passage is an international strait through which its commercial and military vessels have the right to pass without seeking Canada’s permission.
2. Canada, which officially acquired the group of islands forming the Northwest Passage in 1880, claims sovereignty over all the shipping routes through the Passage.
3. The dispute could be transitory, however, as scientists speculate that the entire Arctic Ocean will soon be ice-free in summer, so ship owners will not have to ask for permission to sail through any of the Northwest Passage routes.
4. The US and Canada have never legally settled the question of access through the Passage, but have an agreement whereby the US needs to seek Canada’s consent for any transit.

6) Answer: 2143

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph is about the dispute between the US and Canada over the Northwest passage.

2 is a better opening sentence than 1 as 21 forms a good introduction into the dispute. 2 mentions that Canada claims ownership over the passage, and 1 then mentions the counterclaim the US offers: the passage is an international route.

43 becomes a mandatory pair which follows 21. 4 mentions the historical development in the dispute: it has not been legally settled yet. 3 then hints about the future of this dispute: the dispute itself would vanish once the entire Arctic begins to stay ice-free in summer.

Hence, the coherent arrangement is 2143.

Question 7: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3 and 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. Look forward a few decades to an invention which can end the energy crisis, change the global economy and curb climate change at a stroke: commercial fusion power.
2. To gain meaningful insights, logic has to be accompanied by asking probing questions of nature through controlled tests, precise observations and clever analysis.
3. The greatest of all inventions is the über-invention that has provided the insights on which others depend: the modern scientific method.
4. This invention is inconceivable without the scientific method; it will rest on the application of a diverse range of scientific insights, such as the process transforming hydrogen into helium to release huge amounts of energy.

7) Answer: 3214

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph is about great inventions, focusing on the importance of scientific method and how it forms the foundation for other great inventions. 32 forms an introductory pair that claims that the modern scientific method must be the greatest of all inventions and then talks about its mode of inquiry.

1 then presents an invention that could solve many problems in the future. 4 then claims that the invention would have been impossible if the scientific method did not precede it. Hence, the coherent arrangement is 3214.

Question 8: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:
1. It has taken on a warm, fuzzy glow in the advertising world, where its potential is being widely discussed, and it is being claimed as the undeniable wave of the future.
2. There is little enthusiasm for this in the scientific arena; for them marketing is not a science, and only a handful of studies have been published in scientific journals.
3. The new, growing field of neuromarketing attempts to reveal the inner workings of consumer behaviour and is an extension of the study of how choices and decisions are made.
4. Some see neuromarketing as an attempt to make the “art” of advertising into a science, being used by marketing experts to back up their proposals with some form of real data.
5. The marketing gurus have already started drawing on psychology in developing tests and theories, and advertising people have borrowed the idea of the focus group from social scientists.

8) Answer: 5

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences tells us that the paragraph must be about the industry of neuromarketing, which is still in its embryonic phase. 3 can be the opening sentence to the paragraph, as it introduces the topic at hand. All the other sentences need a sentence before them that introduces what is being talked about.

1,4, and 2 then go on to talk about the opinion of differernt associated parties on the matter. It has taken the advertising industry by storm. Others feel that this ‘art’ is being masked as a science, and many lack enthusiasm on the matter.

5 however, does not fit in here. The reason is that it talks about ‘psychology’, which is different from the use of neural science. Even if one is not familiar with the difference, we can see that it goes a step forward to talk about the application of a science, whereas the paragraph is mostly concerned with a growing science and how it is shaping public opinion. Hence, 5 is the odd one out.

Question 9: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:
1. The care with which philosophers examine arguments for and against forms of biotechnology makes this an excellent primer on formulating and assessing moral arguments.
2. Although most people find at least some forms of genetic engineering disquieting, it is not easy to articulate why: what is wrong with re-engineering our nature?
3. Breakthroughs in genetics present us with the promise that we will soon be able to prevent a host of debilitating diseases, and the predicament that our newfound genetic knowledge may enable us to enhance our genetic traits.
4. To grapple with the ethics of enhancement, we need to confront questions that verge on theology, which is why modern philosophers and political theorists tend to shrink from them.
5. One argument is that the drive for human perfection through genetics is objectionable as it represents a bid for mastery that fails to appreciate the gifts of human powers and achievements.

9) Answer: 1

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Solution:

The sentences have been taken from Harvard’s Justice, and have been modified considerably. Since a paragraph has not been directly taken here, the better way of elimination here would be to evaluate the major points of each sentence and see which one runs tangent to the discussion at hand. (During the examination, one must try both ways to solve: arranging and eliminating.)

