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List Of the 18 Biosphere Reserves in India PDF:
This list covers all the 18 Biosphere Reserves in India with their location & 11 Biosphere Reserves included in the UNESCO World Network Of Biosphere Reserves.
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Biosphere reserves comprise terrestrial, marine and coastal ecosystems reconciling the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use.
Structure of Biosphere Reserves:
Biosphere reserves are demarcated into following 3 inter-related zones:
Core areas conserve the wild plant & animal species that are endemic to the region & being of exceptional scientific interest. A core zone being National Park or Sanctuary/protected/regulated mostly under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. The core zone is free from the human intervention.
The buffer zone, adjoins or surrounds core zone. Few Human activities which donot adversely affect the environment like restoration, limited recreation, tourism, fishing, grazing, etc; are permitted in the Buffer Zone. Research and educational activities are encouraged in the Buffer Zone.
The transition area is the outermost part of a biosphere reserve. This is a zone of cooperation where conservation knowledge and management skills are applied & it includes settlements, crop lands, managed forests and area for intensive recreation.
Tripartite Functions Of Biosphere Reserve:
Criteria for designation of BR:
1.A site that must contain an effectively protected and minimally disturbed core area of value of nature conservation.
2.The core area should be typical of a bio-geographical unit and large enough to sustain viable populations representing all trophic levels in the ecosystem.
3.The management authority to ensure the involvement/cooperation of local communities to bring variety of knowledge and experiences to link biodiversity conservation and socio-economic development while managing and containing the conflicts.
4.Areas potential for preservation of traditional tribal or rural modes of living for harmonious use of environment.
All Biosphere Reserves in India
Total number of Biosphere Reserves are in India are 18.
|S.no||Name||Year Of Formation
|1.||Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve||1986||Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka||Nilgiri Tahr, Lion-tailed Macque|
|2.||Nandadevi Biosphere Reserve||1988||Uttarakhand||Snow leopard, Himalayan Black Bear|
|3.||Gulf of Mannar||1989||Tamil Nadu||Dugong|
|5.||Sunderbans||1989||West Bengal||Royal Bengal Tiger|
|6.||Manas||1989||Assam||Asiatic Elephant, Tiger, Hispid hare, Golden Langur, Pygmy Hog|
|7.||Simplipal||1994||Odisha||Gaur, Royal Bengal Tiger, Asian Elephant|
|8.||Dihang – Dibang||1998||Arunachal Pradesh||Mishmi Takin,Musk deer|
|9.||Pachmarhi||1999||Madhya Pradesh||Flying Squirrel, Giant Squirrel|
|10.||Achanakmar – Amarkantak||2005||Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh||Four horned Antelope, Indian Wild dog, White rumped Vulture, Philautus, Sarus Crane|
|11.||Great Rann of Kutch||2008||Gujarat||Indian Wild Ass|
|12.||Cold desert||2009||Himachal Pradesh||Snow Leopard|
|13.||Khangchendzonga||2000||Sikkim||Snow Leopard, Red Panda|
|14.||Agasthyamalai||2001||Kerala, Tamil Nadu||Nilgiri Tahr & Elephants|
|15.||Great Nicobar||1989||Andaman & Nicobar Islands||Salt water Crocodile|
|16.||Dibru – Saikhowa||1997||Assam||White winged wood duck, water buffalo, black breasted Parrot bill, tiger, capped langur|
|17.||Seshachalam hills||2010||Andhra Pradesh||Slender Loris|
|18.||Panna||2011||Madhya Pradesh||Tiger, Chital, Chinkara, Sambhar, Sloth bear|
List of UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves (BR):
The UNESCO has introduced the designation ‘Biosphere Reserve’ for natural areas to minimize conflict between development and conservation. BRs are nominated by national government which meet a minimal set of criteria and adhere to minimal set of conditions for inclusion in the world network of Biosphere reserves under the Man and Biosphere Reserve Programme of UNESCO. Globally 621 BRs representing from 117 countries included in the network so far.
11 of the 18 Indian Biosphere Reserves are part of the World-Network of Biosphere Reserves under the UNESCO MAB ( Man And the Biosphere ) Programme.
|S.no||Name||State||Year of Induction into the World – Network of Biosphere Reserves|
|1.||Nigiri Biosphere Reserve||Tamil Nadu, Kerala & Karnataka||2000|
|2.||Gulf of Mannar||Tamil Nadu||2001|
|8.||Great Nicobar||Great Nicobar||2013|
|9.||Achanakmar – Amarkantak||Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh||2012|
|10.||Agasthyamalai||Tamil Nadu, Kerala||2016|