1. Using the debate on biotechnology to evaluate moral arguments.

2. Why is bioengineering disputed?

3. The promise of bioengineering.

4. Ethics of bioengineering based on theology.

5. The theological argument.

We can see here that the last four sentences try to examine why bioengineering is disputed in spite of its huge potential. Then reasons are given about the question on its ethicality, and how it is closely associated with theology on the matter.

1 however runs tangential to the discussion. The main focus is bioengineering while 1 aims to shift the focus and use the debate on the matter as a stepping stone to reach another goal: evaluating/formulating moral arguments. Hence, 1 is the odd one out here.

Question 10: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. But today there is an epochal challenge to rethink and reconstitute the vision and practice of development as a shared responsibility – a sharing which binds both the agent and the audience, the developed world and the developing, in a bond of shared destiny.
2. We are at a crossroads now in our vision and practice of development.
3. This calls for the cultivation of an appropriate ethical mode of being in our lives which enables us to realize this global and planetary situation of shared living and responsibility.
4. Half a century ago, development began as a hope for a better human possibility, but in the last fifty years, this hope has lost itself in the dreary desert of various kinds of hegemonic applications.

10) Answer: 2413

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph is about the change needed in the way we go about development. 2 introduces the topic at hand, that this is a watershed moment when it comes to the subject of development. 41 make a mandatory pair, which talks about what the purpose of development was at the beginning and how it needs to be altered to suit the needs of today. 3 then aptly ends the paragraph, suggesting the measures that could be taken to counter the same. Hence, he proper sequence would be 2413.

Question 11: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. A popular response is the exhortation to plant more trees.
2. It seems all but certain that global warming will go well above two degrees—quite how high no one knows yet.
3. Burning them releases it, which is why the scale of forest fires in the Amazon basin last year garnered headlines.
4. This is because trees sequester carbon by absorbing carbon dioxide.

11) Answer: 2143

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Solution:

The given collection of statements appears to correlate trees and global warming. Statements 4 and 3 form a logical block since they emphasise the significance of trees. The author states that trees help in reducing carbon dioxide while burning trees leads to the release of carbon dioxide {‘it’ in statement 3 refers to carbon dioxide}. Statements 2 and 1 form a pair since 2 introduces a general belief and 1 mentions a ‘popular response’ to the same. People respond to the news about the increase in temperatures (due to global warming) by suggesting that we should plant more trees. The statement pair 4-3 then justifies this familiar exhortation. Hence, the correct arrangement is 2143.

Question 12: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. In the central nervous systems of other animal species, such a comprehensive regeneration of neurons has not yet been proven beyond doubt.
2. Biologists from the University of Bayreuth have discovered a uniquely rapid form of regeneration in injured neurons and their function in the central nervous system of zebrafish.
3. They studied the Mauthner cells, which are solely responsible for the escape behaviour of the fish, and previously regarded as incapable of regeneration.
4. However, their ability to regenerate crucially depends on the location of the injury.

12) Answer: 2341

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Solution:

A preliminary read gives us a crude idea about the subject: regeneration of neurons in zebrafish. The discovery is introduced in Statement 2 {‘a uniquely rapid form of regeneration in injured neurons and their function in the central nervous system of zebrafish.’} Additional information is presented in statement 3 {what kind of cells were studied? how has the status quo changed?}. Statement 4 presents further clarification concerning the zebrafish {location of the injury is an essential variable} and Statement 1 transitions into an opinion about the regeneration phenomena in other animal species. Hence, arrangement 2341 forms a coherent paragraph.

Question 13: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:
1. The legal status of resources mined in space remains ambiguous; and while the market for asteroid minerals is currently nonexistent, this is likely to change as technical hurdles diminish.
2. Outer space is a commons, and all of it is open for exploration, however, space law developed in the 1950s and 60s is state-centric and arguably ill-suited to a commercial future.
3. Laws adopted by the US and Luxembourg are first steps, but they only protect firms from competing claims by their compatriots; a Chinese company will not be bound by US law.
4. Critics say the US is conferring rights that it has no authority to confer; Russia in particular has condemned this, citing the US’ disrespect for international law.
5. At issue now is commercial activity, as private firms—rather than nation states — look to space for profit.

13) Answer: 4

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences suggests that the paragraph is about the inadequacy of laws about commercial activities in space in the wake of rapid technological developments in the same field. All sentences, other than 4, talk about this inadequacy or highlight why the laws are inadequate. Option 4 is out of context here, as it talks about the US disrespecting international law. It does not relate to the inadequacy of space law for commercial activities, and hence, is the answer.

Question 14: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. The work is more than the text, for the text only takes on life, when it is realized and furthermore the realization is by no means independent of the individual disposition of the reader.
2. The convergence of text and reader brings the literary work into existence and this convergence is not to be identified either with the reality of the text or with the individual disposition of the reader.
3. From this polarity it follows that the literary work cannot be completely identical with the text, or with the realization of the text, but in fact must lie halfway between the two.
4. The literary work has two poles, which we might call the artistic and the aesthetic; the artistic refers to the text created by the author, and the aesthetic to the realization accomplished by the reader.

14) Answer: 4321

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Solution:

A brief reading of the sentences shows that the paragraph must be about the interplay of the artistic and aesthetic in determining the impact of artistic work. 4 properly introduces these two components and builds a foundation for further discussion. 3 refers to the polarity mentioned in 4, and then asserts that neither of the two components alone suffices to determine the value of a work. 2 builds on this assertion and says that the convergence of the two brings the literary work into existence. 1 then further talks about the matter saying that the realization aspect further depends upon the individual disposition of the reader. Thus 4321 is a coherent paragraph.

Question 15: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:
1. There is a dark side to academic research, especially in India, and at its centre is the phenomenon of predatory journals.
2. But in truth, as long as you pay, you can get anything published.
3. In look and feel thus, they are exactly like any reputed journal.
4. They claim to be indexed in the most influential databases, say they possess editorial boards that comprise top scientists and researchers, and claim to have a rigorous peer-review structure.
5. But a large section of researchers and scientists across the world are at the receiving end of nothing short of an academic publishing scam.

15) Answer: 5

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Solution:

The given collection of statements focuses on predatory journals. The author begins by mentioning the subject {Statement 1} in a grim tone. He highlights the kind of claims that these journals state: presence in ‘influential databases’, quality ‘editorial boards’ and a ‘rigorous peer-review structure’ {Statement 4}. On the surface, ‘they are exactly like any reputed journal’ {Statement 3}. However, the ground reality is starkly different: paying money allows you to publish anything in such predatory journal {Statement 2}. Hence, arrangement 1432 forms a coherent paragraph with predatory journals as the centre of attention.

Statement 5 deviates from this subject. Although the topic seems to be about academic publishing, the focus is no longer on predatory journals, but instead, it becomes a bit broader. Since there is a mismatch in scope, we discern Statement 5 as the odd one out.

Question 16: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. While you might think that you see or are aware of all the changes that happen in your immediate environment, there is simply too much information for your brain to fully process everything.
2. Psychologists use the term ‘change blindness’ to describe this tendency of people to be blind to changes though they are in the immediate environment.
3. It cannot be aware of every single thing that happens in the world around you.
4. Sometimes big shifts happen in front of your eyes and you are not at all aware of these changes.

16) Answer: 1342

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Solution:

1 and 3 forms a natural block , as the “It” in sentence 3 refers to the “brain” discussed in statement 1. Again 4 and 2 forms a natural block, as the “this tendency” in statement 2 , refers to the tendency of the people ignoring things happening in front of their eyes as discussed in statement 4. Hence the correct order is 1342

Question 17: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:

1. It also has four movable auxiliary telescopes 1.8 m in diameter.
2. Completed in 2006, the Very Large Telescope (VLT) has four reflecting telescopes, 8.2 m in diameter that can observe objects 4 billion times weaker than can normally be seen with the naked eye.
3. This configuration enables one to distinguish an astronaut on the Moon.
4. When these are combined with the large telescopes, they produce what is called interferometry: a simulation of the power of a mirror 16 m in diameter and the resolution of a telescope of 200 m.

17) Answer: 2143

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Solution:

This is a very easy parajumble question. Sentence 2 introduces the topic, VLT. Option 4 further explores it by discussing about the telescopes. 43 forms a natural block as one provides the use and other the application.  Hence 2143 is the correct order

Question 18: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:

1. The victim’s trauma after assault rarely gets the attention that we lavish on the moment of damage that divided the survivor from a less encumbered past.
2. One thing we often do with narratives of sexual assault is sort their respective parties into different temporalities: it seems we are interested in perpetrators’ futures and victims’ pasts.
3. One result is that we don’t have much of a vocabulary for what happens in a victim’s life after the painful past has been excavated, even when our shared language gestures toward the future, as the term “survivor” does.
4. Even the most charitable questions asked about the victims seem to focus on the past, in pursuit of understanding or of corroboration of painful details.
5. As more and more stories of sexual assault have been made public in the last two years, the genre of their telling has exploded — crimes have a tendency to become not just stories but genres.

18) Answer: 4

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Solution:

The subject here is about the narratives of sexual assault and the subsequent treatment of the victims. The paragraph begins with Statement (5) which talks about sexual assault narratives turning into a genre. Statement (2) comments on a stark element within these narratives: the general interest in perpetrators’ futures and victims’ pasts. Statement (3) delineates on the outcome of the latter: the focus on a victim’s past’ and Statement (1) further adds to this point. Although Statement (4) appears on a similar topic, we cannot place it in the above arrangement since it diverges into the subject of asking questions to the survivors {an element that is yet to be discussed}. Thus, (4) is the odd-one-out.

Question 19: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. But the attention of the layman, not surprisingly, has been captured by the atom bomb, although there is at least a chance that it may never be used again.
2. Of all the changes introduced by man into the household of nature, [controlled] large-scale nuclear fission is undoubtedly the most dangerous and most profound.
3. The danger to humanity created by the so-called peaceful uses of atomic energy may, however, be much greater.
4. The resultant ionizing radiation has become the most serious agent of pollution of the environment and the greatest threat to man’s survival on earth.

19) Answer: 2413

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Solution:

Of all the sentences, sentence 2 will be the starting point because it introduces the concept of nuclear fission. Sentence 4 continues this concept by talking about the “resulting ionizing radiation”. Out of sentence 1 and 4, 1 will come first because it introduces the concept of atom bomb and sentence 4 further explores it by talking about how the impact of atomic energy could be much greater. Hence the correct order is 2413.

Question 20: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:

1. You can observe the truth of this in every e-business model ever constructed: monopolise and protect data.
2. Economists and technologists believe that a new kind of capitalism is being created – different from industrial capitalism as was merchant capitalism.
3. In 1962, Kenneth Arrow, the guru of mainstream economics, said that in a free  market economy the purpose of inventing things is to create intellectual property rights.
4. There is, alongside the world of monopolised information and surveillance, a different dynamic growing up: information as a social good, incapable of being owned or exploited or priced.
5. Yet information is abundant. Information goods are freely replicable. Once a thing is made, it can be copied and pasted infinitely.

20) Answer: 2

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Solution:

We notice that Statement  (3) serves as an introduction by touching upon the topic of intellectual property rights. Statement (2) continues along this line and mentions how ‘monopolizing and protecting data’ {an idea perhaps associated with the aforementioned intellectual property rights} can be observed in certain business models. Thus, the discussion revolves around data/information and its place in the market system. Statement (5) mentions that despite the monopolization, “information is abundant”. And this brings us to the description in Statement (4) which portrays information differently – as a social good. Hence, although a bit discontiguous, 3-1-5-4 seems to talk about the same subject while Statement (2) {on “Merchant Capitalism”} diverges from it. Therefore, (2) is the odd-one-out.

Question 21: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. Each one personified a different aspect of good fortune.
2. The others were versions of popular Buddhist gods, Hindu gods and Daoist gods.
3. Seven popular Japanese deities, the Shichi Fukujin, were considered to bring good luck and happiness.
4. Although they were included in the Shinto pantheon, only two of them, Daikoku and Ebisu, were indigenous Japanese gods.

21) Answer: 3142

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Solution:

Statement (3) opens the paragraph by introducing the subject: seven popular Japanese deities who bring good luck. Statement (1) then comments on the aspect of good fortune followed by statements (4) and (2). Statement (4) clarifies how only two of these seven entities qualify as indigenous Japanese gods while Statement (2) comments on the origin/background of the rest. Hence, (3)-(1)-(4)-(2) forms a coherent arrangement.

Question 22: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:
1. The logic of displaying one’s inner qualities through outward appearance was based on a distinction between being a woman and being feminine.
2. ‘Appearance’ became a signifier of conduct – to look was to be and conformity to the feminine ideal was measured by how well women could use the tools of the fashion and beauty industries.
3. The makeover-centric media sets out subtly and not-so-subtly, ‘good’ and ‘bad’ ways to be a woman, layering these over inequalities of race and class.
4. The denigration of working-class women and women of colour often centres on their perceived failure to embody feminine beauty.
5. ‘Woman’ was considered a biological category, but femininity was a ‘process’ by which women became specific kinds of women.

22) Answer: 3

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Solution:

Statement (1) talks about how the “logic” of determining a woman’s inner quality boiled down to the distinction between the perception of “being a woman and being feminine”. Statement (5) highlights the difference in this understanding: the former being a ‘biological category’ and latter being a ‘process’. Statement (2) continues on the manner in which the measure of “feminine ideal” was dependent on a woman’s appearance. Statement (4) continues on this line by presenting how the incapacity to meet up to this ideal led to the denigration of working-class women and women of colour. We notice that Statement (3) is the odd one out here.

Question 23: Five jumbled up sentences, related to a topic, are given below. Four of them can be put together to form a coherent paragraph. Identify the odd one out and key in the number of the sentence as your answer:
1. Machine learning models are prone to learning human-like biases from the training data that feeds these algorithms.
2. Hate speech detection is part of the on-going effort against oppressive and abusive language on social media.
3. The current automatic detection models miss out on something vital: context.
4. It uses complex algorithms to flag racist or violent speech faster and better than human beings alone.
5. For instance, algorithms struggle to determine if group identifiers like “gay” or “black” are used in offensive or prejudiced ways because they’re trained on imbalanced datasets with unusually high rates of hate speech.

23) Answer: 3

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Solution:

On reading the statements, the arrangement (2)-(4)-(1)-(5) can be linked to form a paragraph, while Statement (3) stands out. Statements (2) and (4) talk about hate speech detection and the algorithms involved, while Statements (1) and (5) indicate the issue associated with the aforementioned algorithms. Hence, (3) is the odd one out.

Question 24: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. It advocated a conservative approach to antitrust enforcement that espouses faith in efficient markets and voiced suspicion regarding the merits of judicial intervention to correct anticompetitive practices.
2. Many industries have consistently gained market share, the lion’s share – without any official concern; the most successful technology companies have grown into veritable titans, on the premise that they advance ‘public interest’.
3. That the new anticompetitive risks posed by tech giants like Google, Facebook, and Amazon, necessitate new legal solutions could be attributed to the dearth of enforcement actions against monopolies and the few cases challenging mergers in the USA.
4. The criterion of ‘consumer welfare standard’ and the principle that antitrust law should serve consumer interests and that it should protect competition rather than individual competitors was an antitrust law introduced by, and named after, the ‘Chicago school’.

24) Answer: 4123

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Solution:

Statement (4) opens the discussion by mentioning an “antitrust law” and a few essential features attached to it. Statement (1) further describes this provision {“...It advocated...” }: the move to support an efficient market and curb anti-competitive practises. Statement (2) then elaborates on the latter point of anticompetitive practices and subsequently, highlights the relevance of this provision. Statement (3) further emphasises the  necessity of  “new legal solutions” to deal with the elements discussed earlier {in (2) and (3)}. Hence, (4)-(1)-(2)-(3) forms a logical arrangement.

Question 25: The four sentences (labelled 1, 2, 3, 4) below, when properly sequenced would yield a coherent paragraph. Decide on the proper sequencing of the order of the sentences and key in the sequence of the four numbers as your answer:
1. Complex computational elements of the CNS are organized according to a “nested” hierarchic criterion; the organization is not permanent and can change dynamically from moment to moment as they carry out a computational task.
2. Echolocation in bats exemplifies adaptation produced by natural selection; a function not produced by natural selection for its current use is exaptation — feathers might have originally arisen in the context of selection for insulation.
3. From a structural standpoint, consistent with exaptation, the living organism is organized as a complex of “Russian Matryoshka Dolls” — smaller structures are contained within larger ones in multiple layers.
4. The exaptation concept, and the Russian-doll organization concept of living beings deduced from studies on evolution of the various apparatuses in mammals, can be applied for the most complex human organ: the central nervous system (CNS).

25) Answer: 2431

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Solution:

Statement (2) introduces us to certain evolutionary influences in the bodily mechanisms of animals, especially mammals (bats). Statement (4) continues on the observed influence on the various apparatuses in mammals, specifically in the case of the most complex human organ: the central nervous system (CNS). The author mentions that the example of exaptation and Russian dolls serve to assist in our understanding of this complex organ (CNS). The significance of the Russian dolls is elaborated in Statement (3), specifically with regard to its structural implications: ” smaller structures are contained within larger ones in multiple layers“—this portryas the presence of some structural hierarchy that can be observed in such complex apparatuses. Statement (1) highlights how the complex elements in the CNS are organised in a “nested hierarchic criterion”, thereby, serving as a continuation to (3). Therefore, (2)-(4)-(3)-(1) forms a coherent paragraph.

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